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B. H. BVAN8i^^^|^x4^^; J|. HA^DlNQ^f.^^^^^ J. JOHN- 

BON A»l> CO.\^Mfr^^lifm ^ ,«^««»ff-:.>r h^i 




V^EBES» the author of a well-known and beautiful alle^^ 
gory in Greek, entitled " A Picture of Human Life," is 
supposed to have flourished about 400 B. C. The piec^ 
is aientioned by some of the ancient writers, by Lucian, 
Diogenes Laertius, Tertullian, and Suidas ; but of Cebes 
himself we have no account, unless that he. is once men^* 
tioned by Plato, and once by Jtenjjphon. The former 
says of him, in his " Ph^ddy^'i'ihsktyi^: was a sagacious 
investigator of truth, and n^er ^ss^epted without the most 
convincing reasons; the laVtftjr,.Jo rbis " Memorabilia," 
jranks bim among the few ini^^ted' of .^derates, who ex- 
celled the rest in the innoceiifGir of .their lives ; but the 
abbe Sevio and professor Meiners have endeavoured to 
prove that the ^^ Picture" is the work of a more modern 
author. Brucker seems to be of a different opinion. . It is 
evidently Socratic in its moral spirit and character, although 
not without some sentiments which appear to have been 
borrowed from the Pythagorean school. It was translated 
by the rev. Joseph Spence for Dodsley's " Museum," and 
was after wards- inserted in his " Preceptor," and in other 
moral collections. There are many separate editions of 
the original, but for above a century, it has usually been 
printed with Epictetus's " Enchiridium," for the use of 

CECCO b'ASCOLI, is the adopted name of Francis, 
or Francesco Stabili, a native of Ascoli, in the nOarch of 
Ancona, in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, wha 

> Fabricii Btbl, Onec— Morcri.— Brucker^ 

Voi^IX. B . 

2 C E C C O. 

acquired considerable reputation, unfortunately for himself, 
as a critic and poet. Among the many anachronisms and 
contradictions in the accounts given of bis life, which Tira* 
boftchi has endeavoured to correct, we find that when 
young, he was professor of astrology in the university of 
Bologna, that be published a book on that science, which 
being denounced to the Inquisition, he escaped by re- 
canting what w^ offiensive ; but that the same accusations 
being afterwards renewed at Florence, he was condemned 
to be burnt, and suffered that horrible death in 1327, in 
the seventieth year of his age. We have already seen, 
in former lives, that it waa no uncommon thing for enraged 
authors to apply to the secular arm for that revenge which 
they could not otherwise have inflicted on one another. 
The pretence for putting this poor map to death, was hts 
** Commentary on the Sphere of John de Sacrabosco,'* in 
which, following the superstition of the times, he asserted 
that wonderful things might be done by the agency of cer- 
tain demons who inhabited the first of the celestial spheres. 
This was foolish enough, but it was the prevalent folly of 
the times, and Cecco probabVy believed what he wrote. 
That he was not an impostor wiser than those whom he 
duped, appears from his conduct to Chstrles, duke of Ca* 
labria, who appointed him his astrologer, and who, having 
consulted him on the future conduct of; his wife and daugh- 
ter, Cecco, by bis art, foretold that they would turn out 
very abandoned characters* Had he not' persuaded him- 
self into the truth of this, he surely would have conciliated 
so powerful a patron by^ a prediction of a mpre favourable 
kind ; and this, as may be supposed, lost him the favour of 
the duke. But even the loss of bis friend would not have 
brought him to the stake, if he bad not rendered himself 
unpopular by attacking, the literarj' merit of Dante and 
Gnido Cavalcanti, in his poem entitled ** A<;erba.*' This 
provoked the malice of a famous physician,, named Dlno 
•del Garbo, who never desisted until.he procured him to be 
capitally condemned; This poem *' Acerba," properly 
** Acerbo,*' or "Acervo,** in Latin ^c^rvuj, is in the 
sesta rtma divided into five books, and each of these into 
a number of chapters, treating of the heavens, the ele- 
ments, virtues, vices, love, animals, minerals, religion, 
&c« ' The whole is written in a bad 6tyle, destitute of har- 
inony> elegance^ or grace,; and, according to a late au- 
thor, much of the plan^ as well as the materials, a;re t^^t^ 

. C E C C 0» 4 



(torn the ** Trcsor'* Tof Brunekto Latini. It i$, bbwever. It 
work Id demand with collecton^ and although often 
printed, most of the editions are now very scarce. The 
first was printed at Venice in 1476^ 4tOf with the canimeH«> 
tary of Nicolo Massetti^ and was reprinted in^ 1478, 
Haym (in the edition of his Bibliotecai 1771) speaks of-^ 
first edition as early as 1458, which We apprehend no bib** 
liographer has seen.' 

CECIL (WiLUAM)) lord Burleighi an illustrious stateii^ 
man of the sixteenth century, descended from the ancient 
and honourable family of Sitsilt, or Cecily of Alterennes^ 
in Herefordshire, was the son of Richard Cecils, mastei* 
of the robes to Henry VIII. by Jane, daughter and heiress 
of William Hickingtoa, of Bourne, co. Lincoln, esq< He 
wae born in the house of his grandfather, David Cecily at 

> • ■ 

* This Richard, by the interest of for life. In 1544 he purchased the 

his fAth^r, David Cecil, or Cyssel, of manor of Esyns^^on, in the county of 

bttaif<ird, in LiDCOhiitiire, esq. vm Eutland, then also, in the crown, as 

■referred io the eighth year of Henry a parcel of the earl of VVarwick't 

VllL to be one of the pages of the lands, and the following year be sur- 

erowd. In 1520 he waited on the rendered his custody of Vt'^ai^ck<* 

king at that famous interview with the castle. He remained yeoraan ef tbtf 

king of France, between Calais ^nd robes to king £dward VI. to the las( 

Gaiennet; and ?n 1530, being groom day of his life, which was the nine-* 

of the robes to that king, obtained a teeoth of May, 1552 ; and dying M 

gnuit of the office of constable of War- ooart» his body was interred in ^ the 

wick-castle, then in the crown. In (larish church of St. Margaret's W^st- 

1435, being one of the grooms of the minster. In the month of April) 1553^ 

: wardrobe, be had n grant of the office a commission Was issued to sir RU 

of bayliff of the king's . water called chard Cotton, sir Ralph Sadler, and 

Wittlesey-mere,- and the ctstody of sir Walter Miidmay, knights, together 

the swans, and of those waters called with Edmund Pidgeon, clerk of the 

Great Crick and Merys, in the coun- wardrobes, any three or two of them, 

ties of Cambridge, Lincolfli- Hunting- io take an account of Jane Cecil, and 

don, a|id Korthamptob, for the term eir WiiUam Cc«il, knt. administratcrft 

^ thirty 3^artf, after the expiratioo.of af the testameat of Richard Cecil, for 

the term granted to David Cyssell his certain robes, apparel, and jewels of 

father. In 1539 he waa sheriff of Rut- the king, in the custody df the said 

In 1540, beiiig written Richard. His widow, who surviVfd- 

Richard Cecyll of BuHey, in the county b im thirty-five yea rs, was a very* graTe, 

of Northampton, esq. he had a grant religious, and vhtuous lady, delighting 

ta him, Me heirs, aad. AfMgoi for ever, much in wovkt of |iiety and charity^ 

of the site of 8t« Michael's priory as well ia her Itfe^time as at her de« 

near Stamford, and the church, and cease, March 10, 1581, aged eighty- 

S$9 acres of arable fatndi lying Hi the seven. The lord-treasurer Bu^lei|h 

parish of St Mafttii%, in Stainfiard, in caused ta he erected at the upper ekid 

the county of Northampton. In 1542, of the north chancel in St. Martin's 

being then yeoman of the wardrobe, church at Stamford, a nOble monti- 

be was made yeoman of (he king's^ «nentto the memory of his paventsj and. 

manors of NakfcingtOa^ Yarwel, and by it is his own. 
tTpton, la the countv of Northampton, 


I Tiraboichit-«<Jtfattri«^>-43iDgaeA6 fiSst Lit. 4'Italie; valJUl--^osbeim in 
iiscniaaas, ^ 

S 2* 

4 CECIL.. 

Bourne, in Lincolnshire, Sept. 13, 1520, and wali first edu* 
cated at the grammar-school at Grantham, whence he 
afterwards removed to Stamford. On May 27, 14^35, he 
entered of St. John^s-coliege, Cambridge, and was no less 
distingaished by the regularity of his life, than by an un- 
commonly diligent application to his studies. Finding 
several persons of eminent talents at that time students 
there, this inspired him with such a thirst for learning, 
that be made an agreement with the bell-ringer to call him 
up at four o'clock every morning, and this sedentary life 
brought on a humour in his legs,, which, although removed 
with some difficulty, his physicians considered as one of 
the principal causes of that inveterate gout with which he 
was tormented in the latter part of his life. Dr. Nicholas , 
Medcalfe, who was at this time master of the college, was 
his principal patron, and frequently gave him money to 
encourage him ; but the strong passion he had to excel his 

* contemporaries, and to distinguish himself early in the 
university, was the chief spur to his endeavours. At six- 
teen he read a sophistry lecture, and at nineteen a Greek 
lecture, not for any pay or salary, but as a fi;entleman for . 
bis pleasure, and this at a time when there were but few 
who were masters of Greek, either in that college or in 
the university. But though he applied himself with so 
much assiduity to Greek literature, he laid up at the same 
Vime a considerable stock of general knowledge, having 
then no particular predilection to any single branch of 

About 1^41, his father placed him in Gray's-inn, with 
a view to the profession of the law, he pursued the 
same indefatigable application, until by an accidental dis- 
play of his knowledge, he became known at court.' One 
O'Neil, an Irish chief, brought to court two of his chap- 
Jains, who falling in with Mr. Cecil, engaged in a dispute 
with hin^ on the power of the Roman pontiff, in which he • 
had so much the superiority, that the matter was men- 

^ tioneid to Henry VIIL who expressed a^ desire to see him, 
admired his abilities, and gave him the reversion of ti>e 
place of custos brevium. 

, Such early encouragement diverted Mr. Cecil from the 
profession of the law, and bis marriage with the sister of 
the celebrated sir John Cheke, who introduced him to the 
earl of Hertford, afterwards duke of Somerset, probably 
directed bis views to politics. In the beginning' of' the 


reign of Edward VI. he came into possession of bis office 
of Gustos brevium, worth 240/. a year^ and having married^ 
as his second wife, Mildred, daughter of sir Anthony Cook, 
bis interest at court became more considerable. In 1547, 
bis patron the protector duke of Somerset, bestowed on hioji 
the place of master of requests, and took him with him 
in his expedition into Scotland, in September of tbat year, 
where he was present. at the battle of Musselburgh, and 
y^vy narrowly escaped a cannon-shot. On his retuqi to 
court, Edward VI. advanced him to the high post of secre- 
tary of state, which he enjoyed twice in that reign, iirst 
in 1343, and then, after an interval, in 1551, but histo- 
rians are not agreed in these dates, although what we have 
given appear to be pretty near the truth. When the 
party was formed against the protector, Mr. Cecil shared 
in his fail, which followed soon afterwards, and was sent 
to prison in November 1549, where he remained three 

On his being liberated, he was again introduced to court, 
where his acknowledged abilities regained him his office^' 
under the duke of Northumberland, the enemy and ac* 
complisher of the ruin of his old patron the duke of So- 
merset. This re-appointment took place, as we have no* 
ticed, in September 1551, and in October following he 
was knighted, and sworn of the privy-council. He has 
been much blamed for this transfer of his services, as a sa- 
crifice of his gratitude to his interest; and many excuses, 
palliations, and even justification^^ have been urged for 
him. The best seems to be tbat his pretensions to the 
promotion were founded, not on his servility and depen- 
dence on one or the other of these great men, but on his su- 
Eerior fitness for the office. It is universally allowed that 
e possessed great abilities, and his credit now increased 
with the young king» for whom he is said to have written 
many of those papers, &c. which are generally attributed 
to Edward. The princess Mary affected on one occasion 
to discover this, for when a letter from bis majesty was 
presented to her on her obstinate adherence to the popish 
religion, she cried, <^ Ah ! Mr. Cecil's pen took great 
pains here.** 

-Sir William Cecil acted with such caution and prudence 
in the various intrigues for the crown on the death of king 
£dif arcl, ^at on qu^e^ Mary's accession, altjiQugh known 
to be a ^^ous protestant, he remained unmolested in 

(8 C E C i L, 

parson, property, or reputatioD. Rapiii has givien a very 
unfair colouring to air William^s conduct at this critical 
period. After stating that he waited upon the queen, was 
graciously received, and might have kept his employment, 
if he would have complied so far as to have declared him- 
self of her majesty's religion, he closes with the following 
remark ; *^ He was nevertheless exposed to no persecution 
on account of his religion, whether his artful behaviour 
gave no advantages against him, or his particular merit 
procured him a distinction above all other protestants/^ 
As ta the artfulness of his behaviour, it will best appear 
from the answer he gave to those honourable persons, who 
by eommand of the queen communed with him on this 
vubject, to whom he declared, ** That he thought himself 
bound to serve Ged* first, and next the queen ; but if her 
service should put him out of God*s service, he hoped her 
siajest}'^ wouM give him leave to chuse an everlasting, ra*. 
jther than a momentary service ; and as for the queen, she.- 
had been his so gracious lady, that he would ever serve 
and pray for her in his heart, and with his body and goods 
be as ready to serve in her defence as any of her loyal 
subjects, so she would please to grant him leave to use his 
conscience to himself, and serve her at large as a private 
man, which he chose rather than to be her greatest coun- 
sellor.'^ The queen took him at his word, and this was 
all the art that sir William used to procure liberty of con* 
science for himself; unless we should call it art, that he 
behaved himself with much prudence and circumspection 
afterwards. Nor is it true, as. insinuated by Rapin, that 
|ie was the only protestant unmolested in this reign. 
Among others, the names of sir Thomas Smith, and the 
celebrated Roger Ascham, may be quoted ; but as Mary's 
bigotry increased with her years, it may be doubtful whe-" 
ther those would have been long spared. Almost the last 
act of her life was an attempt to kindle the flames of per*- 
(secution in Ireland. 

- Daring the reign of Mary, sir William Cecil representedi 
the county of Lincoln | and vfas active in the mollifying of 
a bill for confiscating the estates of those who had fled the 
kingdofn for their religion, and while thus employed, h^ . 
parriec| pn a private correspondence with the princess Eli- 
xabeth| the presumptive heir to the crown. In thesQ 
transactions he seems to have abated somewhat of thi^t 
caution imputed' to him by bistoriapsy and certainly ei^'? 


countered iS6me danger ; bat hia charaoteri boId» spirited^ 
and open, seems to have afforded him proteotiou, while 
he refers his coUra,ge to a higher source. In bis diary, hd 
$ayS| *^ I spoke my. mind freely, whereby I incurred sbme 
displeasure^ But better it is to obey God than man." 

All this was very gratefully acknowledged by Elizabeth,. 
oa her accession to the throne, November i6, 1558. The 
first service that he rendered her was on that day, when 
he presented her with a paper, consisting of twelve parti* 
culars, which were necessary for her to dispatch imme« 
diately. At the time of her sister*s decease, queen. £liza-» 
beth was at her manor of Hatfield, whither most of the 
leading men repaired to her ; and on the 20th of the same 
month, her council was formed, when sir William Cecil 
was firit sworn privy«counsellor and secretary of state ; 
and as he entered ^us early into his sovereign's favour, so 
lie continued in it as long as he lived { which if in one 
tense it does honour to the abilities and services of Cecily 
It was in another no less glorious to the queen his mistress, 
who, in thu respeet, did not act from any spirit of par^p 
tiaiity or of prepossession, but with that wisdom and pru^ 
dence which directed her judgment in all things. She 
saw plainly that sir 'William Cecil's interests were inter** 
woven with her own, and that he wns fittest td be her 
GounseUor whose private safety mmt depend upon the 
success of the counsel he gave ; and though there were 
other persons, who were sometimes as great or greater fa- 
vourites than Cecil, yet he was the only minister whom 
she always conduhed, atid whose advice she very rarely 
r^ected. The first thing he advised was to call a parlia-* 
ment, for the settlement of religion ; and caused a plan of 
refbrnnation to be drawn with equal circumspection and 
moderation; for, though no man was a Inore sincere pro* 
testant, yet he had no vindictive prejiidides against papists^ 
nor did he on the other hand lay any greater weight upon 
indifferent things, than he judged absolutely necessary fot . 
preserving decency and order* It was his opinion that 
withont aiB established church, the state could not at that 
time sdi>sist ; and whoever considers the shdtre he bad in 
establishing it, aod has a just veneration for that wise and . 
etcelient establishment, c^not but albw that the most 
grateful reverenee is due to bis memory*. ^ 

The reaamder of his adminietratien would in fact be a 
history of that memoiabte I1»ig% end in such a sketch ai^ 


the present, we can'adtert only to the leading events: 
He had not been long seated in his high office, before 
foreign affairs required his care. France, Spain, and Scot-^ 
land, all demanded the full force of his wisdom and skill. 
Spain was a secret enemy ; France was a declared one, and 
^ad Scotland much in her power, fiy the minister's ad« 
vice, therefore, the interest of the reformed religion in 
Scotland was taken under Elizabeth's protection. This 
produced the convention of Leith ; and Cecil, as a remu- 
neration for his services in this affair, obtained the place 
of master of the wards, Jan. 10, 1561, an office which he 
did not take as a sinecure, but of which he discharged the 
load of business with patience and diligence to the satis- 
faction of all. In his management of the house of commons, 
«ir William exhibited equal caution, address, and capa- 
city« The question of the future succession to the crown 
was often brought forward, sometimes &om real and welln 
founded anxiety ; soinetimes from officiousness ; and oftea 
from factious motives. On this subject both the sovereign 
and the minister preserved an unbroken reserve', from 
which neither irritation nor calumny could induce bim to 
depart. Perhaps this reserve, on his part, arose from his 
deference to the queen, but ir seems more likely that bis 
advice influenced her behaviour on this critical point. 
There were no less than three claimants publicly men« 
tioned, vis. the queen of Scots, the &mily of Hastings, 
and the family of Suffolk ; and the partizans of each of 
these were equally vehement and loud, as appears by 
** Leicester's Commonwealth," Doleman's ** Treatise of 
the Succession,'' and other pieces on the same subject. 
The queeu observed a kind of neutrality^ but still in such 
a manner as sufficiently intimated she favoured the first 
title, or rather looked upon it as the best, notwithstanding 
the jealousies she had of her presumptive successor. This 
appeared by her confining John Hales, who wrote a book 
in defence of the Suffolk line, and by imprisoning one 
Thornton, upon the complaint of the queen of Scots, for 
writing against her title. The secretary kept hims^f clear 
of all this, and never gave the least intimation of bis own 
. sentimcrnts, farther than that he wished the question of the 
successipn might rest during the queen's life, or till she 
thought proper to determine it in a legal way. . . 

Sir William early penetrated into the hostile feelings of 
Fhilip IL of Spaing but i^e advised his mistress to keep ou 


her guard against that monarch ; and yet not to break with 
him. With France he proposed other measures ; the pro- 
testaDts had there created very powerful internal dissen- 
tions, and England, he thought, might avail herself of 
that hostility with effect, while it opened a probability of 
success, and afforded an opportunity for our troops to gain 
experience, and our navy strength. His rival, Leicester, 
in vain misrepresented and censured the advice now given, 
for the purpose of destroying the queen's confidence in 
him ; and a plot laid by that subtle favourite for overthrow- 
iog hira utterly failed, through her majesty's penetration 
and spirit. The affair is thus related : 

Some Spanish ships, having great treasure on board, 
put into the English ports to secure it from the French,' 
and afterwards landed it, the queenSi officers assisting, and 
the Spanish ambassador solemnly affirming ,it was his mas* 
ter's money, and that he was sending it into the Nether- 
lands for the pay of his army. The secretary, in the mean 
time, received advice that this was not true, and that it 
was the money of some Genoese bankers, who were in the 
greatest terror lest the duke of Alva should convert the 
same to his master's use, in order to carry on some great 
deMgn, which the court ol *Spain kept as an impenetrable 
secret Cecil tberefoiie advised the queen to take the 
money herself, and give the Genoese security for it, by 
which die would greaiiy advantage her own affairs, distress 
the Spaniards, relieve the Netherlands, and wrong nobody. 
The queen took his advice, and when upon this the duke 
of Alva seized the effects of the English in the Netherlands, 
she made reprisals, and out of them immediately indemni- 
fied her own merchants. The Spanish ambassador at Lon- 
don behaved with great violence upon this occasion, giving 
secretary Cecil ill language at the council*table,' and li^ 
belling the queen, by appeahng to the people again^' 
their sovereign's administration. This produced a great 
deal of disturbance, aad Leicester and his party took care 
lo have it published every where, that Cecil was Ae sole 
author pf this couusd. ' While things were in: this ferment, 
Leicester beld a. private consultation with the lords he had 
drawn to his inteiest, wherein he proposed that they should 
lake this occasion o£rem6viog a man whom they unani-^ 
Biously bated. /Some of the iords^inquiring how. this eoukt 
be dpiie I . sir JiJieholaa TJbrogmorton answered, << Let him 
be charged with some matter or other in council when the 

10 a E L L, 

queen is not present, cooamit him to the Tower thereupon, 
and when he is once in prison we shall find things enow 
against him.'' It so happened^ that about this time a fla- 
grant libel being published against the nobility, lord Lei- 
cester caused Cecil to be charged before the council, 
either with being the author of it, or it's patron ; of which 
be offered no other proof than that it bad been seen oa 
Cecirs table. This the secretary readily confessed, but 
insisted that be looked upon it in the same light they, 
did, as a most scandalous invective; in support of which 
be produced his own c<^y with notes on the margin, af** 
firming that he had caused a strict inquiry to be made 
after the author and publisher of the work. All this, how- 
ever, would have been but of little use to him, if the 
queen bad not had private notice of their design. While 
therefore the secretary was defending himself, she sud- 
denly and unexpectedly entered the council-room, ami 
having in few words expressed her dislike of such cabals, 
preserved her minister, and shewed even Leicester himself 
that he could not be overthrown. The affair of the duke 
of Norfolk^s ruin followed, not long after he bad been 
embarked in the faction against Cecil ; and therefore we 
find this minister sometimes charged, though very un- 
justly, with being the author of his misfortunes, a calumny 
from which be vindicated bimiself with candour, clearness, 
and vivacity, as equally abhorring the thoughts of revenge, 
and hazarding the public aafety to facilitate bis- private 
advantage. Cecil, indeed, had no greater share in the 
duke's misfortune, than was necessarily imposed upon him 
by bis office of secretary^ and which consequently it was 
not in bis power to avoid ; to which we may add, that the 
duke hiaiself was in some measure accessary thereto, by 
acting under the delusive infiuence of liis capital enemy as 
well as Cecil- s. The duke'a infatuated conduct, after 
having once received a pardon, rendeced his practices too 
dAUgerous to be again forgiven. It eannot be doubted that 
this great nobleman was the tool of the .views of the ce^ 
tholic party : and there is reason to believe that t||^e pie» 
vious design of ruining Cecil was to get rid of him before, 
this plan was ripe, from a just fear of his penetration, and 
hia power to defeat it. CeciPs fidelity was followed by 
isucb public and some severe private revenge. His son«4 
ia^^law^ lord'Chrfovd, pat his threat intQ exesoiion of rain^ 

CECIL. 11 

ing his daughter, by forsaking her bed, and wasting the 
fortune of her posterity, if the duke^s life was not spared. 

Tbe queen was so sensible of the great importance of Ce« 
cil's service on this occasion, that, however sparing of her 
honours, she raised him to the peerage by tbe title of Baron 
of Burleigh in February 1671, when he had not much to 
support his rank, for in a confidential letter written about 
this time, he calls himself ** tbe poorest lord in England.** 
Tbe queen^s favour did not in other respects add to his 
.comfort, nor protect him from new attempts to destroy him. 
A conspiracy of the private kind was now formed against 
bis life : and the two assassins, Barmsy and Matter, charged 
it, at their execution, on the Spanish ambassador, for which 
and other offences the ambassador waa ordered to quit the 
kingdom. As a consolation, however, for these dangers, 
he was honoured with the order of tbe garter in June 1572; 
and in September following, on the death of tbe marquis 
of Winchester, was appointed k)rd high treasurer. 

The weight of business that now lay upon him, and the 
variety of his duties, was such as it seems almost incredible 
that one man could discbarge ; fet he went through then 
all with the utmost strictness and punctuality. AH his 
power, talents, industry, aad fortitude, could not however 
at all times place him above anxiety and disgust at tbe 
intrigues, troubles, and dangers that surrounded him. He 
bad even thoughts of a resignation, which the queen would 
not bear of. The popish and Spanish factions were his 
incessant enemies ; and the favourite Leicester never 
slackened in his arts to lower and counteract him. His vi^ 
gour however was not lessened ; and tbe next great af&ir 
in which he was engaged required it all. The trial of the 
queen of Scots approached ; and the lord treasurer is 
charged with having been a strong, promoter of this mea- 
sure. Of an affiiir which has engaged the pens and pas» 
sions of so many able historians, it would be impossible iu 
this place to diacusa the merits. We shall only add in the 
words of au aUe authority, whom we hav« in various in*' 
stances fi»Uowed^ that tbe measure was a tremendously 
strong- one i but there might be a state*necessity for it* 
Biirleigb was not a man of blood ; Mary's intrigues were 
incesaaut ; and her constant intercourse and machinations 
with a truly dangerous, powerful, and unappeasable foe** 

tioiv QOt0|!ioUI^' 

12 CECIL. 

In March 1^87, the lord treasurer lost his motlier at a 
grreat age, with which he was nuch effected ; and on April 
4, 1589| be lost his beloved wife, daughter of sir Anthony 
Cook, whose death he mourned with the deepest regret^. 
He had but lately been delivered from the fatigue of draw* 
ing up schemes for the defence of the country against ^he 
threatened Spanish armada. Not long afterwards he again 
requested to resign, but the queen still refused to spare hifs 
services, and the remaining part of his- life was spent in 
the unabated discharge of his high office. In 1592 he 
managed the concerns of a supply, which he furthered in 
the upper house by a speech of great knowledge and ta- 
lent. In short, even, at this late period of his age, almost 
all the important affairs of state we»e under his guidance, 
and ecclesiastical affairs, in particular, required much of 
his moderating wisdom. Besides the catholic party, he 
had to contend with some of the ablest of the puritans, who 
maintained a hostility of a different kind with the esta^ 
blished church. Matters of finance, and the affairs of the 
admiralty, were all continually referred to him ; and he let 
nothing pass him .without due consideratipD. The maxim 
.which aided him through these complicated concerns was 
this, that ^* the shortest way to do many things was only 
to do one thing at once." 

• The last memorable act of his life was the attempt to 
bring about a peace with Spain, in which he was vehe-* 
mently opposed by Essex, then in the fire of youth, which 
might animate him to daring deeds to gratify his own am- 
])ition. The young soldier w^s warm in the debate, which 
induced the venerable minister to pull out a prayer-book^ 
and point to the words ^* Men of blood shall not live out 

^ This lady was wonderfully learn- be bought in the name of the dean of 

ed, especially ito the Greek tongue, as Westminster, and by bim aitsfgned td 

^appears from tbe testimony of the tbe college. She likewise gave tb* 

lard Burleigh himself, and of several Haberdashers* company in London, a 

other great men, and of which sHe left sum to enable them to lend to six poor 

clear evidence, in a letter penned by men twenty pounds a-piece every twft 

ber in that language to the university years ; and a charity of the like kin4 

of Cambridge, upon her sending thi- of twenty marks, to six poor people 

ther a Hebrew Bible, by way of pre- at Waltham an<i Cheshunt in Hertford- 

ftnt to the library. She had read most shire. Four times every year she re« 

of the Greek fathers with great dili> lieved all the poor pri&oners in Lon- 

gence and critical accuracy, and was den, and many other acts of benevp. 

one of the greatest patronesses of her lence she did, with as great secrecy as 

time, maintaining for many years two generosity ; so ths^ she seems to have 

scbolars at St. John's college in Cam- well deserved all the praises that have 

bridge ; and before her death rendered been by different writers beftowedf 

this perpetual, by procuring lands to ' upon her memory. 

C EC I L. . 13 

Balf tbeir days."— At length worn out with age, and more 
than forty years^ uninterrupted and unexampled labours in 
the state, on the 4th of August, 1598, about four- in the 
morning, in the presence of twenty children, friends and 
servants, he yielded up the ghost with wonderful serenity, 
being upwards of seventy-seven years old. 

With regard to his person, though he was not remark^ 
My tall, nor eminently handsome, yet his person was 
always agreeable, and became more and more so, as he 
grew in years, age becoming him better than youth. The 
hair of his head and beard grew perfectly white, and he 
preserved almost to his dying day a fine and florid com^ 
plexion. His temper contributed much towards making 
faim generally beloved, for he was always serene and 
cheerful ; so perfect a master of his looks and words, that 
what passed in his mind was never discoverable from either; 
patient in hearing, ready in answering, yet without any 
quickness, and in a style suited to the understanding &f 
him to whom he spoke. Idleness was his aver^on ; and 
though from twenty-five years of age, at which he v^as 
sworn a privy counsellor, being then the youngest, as at 
his death the oldest in Europe, he laboured under a great 
weight of public business ; yet when he had any vacant 
moments he spent them not in trifles, or in pursuit of sen^ 
sual pleasures, but in reading, meditating, or writing. He^ 
had a perfect knowledge, not only of forergn countries, 
but of foreign courts ; knew the genius of every prince in 
Europe, his counsellors and favourites. At home he kept 
exact lists of all the great officers, and particularly of the 
sages in the law. He was acquainted with the course of 
every court of judicature in England, knew its rise, juris* 
diction, ^nd proper sphere of action ; within which he took 
care that it should act with rigour, and was no less careful 
that it should ndt- exceed its bounds* He wrote not only 
elegant Latin in prose, but also very good verses in that; 
and in the English language. He understood Greek as. 
well as niQSt men in that age ; and was so learned in divi* 
nicy, that divines of all persuasimis were desirous of suh* 
mitting to his judgniient*. Mis peculiar diversions were 

* He was Tisry mach pressed by uoanimous opinion apon some of tiie 

ijniie diviaes of his time, who waited disputed points. They i^turned, bow- 

tn him id a body, to make some al- ever, to him tery soon, wit hoot baiog 

teratioosjn the Liturfy. He. desired able to agree. ** Why, gentiemeii)'* 

them to go into the next room by said he, " how can yoa expect that I 

tbaoMlves,. and briiig him an their shall alter mny point in dispute, when 

14 CECIL. 

the fitttdy of the state of England^ and the pedigrees of its 
nobility and gentry : of these last he drew whole books 
with Us own band, so that he was better versed in descents 
and families, than moat of tb^ heralds ; and would often 
sarprize persons of distinction at his table, by appearing 
better acquainted with their manors, parks, woods, &c* 
than they were themselves. To this continual application, 
and to his genius, naturally comprehensive, was owing that 
fund of knowledge, which made him never at a loss in any 
eompany, or upon any subject It was also owing to this 
that he spoke with such wonderful weight on all public oc- 
casions, generally at the endf of the debate, but without 
fepetition of what was said before, stating the matter 
clearly, shewing the convenience sought, the inconve-^ 
niences feared ; the means of attaining the former, and 
the methods by which the latter might be avoided, with a 
succinctness and accuracy whichy perhaps, hardly ever fell 
lo any other man^s share. But what was still more snr^ 
prising, was the great facility with which he did this ; for 
he required no preparation, \\o time for his most laboured 
speechesi nor ever turned a book for bis most learned 
writings, but thought, and spoke, digested, and dictated^ 
without any hesitation, with the greatest perspicuity of sei^ 
timent, and the utmost fulness of diction. 

With regard to his domestic habits, be had during <)uee^ 
£lizabeth*s reign, four places of residence ; bis lodgings 
at court, his house in the Slraod, his family seat at Bur- 
leigh, and his own favourite seat at Theobalds. At his 
house in London he had fourscore persons in family, ex* 
elusiveily of those who attended him at court. His €%-- 
penees there, as we have it from a person who lived mauy 
years in his family, were thirty pounds a week io his »b* 
. ience, and between forty and fifty when present At 
iTheobalds he bad thirty persons in family; and besides a 
constant allowance in charity, he directed ten pounds n 
week to be laid out in keeping the poor at work iu his gar- 
dens, &c. The expences of his stables were a thousand 
marks a year: so that as be had a great income, and left • 
good estate to his children, he was not afraid of keeping ' 

vmV. who must b6 more oompetont, traosUtion'of Cicero's Epitiles, says, 

from your situatioo» to judge than I tlial this great statesman made tfa^ 

can pdstibly be, eaonot agree among " bis glassa, bis mle, bis owtissso»» 

yovrsolvoa io what manoer you vouM and his pooket-book»*' 
bava mt ailtf it?" Dr. Watl, in hit 

C E E I L. 15^ 

up also at style suited tdhis offices. He also kept a:5tand- 
ing table for gentlemen, and two other tables for persons 
•of meaner coadition, wtiich were alwaj^s served alike, whe- 
ther he were.iu town or out of town. About his person he 
had people of great distinction, and had' twenty gentlemen 
retainers, who had each a thousand pounds a year ; and as 
many among his ordinary servants, who were worth from 
1000/. to 3, 5, 1 0, and 20,00a Twelve times he enter- 
tained the queen at his house for several weeks together, 
at the expeoce of 2 or 30002. each time. Three fine housea 
he built,. one in London, another at Burleigh,. and the third 
at Theobalds : all of which were less remarkable for their 
largeRess and magnificence, than for their neatness and 
excellent contrivance. Yet with all this mighty expence, 
it was the opinion of competent judges, that an avaricious 
•man woald have made more of bis offices in seven yearg, 
than he did in forty. At hia death he left about 4<X)0/. a 
year in land, 1 1,000/. in money, and in valuable effect 
iboot 14,000/. 

He was considered as the best parent of his time, for he 
had all hi» children, and their descendants, constantly at 
his table ; and in their conversation lay the greatest plea^ 
sure of bis life, especially while his mother lived, who was 
able to see the fifth descent £rbm herself, there being ho 
degree of relation, or consanguinity, which at festival times 
were not to be found at lord Burleigh's table. It was there 
that, laying aside all thoughts of business, he was .so 
affable, easy, and merry, that he seemed never to have 
thought of any, and yet this was the only part of his life 
which viFas enturely free therefrom ; and his frankness and 
famiHiMrity brought so many persons of high rank to bis 
house, as did him great credit and service, in respect to 
his friends, he was. always easy, cheerful, and kind ; aild 
whatever their condition was, he talked to them, as if they 
had been his equals in ei^ery respect ; yet it is said, that 
be was held a better enemy than friend ; and that tfaxsi was 
so weU known, that some opposed him from a view of in- 
terest. It is certain, that those who were most intimate 
with him, had no sort of influence over him, and did.not 
care to ask him for any thing ; because he did not readily 
grant, and was little pleased with such sort of suits. One 
reason of this was, that most of those whom he preferred 
became his enemies^ becanse he would not gratify them in 
fiurther pretensions^ His seov^ets he justed with none, in* 

16 CECIL. 

dulged a general conversation^ and woald not sufier affairs 
of state to be canvassed in mixed company, or wh^u friends 
were met to divert themselves. With respect, to bis ene- 
mies, he never said any thing harsh of tbeoi:, farthered on 
every occasion their reasonable requests, and was so far 
from seeking, that he neglected all opportunities of re- 
venge ; always professing, that he never went to bed out 
of charity with any man ; and frequently sa3'ing, that pa* 
tience; and a calm bearing of aspersions and injuria, had 
wrought him more good than his own abilities. He was 
far, however, from being an ungrateful man, for without 
intreaty he would serve bis friends as far as it w&s just ; 
and for his servants; and those about him, he was very 
careful of their welfare, mostly at his own expence. He 
never raised his own rents, or displaced his tenants ; and as 
the rent was when he bought land, so it stood ; insomuch, 
that some enjoyed, for twenty pounds a year, during his 
whole life, what might have been let for two hundred : 
yet in his public character he was very severe ; and .as he 
never meddled with the queen's treasure himself* «a he 
would see that it was not embezzled by others ; for it was 
his saying, that whoever cheated the crown oppressed the 
people. In the midst of all his grandeur he was ever easy 
of access, free from pride, and alike complaieajnt to all 
degrees of people: for as be was grave in council, exact 
in courts of jiistice, familiar towards his friends, outwardly 
and inwardly fond of his children, so. when he went inio 
the country iie would converse with all his servants s^ 
kindly as if he had been their equal ; talk to country peo- 
ple in their own style and manner, and would even conde- 
scend to sooth little children in their sports and plays ; so 
gentle was his temper, and so abundant his good-nature^ 
At Theobalds he had fine gardens, which cost him a great 
deal of money, and which were laid out according to his 
own directions. He had a little mule, upon which he rode 
up and down the walks ; sometimes he would look on those 
who were shooting with arrows, or playing with bowls; 
but as for himself, he never took any diversion, taking that 
word in its usual sense. He had two or three friends, who 
were constantly at his table, because he liked their com* 
pany ; but in all his life he never had one favourite, or 
suffered any body to get an ascendant oyer him. His 
equipage, his great house-keeping, his numerous. depend- 
ents^ were the effects of his sense, wd not at all of his 

4StCiV. 17 

^iofAi "Idr tie deliglttedlittle in any of dfem'^s tnd*Wfaen- 
^ver lie bad any time to' spare, he fled, as his expression 
was, to The6baids; and baricfd himself in privacy. 

The quben^s regstrd to lord Burleigh/thonjgh sincere and 
permanent,' was occasionally intermtked with n6 sdtiall de- 
gree of petulance and itt buittonr. He Was severely ris-^ 
proached by her in 1*594, on account of the state of ai&ir$ 
in Ireland ; 'tod, on another occasion, ' when he persisted^ 
against her will, in a design of quitting the court for a feW' 
days, ' for 'tjie purpose of taking physic, she called hini 
**a froward old fool." He fell also under her majesty^s 
diBif^eastire because hfe disagreed with her in opinion con- 
cerning aftf affair which rented to the earl of Essex. Havl 
iBg*stipp6rted the earl's claim, -in opposition to the queen^ 
her iiidignattoh was so 'much excited against the trea- 
surer, that ^he treated him as a miscrearft and a coward. 
Lord BuH^ig^h -being in the latter part of his life much 
subject to die gout, sir John Harrington observe;;,' in d 
letter to hl^ lordship, that he did not ' invite the stay o^ 
such ag^d^t'by rich' Wines, or strong 'ipic^s. It i$ pro- 
Imble tluit the frequent return of this disorder, in conjunc- 
tion with the weight of business, and the general infirmi- 
ties of ige, bontributed td the peevishness into which he 
was ' som^^^me^ betrayed. In a conversation Which he had 
with Mons. de FouqueroUes, an agent from Henry the 
Fourth^' king of FfaUce, he lost himself so much, as to 
reflect in the grossest tei^ms upon that monarch. This 
was, indeed, an astonishing act of imprudence, in a man 
of his years and experience ; and affords a striking instance 
of the errors and inadvertencies to which the wisest and 
best persons are liable. When the lord treasurer died, 
queen Elisabeth was so much aflbcted with the event,^ that 
she took it very grievously, shed tears, and separated her- 
selj^ for a time, from all company. 

Besides fbese lesser feilihgs of this great man, he has 
been accused of illiberality to the poet Spenser, which 
perhaps may be attributed to his dislike of Leicester, under 
wbose'patronage Spensef bad come forward, but perhaps 
more to his want of relish fbr poetry. On the other hand, 
our historians are generally agreefd in their praises of his 
high character, Smollett only has endeavoured to lessen 
it^ but as this is coupled with a disregard for historical 
truth, the attempt is entitled to little regard, and the ad- 
vocates for Mary queeti of Scots cannot be, supposed to 

Vol. IX. C 

19 p E c :( L. 

forgive the share be bad in h^r fate^ LQi^'Qrfofd W 
given lord Burleigh a place among, bis ^^ Bpyi^tj^nd Noble 
Authors/^ but at the same time justly phserves^ ti^t he^is.oM 
^f those grcjajt naines, better kpq.wq itir the ai>nal^^bi^ coun- 
try tl^an i\% tb(»e pi the republic of letters* ^qsUUfl lord 
Burleigh^s answer t^ a Latii^iibei published abroad, w|»iqb 
be entitjied *^ S(ah4,ers and Lies,'* and ^ A MediuitJHQifi of 
tbe State of l^nglaad, during the teign of Queen ]£U2»3i.heih,'' 
IJprd Orford mentions ^^ La Cooiiplairite de T Ao^ pecbe^ 
^esse,'' in, French verse, extant in the.king's libmry ; ^VCaih 
inina duo Latin^ in Qbitum I^argaret^D Neyilla^,, Regiss 
tlaiherinte i Cnblci^ilis ;" <^ C^armen Latinumin MenHMBiam 
Tho. Challonerii Equitis auratji, prsfixupa.ejps^^n^ LjibtQ do 
restaurat^ Republica ;'' ^A Preface to Qjieeo Catberiiw 
Parr's Lamenitation of a Sinner." Wbeu $vr WMUWkCeoil 
accompanied the duke of Somerset on his expi^ditigatQ 
^otland, he ft^rnished materials for an aQCOUi>t;,;af;tbat 
lyfai::, which w^s.. published by William Patteoi under tha 
title of ^< Diarium Expeditions Scpiiq®/' London iS^h 
12ipo. This i$ supposed to be tb^, reason ^by;lord Bur^ 
leigb is reckoned by HoUnsbed . ajpi^q^g the EDgli^b lu3to^ 
rjans^ ** The first paper or memorials pf sir WiJUswi, Cecily 
anno primp Eliz." This, whiclvis only a ps^per ofndemon 
randums, is printed in Somers's trfict^^ , from ^a fvaiHisciipii 
i(n tbe Cotton library, "A Speech; in ParliaAien^t, 15^3.*! 
"^bis Was first published by Strype in his Annal^ Mid bar 
$i^ce been inserted in the ParUanientary, History. . *^ Lord 
]^urleigh's Precepts, or directions for the well-ordering .and 
carriage of a man'si life," 16&7. ^^ A Meditation on the 
Peatb of his Lady.'' Mr. Ballard^ in his Memoirs of Bri-% 
ti^h Ladies, has printed this Meditation from an oqginal . 
formerly in tbe possession of Jam^^s Wes^,.esq^ but now in 
the British Museum* Lord Burleigh was supposed to ba 
the author of a thin pamphlet, in defence of the putnisb^ 
ments inflicted on the Roman catholics in the reign of 
^ueen Elizabeth : it is called '< The Execution of Justice 
in England, for maintenance of public and Christian peace, 
against certain stirrers of sedition, and adherents to tbe 
traitors land enemies of the reali^, without any persectmoii 
of them for questions of religion, as it is falsely reported^ 
^c.'^ London, 1583, second edition. Other political pieces 
were ascribed to him, apd even, tbe celebrated libel, eu^ 
titled '^Leicester's Comioonwealtb." It was asserted, tbair 
the hints, at least^ wer^ furni9h«td by him for that ccoipo^ 

I C I L. f9 

Mon. Biift tio pfddf lisfi ' b^en ^itetl of thid assertion, 
and it was not founded on any degre€l6f probability.- Hit 
lordship drei/r up kV&d a ifumber of pedigrees^ some of 
which are prei^^d in the archbishop of Canterbury's 
Kbrary at Lambeth; Th«ie contain' tbe genealogies of the 
kings of England, from William tht Oonqueror to Edward 
the Fourth; of queen Anne Boleyn; and of several princely 

houses in Germany. 

Out ot tbe large multitude of lortl Burleigh's letters^ 
which ar«f extant in various places, many have found their 
way to the press.. Thirty-three are priiited in Pecfc*« De- 
siderata CuriosH, and three in Howard's Collections. Many, 
more may be met with* in^Di*. Forbes% Haynes% and, 
Murdin's State Papers. The two last publications are spe-^. 
ciiicaliy tahen frbn^ the original letters^ and other authen* 
tie memorials left by lord Burleigh, and noW remaining at 
Hatfield^hou^e, in tiie libniry of the earl of Salisbury J. 
Haynes*s oollection, which was'publis^ed in 1740, extendii- . 
from 1542! to 157a. Jiordin's, which appeared in 1759^* 
reaches Irorii 1571 to 1 59a Both these publications throw 
great light M the periodto Which they relate, and have. 
been of eminent service to Our recent historians. The 
whole course t)f the pro*fec|dings, relative to Mary queeii' 
of Scots, is {iardcularly displayed rn these collections'; oii 
whicli aecount much use has lately been made of them by 
Br. Gilbert Stuart In the originctl papers of Mr. Anthony 
Bacon, are several letters of lord' Burleigh, from which' 
various extracts have be?en given by Dr. Birch, in his •^Me* 
moirs of tbe Reign of Queen Elizabeth.*' There is also in 
the Nugs Antique, a tetter 6t advice. Written by his lord-« 
ship in 1578, to Mr. Harrington (afterwards sir John Har- 
rington), then a student at thie university of Cambridge. Itl 
die earl of Hardwicke's miscellaneous State Papers, besides 
a number of letters addresi^d to Cecil, there are seven of 
his own writing, relative to important public concerns.' 
Ohe of them shews in a striking view, the, friendly beba* 
viour of lord Burleigh to the earl of Leicester, when that 
ndbleman laboured under the queen's displeasure, and 
reflects great honour on the old treasurer's memory. It is 
strange, says the earl of Hardwicke, that Camden passes it 
over in silence : but, ind<$ed, adds his lordship, that histo- 
rian's omissions are very unpardons^ble, cpnsid^ring the 
lights he had. As to lord Burleigh'^s unpublished papeis^- 
they are still exceedingly num^rd^^ and are extant in the' 


80 , C £ e I La 

British Miuieum, in the Ubr^ries.of the earls of Salisburjr 
and Hardwickei and in other plaoes. . 

His lordship was btiried :at Stamford, where an elegant 
moc^uaient i» ereo^ to bis memorj^. By bis first wife be 
had jiis 0on and heir Thomas eiiri of Exeter, and. by. bi» 
secofid a nuinerou^ issue, who all died^before him except 
the subject of the following, article, to- wbont he .addressed 
those valuable " precepts^ so often repiinted. Few meft 
knew better than > lord BurFeigh how to adtise the young. 
Peacham, in .his< ^^ Gentleman,'* informs us that when any^ 
one, came to tho; lords, of the council for a licence to traveiy 
he would first examine him of : England, and if he fpunci 
hiaa ignorant,^ he ii^ould bid him . stay at home, ^iid. kiK>w. 
his own country iBrst« ^ 

CE^CIL (RO^BE^T), earl of Salisbury, s^n to the pre*. 
ceding, was born, p^robably, about the year \6S0, andr 
being of a weakly cqmstitution, was tenderly brought up 
by his mother^ and educated under a careful and excellent 
tutor till he was sent to Str^Job^'S college, €ambridgev 
Here he had conferred upon hinrii the degree of* M. A^ and^ 
was afterwards incorporated^ same degree at Oxford. 
In the pariiaments of 1585 and }59r6 he served for the city 
of Westminster ; as he did aftervKi^rd^i in 1588, 1592, 15d7, 
i^nd 1600, for the county of Hertford. In 1388. he was* 
one of the young no.bility who went volunteers en board 
the English fleet sent against the Spanish armada. Hef 
lyas & courtier from his'cradle, having the advantage of the 
instructions and experience of his illustrious fat l^r|'«nd 
living in those times when queen Elizabeth had most need 
of the ablest persons, was employed by her in .a^ifsof 
the highest importance, and received the honour of kn-ight* 
hood in the beginning of June 1591, and in August fol- 
lowing Was sworn of the privy>counciK In 1596 he wa& 
appointed secretary of state, to the great disgust of the 
earl of Essex, who was then absent in the expedition 
against Cadiz, and had been zealous for the promotion ojf 
sir Thpnhias Bodley. Whilst he was in that post h^ shewed 
«a indefatigable address in procuring foreign intelligence 
fcom all parts of the world, holding, at his own charge, a 
correspondence with all ambassadors and neighbouring 
states. By this means he discovered queen Elizabeth's! 

' » Biog. Brit.— Sir £. Brydgfs's edition of Cbllins.— -Park's edition of Rayal 
arid Noble ^utlkom— fitrype's- AritmlS) Meno^idkU, anrf Lirtt, passim, Ice.^— > 
I<p^*t ilIiuitni(kHis,/vol. Ui^iM^»i)tsidcrBta, fcc 

C fi C 1 L. Si\ 

enemies abroftdy and prkate congpiracies at hbmei and 
was on tbis account as highly valued by th^ queen as ha 
was hated by the popish parly*, who vented their mailed 
against him in several libels, both printed and manusctiptj 
and threatened to murder him ; to some of which he re* 
turned an answer, both in Latin and English, declaring. 
that he despised all their threats-for the service of so good 
a cause as be was engaged in, tbat of religion and his 
country. . i 

In 1 597 he was eonstituted chancellor of the dueby of 
Lancaster. In February 1597-8 be went to Fra.nce with 
Hr. Herbert and sir Thomas Wylkes, to endeavour to di<^ 
vert Henry IV. from the treaty at Vervins; and in May 
1599, succeeded his father in the office of master of th^ 
court of wards, for which he resigned a better place, that 
of chancellor of the duchy, being so restrained in the eourf? 
of wards, by new orders, that be wfis, as he expressed it, 
ft ward himself. He succeeded his ^ther likewise in the 
post of principal minister of state, and from that time 
public aiiairs seem to have been entirely under his (}irecs-^ 
tion« During the last years of his queen, he supported 
her deelining" age with such vigour and prudence as at 
once enabled her to assist her allies the States General^ 
when tb^y were ingloriously abandoned by France, and to 
defe(»t a dangerous rebellion in Ireland, which was che« 
rished by powerful assistance from Spain. But though he 
was a faithful servant to his mistress, yet he kept a secret 
correspondence with her successor king James, in which 
he was once in great danger of being discovered by the 
queen. As her majesty was taking the air upon Blacks 
heath, near her palace at Greenwich, a post riding by, she 
inquired from whence M came ; and being told from 
Scotland, she stofyped her coach to receive the packeti 
Sir Robert Cecil, who attended her, . knowing there were 
in it some letters from his correspondents, with great 
presence of mind, called immediately for a knife to opedi * 
it, that a delay might not create suspicion. When be 
eame to cut it open, he told the queen that it looked and 
smelt very ill, ai^d therefore was proper to be opened and 
aired before she saw what it contained ; to which her ma- 
jesty consented, having an extreme aversion to bad smells. 
Upon her deoease he was the first who publicly read iiee 
will, and proclaimed king James $ and his former services 
to tbat.pripgei or the interest of sir.George Hume, afters 

S» C E C X; L^ 

imr<l9 enrl of Dunb«T,. so effectually ifeeoinmeDded him to* 
bbmajesty* tb&t he took/ him into the highest degree of 
favour, and continued his office of principal iiiini&-<» 
ter $ and though in that reign public affairs were, not car* 
ried on with the same spirit as in the last, the fault ^eanaol 
justly be charged on this minister, but an the king, whoae 
tixmd temper iaduced him to have peince with all the world, 
md esptiicially with ^Spain at jany rate, . But though sic 
Robert Cecil was far from approving, in his heart, the 
measures taken. for obtiMing that inglorious peace, yet he 
ap far ingratiated, lumself with. his sovereign that he waa 
raised to gveaier honours.^ being on May 1^, 1603, created 
baron of Essenden^ in Rutlandshire; on the 20th of Au-« 
gusi;, 1604, viscount Cranborne, in Dorsetshire (the first: 
<tf that degree. who bore a.coronet), and on May 4, 1605^. 
earl of Salisbury. . . 

. He shewed himself upoa all occasions a zealous servant: 
to his prince, without neglecting at the same time, fcha. 
Tisal advantage of his cOuatry, and never heartily espousing; 
the Spanish interest, though it wiis the only one coun^. 
tenanced by king James; and isome of the courtiers, by. 
encouraging it, acquired great riches. . The court of Spain, 
was so sensible of his disinclination to them, that they. cut 
deavoured to alienate the king's favour from him by meana. 
of the queen ; and it was moved there in council^.tojsend 
complaints to England of his malignant bumoor, or.eftTjir 
to the Spanish nation ; upon which, if he did not alter hui 
conduct, then a shorter course should be taken with him^^ 
by destroying him« Afterwards they entertained great 
hopes of him, and resolved to omit no means to gain biwt^ 
over to their side. But when all the popish designs wera. 
defeated by the discovery of. tbiQ gunpowder plot, which:. 
bas since been represented by some of that party as a po»»: 
litical contrivance of his, his activity in the detection :.o{ 
it, and zeal for the punishment of Uiose concerned in it^i 
enraged them to such a degree, that several of the papista^ 
formed a combination against him. . This, however, tak<# 
}ng no effect, they again attempted to ruin him in the 
king's favour^, by reporting that he had a pension of fortyi 
thousand crowns froas the States of the United Provinces, 
for being their special favourer and patron. They hraaded 
him likewise with the appellation of a puruao, a nasne pe*' 
culiarly odious to king Jfames. At last they conspieed tor, 
iiiurdei; him by a mssquet-aiiot out of ^e Ss^voy,. or aomei 

c E ci r l: 23 

bouse near, fts be was 'going by Wate)r to court.' But these 
nefarious designs proved abortive^ though it apt)ear8 they 
bad not desisted from them in 1609. Upon the death of 
rir Thomas Sackville, earl of Dorset, lord-high-trea&urer, 
jn April 1603, he liucceeded hiitk in that post ; and his ad- 
▼anceiuent ^to ifc Was universally applauded, a great re- 
formation being expected from him in the exchequer,, 
which be accohlitigly effected. Finding it almost totally 
exhaosted, he devised s^teral means for replenishing it 
with monley, particularly by causing the royal manors tp 
be surveyed, which berot^ were but imperfectly knbWn ; 
by reviving the custody of crown lands; by commissions 
of assets^ by taking cafe to have the king*s woods an4 
timber viewed, numbered, marked, atid vsdued ; by haying 
an exact survey made of the copyholds held of the crowhn 
which be ordered to be printed; by compounding with . 
the copyholders of the inheritance, and the possessors of 
wastes and commons, originally appertaining to th^ king; 
by appointing' commi^i^ioners to gather in the fines arising^ 
from penal laws, and such as accrued from the king^s ma^ 
Bors; by improvitig the customs from 66,000/. to 120,000/. 
and afterwards to 135,000/. perann. and by surrendering 
up his patent of master of the wards to the king, for bit 
benefit and advantage. 

His indefatigable api^lication to business having ruined 
bis constitution, he died at Marlborough in his return from 
Bath, May 24, 1612, and wad buried at Hatfield. He was 
undoubtedly a Very able minister, but not very popular 
while living, nor characterised with much praise since his 
death. Dr. Birbh, however, appears his ablest advocate^ 
nt hh ^^ Historical View of the Negociations,'' &c. and his 
researches behig carried farther than perhaps those of any 
modern writer, what be istdvances seems more entitled to 
eredit. » • / 


It will b^ but justice, says Dr. Birch, to the character of 
so eminent a person as the earl of Salisbury, to consider 
him as he now appears to us from fuller and more impar* 
ttal lights than the ignorance or envy of his own time 
would admit of ; and which tnay be opposed to the general 
invectives ahd unsupported libels of Weldon. and Wilson, 
the scandalous cbroniclefs of the last age. He was evi-^ 
deutly a man of quicker pairts, and a more spirited writer 
and speaker than his father, to whose experience he was 
dt the same time obliged for his education and introducti(Hi 

24 c^i^qii^ 

iDtQ public bqsin<ps9> in the^mwf^ex^&xt.of which he was 
stccQunte'dj an^ perhaps justly^ more subtle^ and less open, 
^nd ibis opinion of his bia$s to artifice and dissiouilatioa 
was greatly owing to the singular address which he shewed 
in penetrating into the secrets and reserved poj^ers of the 
foreign ministers with whom be treated.; and l^ evading^ 
with uncommon dexterity, such points as they, pressed, whei| 
it was not convenient to give them too explicit an answer^ 
|Iis correspondence with king James^ during^ the life o^ 
queen Elizabeth, was so closely, and arifully 'mauaged, 
that he escaped a discovery, which would have ruined big 
interest with his royal mistress^ though he afterwards justi«* 
iied that cprres;p6ndence from a regard to her service^ 
. ^* For whjit," says he, " could more quiet the expectatioi^ 
of a successor, so many ways invited to jefilousy, thai\ 
^hen he saw her ministry, that were most inward with her, 
ivbolly bent to accommodate the present auctions of states 
for his future safety, when Gocl should see his time v '— ^ 
He was properly a sqle minister, though not under the 
denpniination of ^ fs^vourite, his master having a mucl^ 
greater £^we of than love for him ; and he drew all business, 
both foreign and domestic, intq his own hands, and suf* 
fered no ministers to be employed abroad but who we^re 
his dependents, and with whom he kept a most constant^ 
^nd exact correspondence: but the men whom be pre- 
ferred to such employments, justified his choice, and di^l 
credit to the use he made of his power. He appears to 
havei been invariably attached to the true interest of big 
country, being above corruption from, or dependency 
upqn, any foreign courts ; which renders^ it not at all sur- 
prising, that he should be abused by them all in ih^r 
turns; as his attention to all tb^e motions of the popish 
factiou made him equally odious to them. He fully un- 
derstood the English constitution, and the just limits of 
the prerogative \ and prevented the fatal consequences 
which might hs^ve arisen from the frequent disputes.between. 
king James I. and his parliaments. In short, he was as 
good a minister as that prince would suffer him to be, a^d 
as was consistent with his own security in a factious and 
corrupt court ; and he was even nec;ligent of his, personal 
Safety, whenever the interest of the public w?is at stafcje. 
Ris post of lord treasurer, at a time when the exchequer 
was exhausted by the king's boundless profusion, was at- 
iended with infinite tro^jble to biQ^i in goncertin|; schemei 


feur raisiing the sunpli^ ; and the manlier in which he was 
obliged to raise tbeiny with the great fortaoe which he ac«* 
cumulated to himselty in a measure beyond perhaps the 
visible profits of bis places, exposed him to much detrae* 
tion and popular clamoar, which followed him to his grare) 
riiough experience shewed, that the nation sustained an 
important loss by bis death ; since he was the only minister 
of state of real abilities during the whide course of that 
reign. He has been thought too severe and vindictive in 
the treatment of bis rivals and enemies : but the part 
which he acted towards tbe earl of Essex, seems entirely 
the result of his duty to his mistress and the nation. It 
must, however, be confessed, that his behaviour, towards ^ 
tbe great but unfortunate sir Walter Raleigh is an smpu* 
tatioii upon him, which still remains to be cleared up ; and 
it probably may be done from the ample memorials of his 
administration in the Hatfield library. 

A more elaborate apology for the earl of Salisbury wa* 
written soon after bis decease, and addressed to king Jame% 
by sir Walter Cope. This may be. seen in Gutch's *^ CoU 
lectanea Curiosa,^^ vol. I. from which, as well asfrom the 
account of his death in Peck's ^^ Desiderata,*' the ambi^ 
tious may derive a salutary lesson. . His '^ Secret Cor-* 
respondence'V with king James, was published by lord H»les 
in 1766, and the conclusion which his lordship thinks the 
reader will draw is, that Salisbury was no less solicitous to 
maintain his own power than to settle the succession to 
bis aged benefactress queen Elizabeth. Various letters, 
speeches, memorials, &o. from his pen are mentioned in 
^ur authorities. Lord Salisbury married Elizabeth, sister 
t% tbe unhappy Henry Brooke^ lord Cobham, thy whom, 
who died in 1591, he had a daughter Frances, married to 
Henry Clifford, earl of Cumberland, and an only son, Wil^* 
}iam, second earl of Salisbury^ His descendant, James^ 
the seventh earl of Salisbury, was advanced to tbe title of 
marquis ip 1789. ' 

. CECIL (RiCHAjiB), a late clergyman of the cfhurcbof 
^England, w§s born in Cbiswell^treet,. London, on Nor, 
jB, 1748. His father and grandfather wcare scadet-dyers to 
the East India company. His mother was the only child 
uf Mr. Grosvenor, a merchant of London, and was a strict 
■ - • ' ' * ' 

* Biog. Brit— Park's Royal and Noble ^utbori.— Secret Correspondence, b]r 
air D. Dalrymple, l*i66, 12mo.— Birch's Nefocuiti«RS.^*»l{istx>r3r of Q. £lliza« 
^idb, andilife of Prii^oe Heniy.-^^Uamnfitoa'i ^oS« Mtiqiipw 

2ff C E C I li, 

dissenter, but bis father belonged to the^tiiblished cburch. 
In. bis early years bis father intended him for business, but 
the son bad a stronger predilection for general literature ; 
and tbe. success o£ some juvenile attempts, inserted in the 
periodical journals, withr a taste for thustc and painting, 
diverted bim stilly more from trade. At iejigtb his father 
detennined to give bim an university education, and, by th^ 
advice of Dr. Pbanuel Bacon, an old acquaintance, sent 
hiin to Oxford, where he entered of Queen^s college. May 
19, 177 S. Before this he had fallen into a course of read* 
ing which dispelled the religious education of bis infancy, 
and bad made bim almost a confirmed infidel. Previously, 
however, to going to the university, he had recovered from 
this infatuation, and became noted for that pious conduct 
and principles which he maintained through life. With 
his studies be combined his former attachment to the fine 
arts, particularly music afnd painting, and might be deemed 
a connoisseur in both, and upon most subjects of polite 
literature manifested a critical taste and relish for the pro-^. 
ductions of genius and imagination, of both which he bad 
himself no small portion. In 1776 he was ordained dea- 
coh, and in 1777 priest, having only taken his baohelor^s 
degree, after whidi he withdrew his name from the college 
books, and exercised his talents as a preacher in some 
cbu robes in Lancashire. Soon after, by the interest of 
some friends, two small livings were obtained for bim at 
Leiwes in Susse:it, together in value only about 80/. a year. 
These he did not long enjoy, a rheumatic affection in his 
head obliging bim to employ a curate, the expence of which 
required the whole of the income, but he continued ta 
hold them for some years, and occasionally preached %l 
Lewes. Removing to London, he officiated in different 
churches and chapels, particularly the chapel in Orange-r 
street and that in Long-acre, &c. In 1780 he was invited 
to undertake^the duty of due chapel of St. John's, in Bed- 
ford-row, and by the assistance of some friends who ad* 
vanced considerable sums of money. Was enabled to repair 
it, and collected a most numerous and respectable congre^ 
gation. But formany years he derived little emolument 
ftom it, as he devoted the produce of the pews most con- 
scientiously to tbedtscharge of the debts incurred. Eveii 
in 1798, a* debt of 500/, remained on it, which his friends 
and hearers, struck with bis honourable conduct, gene-* 
rously defrayed by a subscription. Ici this year appeared 

C E C I L. 27 

timt ocHnplaint,- of tbe schirrQaft kind, wbicfa mora otr lest 
afflicted him with excruciating pain during the femainde^ 
of his hfe, and frequently interrupted hig public laboursy 
but which he bore with incredible patience and constancy, 
la ISOO he was presented by the trustees of John Thornton^ 
esq. to the livings of Chobbam and Ksley in Sunsey, by 
which 150/. was added to bis income^ the xenatnder of 
their produce being required to provide a substitute at St« 
John's chapel, and defraying the necessary travelling ex- 
pences. In these parishes, notwithstanding the precarioua 
statepf bis health, he pursued his ministenal labours with 
unabated assiduity, and conciliated the affections of hia 
people by his affectionate addresses, as well as by an ac« 
commodation in the matter of tithes, which prevented all 
disputes. In 1807 and 1808 two paralytie attacks under^ 
mined his constitution, and at length terminated in a fit of 
apoplexy, ivhich proved fatal August 15, 1810. Few men 
have left a character iiKMre estinisdble in every quality that 
regards personal merit, or public services, bat for the de-*' 
tailof these we must refer to the '^Memoirs'' prefixed tor 
an edition of his Works, in 4 vols. 8vo, published in 1811' 
for the bepefit of his family. Such was the regard in which* 
be was held, that the whole of this edition of 1250 copies, 
was subscribed fot by his friends andcongregatien. The 
first volume contains bis *^ Life of Mr. Cadc^an,'* printed 
separately in 1793; that of ^< John Bacon, esq^ the oele« 
brated sculptor,'' in 1801 ; and that of tiie <^ Rev. John 
Newton" in 1808. VoL If. contains bis ^' Miscellanies,^' 

Eractical tnictk» pciblished in the course of his life; vol. IIL 
is *' Serniions," and vol. IV, bis ^^ Remains,'^ consisting 
of remarks made by Mr. Cecil in conversation with the 
editor (the rev* Josiah Pratt, B. D«) or in discussions when 
he was present, with an appendix communicated by some 
friends. * . 

CECILIA (St.)9 the reputed patroness of music, .was a' 
B^Bian virgin of distinguished birth, who lived in the 
second century. She was eminent for her piety, and bad 
vcHBved virginity, but contrary to her inclinations, was 
espoused by her parents to a heathen noblenan of the 
name of Valerian, whom she is said to hwe kept from her 
bed, by informing him that she had an angel appointed to 
protect her, and she engaged that Valerian should see this 

^ Memoir at above* 



angel, hi case be would prepare himsdf for such a favouf 
by becoming, a Christian. .Vaierian consented, saw the 
angel, abstained from Cecilia as a wife, and was converted 
along with bis brother Tiburtius. Valei'ian and Tiburtius 
suffered martyrdom, and Cecilia was honoured witU tba 
same death some days after. .These martyrdoms are va^ 
riously placed under M. Aurelius, between 176 and 180, 
and under Alexander Severus, about. 231. The body of 
St. Cecilia was found by pope Pascal I. in the cemetery of 
a church called by her name, which occurs as early u 
the sixth century; and her body and her husband^ s, found 
in the same place, were translated in 821 to a. monastery 
founded by pope Pascal iu honour of the martyrs Tibur^ 
tius and Maximus, near the church of St Cecilia in Rome^ 
usually called in Trastevcre^ to distinguish it from two 
others dedicated to the same saint 

Musical and other historians have not been able to as^ 
sign any better reason for honouring St. Cecilia as the pa* 
troness of music, than what may be found in her ^^ Acts,'* 
which still exist in Surius, but are now considered as of no 
authority. Yet as they were credited in more creduloua 
times, painters fixed upon organs as the appropriate em* 
blem of this saint ; musicians chose her for their patroness^ 
and poets have described her as the inventress of the or« 
gan, and a$. charming angels to leave their celestial spheres^ ' 
in order to listen to .her harmony^ The earliest notice of 
ber as the tutelar saint of music seems to have been in tb^ 
works of the great painters of the Italian school ; some re^ 
presenting her as performing on the harp, and others oi^ 
the organ. Raphael, in his celebrated portrait of the saint^ 
has placed in her hands a column of organ pipes, or rather 
the front of a portable instrument called the regals, which 
in Roman catlK>lic times used to be carried, by one persoqk 
and played by another in processions. But of the celebra-- 
tion of her birth-day by assemblies of musicians, we have 
been able to discover no instance earlier than the latter end 
of the seventeenth century, when there was. a rage a^mong 
the votaries of music for celebrating the birth-day of this 
saint, November 22, not only in Loiidon, but in all tht^ 
considerable cities and provincial towns, in the kingdom, 
where music was cultivated. Dryden's Ode to St. Ce<^Ui|iM 
has led Mr. Malone into a prolix and probably very accu*; 
rate history of this saint, and into a chronological account 
of aU the great Cecilian festivals held in Loudon from 168^ 

C £ C I t I: A. ^ aa 

to 1 740, with « list of all' the odea^ ^ritti^h ex|>r€»9ly ib^ 
the celebration of St. Cecilia, by whom written^ aiidbj. 
whom set to oiusic. ^ • ? 

CEDRENUS (George), a Grecian monk, who lived in 
the eleventh century,* wrote annals, or an almdged history,! 
from the beginning of the world to the reign :o£ Jsaae.Conv»« 
nenus, empercar of Constantinople, who suc^oeededt -Michael 
IV. in 1057.' This work is no more than aiicextract fromt 
several historians, and cH^iefly from Ge<h^ras SynoeUus/ 
whose -chronology he has followed from ihe creation to xhet 
reign of Dioclesian. Theopbanes is another Jaistorian he 
has made use of from DiocWian to Mic^adlrCuropalatbeSi. 
The neKt he borrows from is Tbrapesius Soj^iitzes from 
Curopalates to his own time. This compiiatton^'. altbmtgh 
not executed with much judgoieut, was^prob^biyooce-iti 
request. It was translated into Latin .b)?iX3^)imdeir, Basii^ 
1566, and was again printed at Pliria ih 16147, ^^-vols. folioy 
with the Latin version of Xylsgad^, and the. notes. of father 
Goar, arDemioican.* , • 

CELEIJTJNE V. (Peter), Pope, and the only one of 
his>name who seems to deserve much notice, was bohi ini 
Apulia about Abe year 123 1^ and a hermit in a lit^-* 
tie cell. He was admitted into holy orders; but after that^: 
he lived ^ve years, in a. cate or ' mount* *Mont>ni neat Sal- 
viona, where he founds a monastery in 1^74;; The seo 
of Rome hating been vacatH two years and three months^ 
Celestine was unaniqaously chosen pope on^ account of the 
fame of his sanctity. The archbishop of Lyons, present-* 
ing him with the instrument of his election, conjured hini 
to submit to the vocation. ' Feter, in astoriisbment, pro* 
strated .himself on the ground : and after he had continued 
in prayeir for a considerable time, consented to bis election,- 
and took the name of Celestine V. Since the days of the. 
first Gregory, no pope had ever assumed (he pontifical- 
dignity with more purity of intention. But he had not 
Gregory^s talents for business and government; and the^ 
Roman see was far more corrupt in the thirteenth than it 
was in the sixth century. Celestine soon became sensible 
of his incapacity. He attempted to reform abuses,- to re«^ 
trench the luxury of the clergy, to do, in shorty what he 
foand totally impracticable. He committed mistakes, astdi 

> Biitlflf't Lives of ibe SaiiiU.T«-B«iiiwy «i|d Qiiiiluii8*« Hitt. of M«tlK, • ] 
fient Mag. vol. LXIII. p. 25 and 33. . , . . 

' I)u{>rii.-**C«y«.— Fabric. Bibl. Gncc— Moreri. 



exposed fainiMlf to ridieule. Hb conscieticey in the meatf 
thiie^ :wa9 kept^n the rack through « variety of scruples/ 
from which be could not extricate hiniself; and from his • 
ignorance of the world and of canon law, he began to think ' 
be had done wMngin accepting the office. He spent muchf 
of hift ttttie in retirement ; nor was he easy there, becatiso^ 
his conscience told him, that he ought to be discharging ' 
the pattorat office. > In this dilemma he consulted cardinal , 
Cajetan, wha toldhim -he might abdicate, which he accord* 
inglydid in l^d4/after having endeavoured to support the ' 
nmk of pope for only four or five months, and before bia 
abdication lAade a constitution that the pontiff might be 
allowed to abdicate, if he pleased ; but there ba^ been no 
example: since of any pope taking the benefit of this con^ 
stitation. Caj^tan succeeded him under the tit)e>of Boni^ 
^ceVIIL and frntiiediately imprisoned hittiin' th^ casttor 
of Fumone, lest h^ should revoke his resignation, aUhougU 
nothing wn moie improbable, and treated him ^ith stich 
harshness as brought him fo bis grave, after' ten 'months 
imprisenment,. in 1-296. Clement V. canotiifzed him'in 
1313. Several of his << Opuscula*' are in the BiM. Pa^ 
trum. The order of the Ceiestins, vAath takes its ntfioe 
from him, still subsists. ' 

iC£LLARIUS (CHaiSTOFHEa), an eminent critic ami 
geographer, was bom 1638, at Smalcalde, a littli^ town in 
Franconia, where his father was minister His mother^ 
Mary Zehners, was daughter of the famous divine, Joilchim 
Zehners, He came of a family in which learning seems t^ 
have been hereditary. When three years old, be hsKl the 
misfortune to lose his father, but his mothetr look care of 
his education. He began his studies in the college of Smaf-^ 
<;alde, and at eighteen was removed to Jena, to finish faia 
studies in that university. During a residence^ of three 
years in this, place, he applied to classical learning under ' 
Bosius, to pbitosopby under Bechman, to the Oriental 
languages under Frischmutb, and to mathematics under : 
Weigelius. In 1659 he quitted Jena to go to Giessen, ta 
study divinity under Peter Haberkorn. He afterwards re« 
turned to Jena, and took a doctor^s degree there in 1666.^ 
The year following he was made professor of Hebrew and 
il philosophy at Weisseafels, in which office he con**'* 

I Milaer'9 Cborch Hbt ToL IV. p« SS.-<->Ditpii«^Bow«r't Lives of the Popes. 
-PUtina.— Mor«ri. 

c EL L A It I u a St 

tioaed &r serea ycani In 1693 he was eatledlo Weimar, 
to be rector of the college there, which, at the end of three 
years, he exchanged for a similar tank ^t Zeits. After 
Uifo years stay here, the college of Menbourg was offered 
to lum^ wbicli he accepted. His teaming, his abilities, 
aod his diligence, sopn rendered this college famous^ and 
drev a great number of studtsnts; and the place was sa 
agreeable to him, determined to end his days there ^ 
bat Providence dtspoaed ef> him otherwise. - For the king 
ofPrusda, having foniided an university at} Halle in 1693, 
prerailed upon him to be .pvofassor of eloquenoeand his- 
tory ia it, and here he ^composed a great part of his wbrks/ 
Uis great application. shortened his days, and hastened otr 
the -infiroaities of old age. He was a tpng time afflicft^ 
eith the tstone* but -never oould b^ persuaded to seek as- 
sistance 'fitom medicine. He died, 1707, in hk sixty iilinth' 
yean. u. • .-...-. ....... 

He puiblished good editions of aboy'e twettty Latin and- 
Gjteek authors ; and should we give a eonipleto catalogue' 
ofkis own wofks, it would shew an aslotiisbing example' 
of literacy industry. But although he was- a vety volu-* 
mioous writer^ he publisrhed nothing in -baSte, and nothing" 
but what was^ in general correct and useful. His works 
lalate chiefly to grammar, to geography, K^ history, and 
to the Oriental langmsge^. As they are so v^ry numerous, 
we shall only mention some of the mo^t coiisiderable : 1. 
''A Latin Grammar,^' in German, 1689, 8Vq. ' 2;;'< Anti* 
barbarasLatious, sive de Latiaitate mediae et infimse Wtatis,^* 
1^77, .12mo. iB^ffore he published this book^ Olaus Bor- 
lifthtus bad published, at C<:^nhagen, a work entitled 
'^Cogitationes' de vaiiis linguao Latinse setatibus, Slc^ 
which. Cellarios. having not seen, and reading afterwards, 
wa$' the occasion of his making an addition to his own, un-^' 
4er the title of, 3, ^^ Carte posteriores de barbarismis et 
Idiotismta sermonis Latini/' 16^6, 12mo. 4. '^Ofthogra* 
pbia Latina ex feiusftis monwnentis, hoc est nummis, mar-* 
auuribus, &c. eTCcerpta, digesta, novisque observationibus 
illufttrata," i700y Svo. 5% << Historia universalis breviter' 
sc perspicue exposita^ 'm antiquam et medii sBvi ac novam 
dwisa, cuaa'notis perpetuis,'* 1703, S vols. i2mo. 6. ^Col- 
lectanea Historic Samaritanae, quotquot inveniri potue* 
tunt,*' 1688, >4to. He had a design cvf writing a complete 
history of the Samaritans ; but for want of materials was 
forced to give it up. He collected, however, in this work^ 


*• , 


what be couldifind relatiag tit) dieir manners^ retigtoii, b^ 
7. *^ Hi^toria getilis & reltgionis <Saniaritatie ex . dovb; 
Slchemi^um epistcda ancta/* 169d, ;4to. 8^. <f Giamna**' 
^ca H^brsea in tabudis synopttcis una Ciun confiilio 24 bona: 
disc^pdi.linguam saaotaoo.'* To .which he. added, f^ Aab*- 
biti^saius,, siye inititHtio. graminaUca pro legendis Rabbina*^ 
rum scriptis/^ 1684, 4to* 9. .'^ Ganouesde lingoie sanctia> 
idiotismis," 1{679, 4to. 10. <' Sciagraphia phiblogi® sa-*. 
^rae, cum etjfmologtco vadicum depfiitditaKum exaltis lia-» 
guis, Arabic^i . praBsertim^ restiuitarum/' 167d, .4to. ll.» 
^^ Chaldaismus, sive grammatica nova Ungum Chaldaicas,'' 
&c. 1685, 4to. 12> ^^ Porta Syiise, aive grammatica Sy«». 
rkca/' 1684, 4to. 13. 'f Horn S«unaritayaB,V &c i682^ 
4to. 14. ^^ lioguam Arabidam/' 1686^ 4to. 

. His works in geography are well.^kliown, as esoellent? 
})^lp» to the uadierstancling of. ancient anthers. .• His .-^^ No-:'. 
titia Orbis Antiqui/' was published at Cambridge in 170^^; 
!} vols. 4 to, ai)d Leipsic, 1731. And a sixth editicm of 
the abridgement^ by Patrick, was published at Londoiv 
in 1731 ; but for a more particular account of ttie> aHthar> 
and bis works,, the reader may be referred to J. G. Wal-* 
cjiius^s/^i^course of his life and writings, prefixed to baa 
<< Dissertationes Academicse,'* published at Leipsic, 1712^ 
8vo» This volume alone would have been sufficient t»: 
have procured him a considerable name in the learned: 
world. Tt^e principal classics, &c. edited by >hilD:are,- 
<5 Ciceronis Epist. att Familiares;'' " Plinii Epist ;'^ "Cprn;* 
Nepos;" fVQuintus Curtius;'' "Eutr<^ius;" *fSextua 
Rufus;" <* Velleius, Paterculu*;" " Duod. Panegyr. , A»4 
tiq.;" "Lactantius;" ^' Minutius Felix;" f* St .Cypriao-i 
de Vanit. ldoLj"-"Sedulius;'* « Prudenties VV >« Silina* 
Italicusj" « PiciMirandulEpist;" « Zoaimus;" "Paaaniw 
us ;'* the ^* Thesaurus of Jaber,^' with large additions, y ' 

.CELLIER (R^Mi), a voluminouH French. biqgvapher,/ 
lyas born at Bar-le-duc in 1688, and was soon noted for; 
learning and piety. He attached himself to thecongrega* * 
tion of the Benedictines of St. Vanne and St. Hidulpbe^ 
and after he took the habit of that order, was intrusted 
with various business belonging to it, and became titular, 
prior of Flavigni. He died in 1761. He published ^^His- 
tpire generale desauteurs sacresetecclesiastiqaes,." 1729—^. 
1768, 23 vols. 4to, containing their lives, a. critical. ac«^ 

1 Life by Wald^ at above.— Moreri. 

C E E t r E Ri 33 

count of tbeir works^ the history of councils, &c. Tbia 
compilation is accurate, rather ^more so, his countrymea 
think, than that of Dupin ^ but be had not Oupin^s art of 
arranging and compressing, nor, we suspect, his candour. 
That it is diffuse beyond all patience appearis from these 
tnrenty-tbree volumes extending no farther than the time' 
of St. Bernard in the twelfth century. His numerous ex* 
tracts and translations are, however, useful to those who 
cannot read the fathers in the original languages. In 1782 
ah index to. this work was published at Paris, 2 vols. 4to, 
a proof that the work still holds its reputation. His only 
other publication was ^^ Apologie de la Morale des Peres 
contre Bai-beyrac,'^ 1718, 4to, a learned treatise badly 
written. Cellier was fond of retiren^ent and study, and 
cbnciliated the affections of his brethren by bis amiable 
pergonal character. ^ 

Cellini (Benvenuto), a celebrated sculptor and en- 
graver of Florence, was horn in 1500, and intended to be 
trained to music ; but, at fifteen years of age, bound nim-" 
s^lf,' contrary to bis fatber^s inclinations, apprentice to a 
jewelTeV an J goldsmith, under wbona he made such a pro- 
gress, as presently to rival the most skilful in the business* . 
He had also a turn for other arts : and in particular an 
early taste for drawing and^ designings which he afterwards 
coltivated. Nor did he neglect music^ but must have ex* 
celled in some degree in it; for, assisting at a concert before 
Clement VII. that pope took him into his> service, in the 
double capacity of goldsmith and musician. He applied 
himself also to seal-engraving, learned to make curious da^ 
maskeenings of steel and silver on Turkish daggers, &c. and 
was very ingenious in medals and rings. But Cellini excel- 
led in arms, as well as in arts ; and Clement VII. valued him. 
as mu^ for his bravery as for his skill in his profes3ion. 
Wh^h the duke of Bourbon laid siege to Rome, and the city 
was taken and plundered, the pope committed the castle oJF 
St. Angelo to Cellini ; who defended it like a man bred to 
anbs^ and <tid not suffer it to surrender but by capitulation* 

Meahwbile, Cellini was one of those great wits, who 
may truly be said to have bordered upon madness ; he was' 
of- a* desultory, . capricious, unequal humourj^ which in- 
volved him perpetually in adventures that often threat- 
ened to prove fatal to him. He travelled among the cities 

1 Diet. Hi»t. 

Vol. IX. D 


of Italy, but chiefly resided at Rome ; where he was some« 
times in favour with the great, and sometimes out. He 
consorted with ^11 the first artists in their several ways, with 
Michael Angelo, Julio Romano, &c. Finding himself at 
length upon ill terms iu Italy, he formed a resolution of 
going to France ; and, passing from Rome through Flo-, 
rence, fiologna, and Venice, he arrived at Padua, where 
he was most kindly received by, and made some stay with, 
the famous Pietro Bembo. From Padua he travelled 
through Swisserland, visited Geneva in his way to Lyons, 
and, after resting a few days in this last city, arrived safe 
at Paris. He met with a gracious reception from Francis I. 
who would have taken him into his service ; but, conceiv- 
ing a dislike to France from a sudden illness he fell into 
there, he returned to Italy. He was scarcely arrived, 
when, being accused of having robbed the castle of St. 
Angelo of a great treasure at the time that Rome was 
sacked by the Spaniards, he was arrested and sent pri- 
soner thither. When set at liberty, after many hardships 
and difficulties, he entered into the service of the French 
king, and set out with the cardinal of Ferrara.for Paris : 
where when they arrived, being highly disgusted at the 
cardinaPs proposing what he thought an inconsiderable 
salary, he abruptly undertook a pilgrimage to Jerusalem. 
He was, however, pursued and brought back to the king, 
who settled a handsome salary upon him, assigned him a 
house to work in at Paris, and granted him shortly after a 
naturalization. > But here, getting as usual into scrapes 
and quarrels, and particularly having offended madame 
d^Estampes, the king's mistress, he was exposed to endless 
troubles and persecutions; with which at length being 
wearied out, he obtained the king's permission to return 
to Italy, and went to Florence; where he was kindly' re- 
ceived by Cosmo de Medici, the grand duke, and engaged 
himself jjif his service. Here again, disgusted with some 
of the duke's servants (for he could not accommodate him* 
•self to, or agree with, any body), he took a trip to Venice, 
where he was greatly caressed by Titian, Sansovino, and 
other ingenious artists ; but, after a short stay, returned t6 
Florence, and resumed his business. He died in 1570* 
Bis life was translated into English by Dr. Nugent, and 
pubJished in 1771, 2 vols. 8vo, with this title: *^ The Life 
of Benevenuto Cellini, a ]f lorentine artist ; containing a 
variety pf^urious aqd interestii>g particulars relative to 

C E L L I ^ L si 

painting, sculpture, and architecture, ahd the history 'of 
his own time.** The original, written iti the Tuscan lani 
guage, lay iti manuscript above a century and a half. 
Though it was read with the greatest pl^afeiire hy the 
leamea of Italy, no man was hardy enough, during this 
Jong period, to Introduce to the world a bodkj in which' 
the successors of St. Peter were handled so I'oughly ; 
a narrative, where artists and sovereign prinfces, cardi- 
nals and courtezans, ministers of state and mechanics^ 
are treated with equal impartiality. At length, in it 30^ 
an enterprising Neapolitan, encouraged by Dr. Antonio 
Cocchi, one of the ^politest scholars in Europe, published 
it in one vol. 4to, but it soon was prohibited, and became 
scarce. According to his own account, Cellini was at ohce 
a man of pleasure and a slave to superstition ; a despisec 
of vulgar notions, and a believer in magical incantations J 
« fighter of duels, and a composer of divine sonnets ; aa 
ardent lover of truth, and a retailer of visionary faricies ; 
an admirer of papal power, and a hater of popes; ah 
offeHder against the laws, with a strong reliance on divine 
providence. Such heterogeneous mixtures, however, ge- 
nerally form an amusing book, and Cellini's life is amus*. 
ing and interesting in a very high degree. It must not, 
however, he omitted, that Cellini published two treatises 
4)n the subject of his art, " Duo trattati, uno intorno alle 
4)tto prihcipali arti delP oreficiera, Paltro in materia dell* 
arte della scoltura," &c. 1568, 4to.* 
^ CELS (James Martin), a French botanist, and membet 
of the Institute, was born at Versailles in 1745, and having 
,be^n early introduced into the office of one of the farmers- 
general, acquired the once lucrative place of receiver* 
Amidst the duties of this office, he found leisure for study^ 
tad became so fond of books, as to attempt a new arrange-^ 
ment of libraries, which he published in 1773,'n»nder the 
tijle of " Coup-d*ceil eclair6 d'une grande bibliotheque a 
J'osage de tout possesseur de livres," 8vo. He became 
also partial to the study of botany, and formed an exten- 
sive botanical garden, which he enriched by correspon- 
dence and exchanges with other horticulturists. When 
the revolution took place, he retired to the village of ' 
Montrouge near Paris, and coiifined himself enti?tly to 

'^iJ^ *• above.--Sir JoHn Hawltins^t edit, of Johaioa'i worki, vol. IX. 

$& • € E L S. 

thp cuJUy*tioiit and, selUag. of: plants. The; pmncipal vnorks 
o^.d^fO';^^y, wbicj;) hayei appjejaoed in Fi^oce, as 
thpse of QierQtier^ PQpapdpUe, Redout^^ &c^ have been. 
ivtd^bjiQd to bis; a^sbtwce ; but ib is to VentenatthaA; Cek? 
fiifxice^fiuoe will bed u0r, who published, the '"'De^criptipft 
de? pjaptes. rare dm jardia dt*. At CeU/* QeU died. Mayi 
13,. 1&Q6. > 

CJEJLSUS.. (Aua^uuA Corj^elius),, an. ancient and cle- 
^;fijQA.iifriter.oiL.tbe.subject of physic, flourished in the 6rst 
c^t^y,, under the^reigns; of. Augustus anflTibj^rius; but 
<^ ^.9, personal history, hlsfa^mily, or even bis profession,, 
M^e know; little. It? ha^ been- dpubted. wbe^hpf bft practisedK 
Physic,, but without th^ experience ari^ng . from, practice,. 
i|:. is difScult.tQ conceive how he could have. so. accurately., 
d^^ribed diseases and given tbe remedies. Dn Freind^ 
who studM bis works with, great: ajttcntion^ decicies in far 
vour of his having pr»acti§ed, and agrees wkh- Le Clerc. 
thpjt.he. was, a Bx^n^a^ by birth, and probably of the Corne- 
Ua^ fao^Ly. Vie. is;, said ta have, wjritten on> rhetoric and . 
c^ber si^bjects.; but hi3."I)e: Mediciuia libri octo,," oa 
which -his. f^Rip rests,, is the, only, work now remaining^ and 
hasrgpn 6; through a>gi!eat number of editions.. The surgi- 
cal, part i^ most esteemed as . coiprespondlng nearest to the 
present practice ; bat the, whp^ is written in ar style so 
pi^^ and elegant, as to entitle him to a plape among the 
liatin^ classics. Dr. Clarke, has enumerated nearly forty 
editions, the best of which ara thought to be Almeloveen^s, 
Fadna, 1722, 8yo, reprinted in 1750, and one by Krause, 
Lpjpsic, 1766, 8 vo, with the. notes of Scaliger, Casaubon^. 
Almeloveen,; IVJjorgagni,, &c. ta wJiich we may add a very 
recent editipn.. published, at' Edinburgh ^nd London, in 
1809, 8 vo. In 1756,. an English, translation, with, notes,. ' 
was publish^ by Dr. Grieve, the historian of Kamshatka.- . 
Ashortabridgenvent of rhetoric, " De arte dicepdi,'* at- 
tributed to Celsus, wjas first published at. Cologne in 1569, 
8vo, and is inserted in the BibL Lat of Fabricius, but it is' 
generally thought to have been the production of Julius 
Severianus, * 

CELSUS, a celebrated philosopher of the Epicurean 
sept, flouri3hed in the second century under Adrian and 
Aptoniqus Pius, and is tbe person to whom Lucian has 

1 Diet Hist « Ffciiid'8 Hi5t of.Ph^sic-^HalUr Bib). Mcd,.ct ChifUfg, 

-•►Moreri.— fiaxii Onoma.'iticon^ kc, , , 

"t! E'i.'aV 'S. 37 

thre afgalnst the 'Ctofeti«ft *ti\ip6ti, Hihdiefr the t*(te bf 

"The 'true 'Wbrii," i^hicfh Wk& ktm^e^ by Ori^n ^it5i 

Jpreat ability in a frotk consisting ef tight bodks. His << ^Ptue 

Word*' is lost ; bitt hife dbjedticnis against Cteistfcariity tt(a:y 

be known frdm libe et«ftracts whitfh are ptenetveA <rf it fn 

Origen^s answer. !k is agtecid ^on all ^htfnfts, that Ite Wte 'a 

most sobfle adversary, ^perfectly vei^sed in all -ihfe ttrt^ '6f 

'Gfontroversy, and as iearneil as ;be Wste ingeriious : so that 

it IB no wonAesr if the prhnitiVe Chtii^tians thought ndthiKig 

less than ^udb a cfaatnpion as Origen "sl fftartch ^iPbr hiitt. 

ATthoxigh he sometiriies re'ctrrs to QPlatanic and Stoic tnodes 

of reasonitrg, lie is exptessly rai/ked by Ludan, as wefl ais 

t>rigen, antong tlie Epicureans ; and this isuppositidn best 

aeeotitits for tte tiolence wiA which he oppos'ed ttie <5hris- 

tian teKgion ; for an Epicurean would of course reject, 

without examination, vSl pretensions to divine communl- 

tiations xjt powers. Yet his hostility, or iftre great pains hfe 

took tx> Ai^ipfoy it, affords sonie^trotigtestioionres infavbti'r 

of the ChriBtian religion, as may be seen in Ltirdn^r, and 

other writers. * 

CELTKS (Oonhad), a Larin poet, called also Pirotu- 
cms and MEissfei^ was bom at Sweinftirt tiear Wertzbilr^ 
in 145*^, and died at Vienna iti 1508^ iafter haVitig gained 
the potftic laured. He has left, 1. **pdes,*' Strasburg, 
l^lS, Svo. 2. ** Ei^Tgiranis,'* and apoein on the manneris 
of the Gtermans, 5(610, «vto. S. * An 'historical accpunt 
of th^ dity of Nuretnbefg,^' Strasbarg, 1513, 4't6; atid 
various ottrer WoAs, enutnei*'atfed by Morefi, aft tn Latin. 
Be was not deficient in the sallies of imagln^tioln, though 
not exempt ft-om the deflects of the age in which he wrotd. 
He i* censurable for neg<ig^nte in poilit of style, and with 
preferring eentiments motie for their brilliahcy than theiir 
solidity. His four books in elegiac verse, on the same 
nmnber of mistresses h^ boasb to nave hud, were published 
at Nurctaberg in 1 5i04, 4'to. This volume is scarce. The 
emperor Maximilian made him his librarian, and granted 
him the privilege of conferring the poetic crown on whom- 
soever he judged worthy of it. • 


CENSOHINUS, a celebrated critic, chronologer, iahti- 
quary, and gtanimarian, for such Ptiscian calls him, Sou- 

* ■ > 

* Lardner's Worki, toI. VIII.-^-Dupin.— Bru(^er.-*-Mo5heiQi.— «Cavf. 

?8 C E N S O R I N U S. 

risbed ^t Rome iii the time of Alexander Severus, and ia 
§uppQse4 to have been of the Martian family. Hi& talents 
as , a grammarian appear only in his book ^^ concerning 
Accents," frequently cited by Sidonius ApoUinaris, and 
other things, which are lost ; and not in his *^ De die 
patali," which is the only piece remaining of him. This 
treatise was written about the year 238, and dedicated to 
Quintus Cerellius, ^ Roman of the equestrian order, of 
^hom he speaks very highly in bis 15tb chapter. Vossius, 
in one place, calls this *^ a little book of gold ;" and,j in 
another, declares it to be " a most learned work, s^nd of 
the highest use and importance to chronologers, since it 
connects and determines with great exactness some princi- 
pal asras in history.'* It is however a work of a miscellane- 
ous nature, and treats of antiquities as well as chronology. 
It was printed at Han^bargh in 1614, with a commentary 
by Lindenbrog, \vhose notes were adopted afterwards in 
an edition printed at Cambridge, in 1695; and there is 
an edition by Hav^rcamp, 1743,^ reprinted ^t Leydei\, 1767, 
Svo. Sir Jol^n Hawkins has translate4 Censorinu^'s re- 
marks on music, which are curious. ^ 

CENTLIVRE (Susannah), an ingenious dramatic wri- 
ter, was daughter of Mr. Freeman, a gentleman of Hol- 
beach in Lincolnshire, and was born about the yeair 1667* 
Her father had been possessed of an estate of no inco/v- 
;^iderable value ; but being a dissenter, and having disco- 
vered a jealous attachment to the cause of the parliament, 
was at the restoration under a necessity of flying into Ire- 
'land^ and his estate was confiscated. Our poetesses mother 
was daughter of Mr. Markham, a gentleman of fortune at 
Lynn Regis in Norfolk, who is represented as having en- 
countered similar misfortyn^s with those of Mr. Free- 
man, in consequence of his political principles, which 
were the same wit^i those of that gentleman, and he 
also was obliged tp take refuge in Ireland^ The subject 
of this article i^ asserted to have been born in Lincoln- 
shire; but some have conjectured that she was born in 
Ireland, which may, not improbably, have been the cas^, 
if her birth was so late as ] 667. The editor, ho\rever, of 
sir James Ware^s Works does not claim her as an Irish 
writer. She had the unhappiness to lose her father before 
she was three years old, and her mother before she lia^ 
completed her twelfth year. At an early period she dis-« 

} M^rtri.— 'Diet llj9t,«»Hair]uas'8 Hist, of Mttsit.r-«Saxu Oi>«fiiaitico|i, 


covered a propensity to poetry, and is said to have written 
a song before she was seven years old. 

Being harshly treated by those to whose care she wa$ 
committed after the death of her mother, she resolved, 
whilst very young, to quit the country, and to go up to 
London to seek her fortune. The circumstances of her life 
at this period are involved in much obscurity, and the par- « 
ticulars which are related seem somewhat romantic. It is 
said that she attempted her journey to the capital alone, 
and on foot, and on her way thither was met by Anthony 
Hammond, esq. father of the author of the " Love Ele- 
gies." This gentleman, who was then a member of the 
university of Cambridge, was struck with her youth and 
beauty, and offered to take her under his protection. Her 
distress and inexperience inducing her to comply with bis 
proposal, she accompanied him to Cambridge, where, 
iiaving equipped her in boy's clothes, 4ie introduced her 
to his intimates at college, as a relation who was come 
down to see the university, and to pass some time with 
him. Under this disguise an amorous intercourse was car- 
ried on between them for some months; but at lengthy 
being probably apprehensive that the affair would become 
known in the university, he persuaded her to go to Lon- 
don. He provided her, however, with a considerable sum 
of money, and recommended her by letter to a lady in 
town with whom he was acquainted. He assured her at 
the same time, that he would speedily follow her^ and re- 
new their connection. This promise appears not to have 
been performed : but notwithstanding her unfavourable in- 
troduction into life, she was married in her sixteenth year 
to a nephew of sir Stephen Fox, who did not live more 
than a twelvemonth after their marriage ; but her wit a,ad 
personal attractions soon procured her another husband, 
whose name was Carrol, who was an officer in the army, 
but who was killed in a duel about a year and a half after 
their marriage, when she became a second time a widow 
•She is represented as having a sincere attachment to Mr. 
Carrol, and consequently as having felt his loss as a severe 

. It.was at this period of her life that she commenced dra- 
matic author ; to which she wa^ probably in some degree 
induped by the narrowness other circumstanceau Some of 
her earlier pieces were published under the name of Cay- 
roK Her first attempt was in tragedy, in ^ play called 
" The Perjured Hdsband/' which was performed atDrury- 


lane Theatre in 1700, and published in 4to the saine 
yeiar. In 1703, she produced ** The Beau's Duel, or a 
Soldier for the Ladie^, a comedy ;'* and " Love's Contri- 
vances,'^ which is chiefly a translation from Moliere; ai^d 
the following year another comedy, entitled " The Stolen 
Heiress, or the Salamanca Doctor outwitted." In 1705, 
ber comedy of " The Gamester" was acted at Lincoln's- 
inn-fields, which met with considerable success, and has 
since been revived at DruryJane. The plot of this piece 
was chiefly borrowed from a French comedy, called ** Le 
Dissipateur." The Prologue was written by Mr. Rowe. 

Her attachment to the theatre was so great, that she 
not only distinguished herself as a writer for it, but also 
became a performer on it; though she probably did not 
attain to any great merit as an actress, as she fieems never 
to have played at the theatres of the metropolis. But in 
1706, we are told, she performed the part of Alexander 
the Great, in Lee's Rival Queens, at Windsor, where thp 
court then' was; and in this heroic character, st\e made 
so powerful an impression upon the heart of Mr. Joseph 
Centlivre, yeoman of the mouth, or principal c^olt to 
queen Anne, that he soon after married her, and with hiqi 
she lived happily till her death. 

The same year in which she married Mr, Centlivre, she 
produced the comedies of the " Basset-table," and ** Love- 
at a venture." The latter was acted by the duke of Graf- 
ton's servants, at the new theatre at Bath. In 1708, ber 
most celebrated performance, " The Busy Body," was 
acted at Drury-lane theatre. It met at first with so un- 
favourable a reception from the players, that for a . time 
they even refused to act in it, and were not prevailed upon 
to comply till towards the close of the season ; and even 
then Mr. Wilks shewed so much contempt for the part of 
air George Airy^ as to throw it down on the stage, at the 
rehearsal, with a declaration, ^' that no audience would 
endure such stuff." But the piece was received with the 
greatest applause by the audience, and still keeps posses- 
sion of the stage. In 1711, she brought on at Drury-lane 
theatre, ** Marplot, or the second part t)f the Busy Body." 
This play, though much inferior to the former, met widi 
a favourable reception ; and the duke of Portland, to whom 
it was dedicated, made Mrs. Centlivre a present of forty 
guineas. Her comedy of " A Bold Stroke for a Wife,'* 
was performed at Lincoln's-Inn Fields in 1717. She was 
assisted in this play by Mr. Mottley, who wrote a scene Qr 

G £ N ^ ^ / V ^ B. 4a 

tm fin%pE^y^ JL wits .exttemeiy nejIX rfcetv^^ ^^A 9 )Still 
ireguently jxerfowted^ tbovigh Mr. Wilks .b^ sd^ {^t4F- 
,tauie4 <a vei:y 4iQfavaurab)e op^^a ,of it. jponde^ ^de 
«|iich Jbftye fa^eii jJr^f^dy ,qieati9f>ed, «sbe also jprodiiQeil 
i^areral other ^^aoiatic {pieces, ^nus^er^d M ^ SiifH 
^pbia Drs^o^tjicfi. 

Mrs. C^atlivr^ .eiypy^ed, fqr ,mapy yr6fwrs, tfce iutiwicy 
^d esteepa.of ^Q^nexi^ xhe «aQst eminent wits. of the^t^mt, 
jmrticularly sir Bicbard Stqale, Mr. ^we, JDr. Sa.well^ #nd 
Mr. Farqu^ar. .fu^taQe Qudgell was -^l^o jof the niio^r 
of ik^ acq^aii^ance. But ^be bad tbe miijfbiauQe to ioqiyr 
.the displeasure of Mr. Pope, w^o introduced ber into ibe 
])uM[iciad, for baviiig writtien 41 bal|lad agai\>st bis H^mer. 
$he died ifi SprAi;ig-^gardeny cCbaring.->cA>ss, on tbe'^ir^t ntf 
Decefxjk&c^ 1723, and ivas b^ri^d ^ St Martinis in tbe 
jFidds. Sbe ^posse^ed a considerable share of be^Mi^y^ »^iis 
oi a friendly and beuev^ql^nt dispo^iti^n^ -^nd in co^ensar 
iioa was uprightly a^4 en4;er4;aiuing. tier lixe^d^y §c%m9if 
tio\^& app^ear tQ ba«ve heeja ij^ereLy tbe r<esjult of ber qw» »pr- 
plication ; hm sbe is &npj])Ofed to biaTe ui^derstood the 
jFrench, I^uitcb^ and Spanish iangiu^e^ ^qd tp Ip^a^e bad 
soiAe^i;io\i^ledge <lf tbe Latii^. An extensive ^cqii^int^tnoe 
with men and -ipanners is e?cbibited in iher dramatic wri- 
tings; but they at/e sonxetim^s justly qeiniriirable for timt 
bcentiou^^ess. In 1761, ber draijnatic wc^ks were cpK 
iect^d together, and printed in tbre^ volumes l^mo. She 
was also the author of 5' several copies of verses on diven 
subjects and oc^ca^iop^, and ipany ing<enious letters, en^- 
titled, Letters of Wit, Politics, a^nd Morality," which were 
collected and pijibUsbed by Mr. Boypr. ^ 

CENTO RIO (AsfiAmm), of an illnstrious faqaily of 
MiI«M), but prpgipaily of Romp, bore arnis in the sixteenth 
century, in wbicb be i^ras as much the philosopher as tbe 
soldier. He tool^ advantage of the leisure afforded him by 
tbe p/^ace, to xefiufc^ to pr4er 4^e military and historical 
memoirs be bad^Uected during sthe tumult of war. They 
ve very mmcb e^eem^d in Italy^ not less for their escel* 
knee than their r^ity* They ap^peared at Venice in 
1565 and 1569, in 2 vols. 4tO!, commonly bound in one; 
Tiie former, .in six books, treats of the wars of TransUva^ 
ni?, and the other of thos^ of bi^ time in eigbt books. He' 
wrote also some poems, and treatises on the military art^ 
ip Italian apd Latin. ' 

I Siog. Beit.— <;ibber'8 Lives. « Diet Hist— Haym BibL Ital. 


42 C E R A T I N U S. 

CERATINUS (James), whose family name was Teyttg, 
which he exchanged for Ceratinus, from uifog, horn, an 
ttUnsion to Horn or Hoorn in Holland, was born there in 
the beginning of the sixteenth century. It appears from 
Erasmus's letters, that he thought Ceratinus one of the 
most profound scholars in Greek and Latin which the age 
afforded ; yet, when he came to be ordained priest at 
Utrecht, he was rejected for ignorance of the rules of 
grammar ; but when the examiners understood that he had 
given superior proofs of learning, they re-called him, 
pleaded that they were obliged to certain forms in their 
examination, and granted him letters of ordination. On 
the recommendation of Erasmus, George, elector of Sax*- 
ony, appointed him to succeed Mosellanus in his profes- 
sorship at Leipsic ; and on this occasion Erasmus declared 
that he was worth, in point of learning, ten such as Mo- 
sellanus. He was also offered the Greek professorship in 
the college of three languages at Louvain. At Leipsic he 
did not meet with the reception he deserved, owing to its 
being suspected that he had imbibed Lutheran principles* 
He died at Louvain April 10, 1530, in the flower of his 
age. His works were, A very elegant translation of 
Chrysostom's " Treatise concerning the Priesthood ;'* art 
improved edition of the " Graeco- Latin Lexicon/* printed 
by Froben, in 1524, with a preface by Erasmus; and a 
treatise " De Sono Greecarum Literarum," printed in 1 529, 
Svo, with a dialogue from the pen of Erasmus on pronun^ 
ciation. These were reprinted by Havercarop in . his 
*5 Sylloge Scriptorum,'* or collection of commentators ott 
the pronunciation of the Greek, Leyden, 1736. * 

CERCEAU (John Antony du), a French Jesuit, was 
born at Paris in 1670, and was early distinguished by 
spirit, vivacity, and a turn for poetry, which, while he 
wrote in Latin, procured him considerable repntatioiK 
This, however, he forfeited by his French verses, in imi- 
tation of Marot, in which he mistook burlesque and trifling, 
for the fdmiliar and simple. He wrote also some theatrical 
pieces of an inferior order; but was more successful in his 
** Defense de la Poesie Francoise,^' and other dissertations 
on the same subject He wrote also, 1. " L*Histoire d6 
Thamas Kouli-Kan^ sopbi de Perse,'' Amsterdam, 1741', 

» Morcri. — Geo. Diet.— Foppen BibI, Be1{p.--Baillet Jugemens.-^Jortin'a 
^rfisnias. ^ 

C E K C E A U. 43 


2 vols, 12mo« 2. ^< Histoire de la Conjuration de RienzV 
12mo, which was completed by father Brumoy. S. A cri- 
ticism on the abb6 Boileau's *^ History of the Flagellants.** 
fie contributed also a great many papers to the Journal de 
TrevouXy and was long engaged in a controversy with one 
of the authors of the Journal des Savans, occasioned by 
two dissertations printed at the end of the second volume 
of Sannadon's Horace, relative to a passage in Horace 
concerning the music of the ancients. This produced from 
Cerceau some valuable essays on the subject His Latin 
poetry was published in 1696, 12mo, under the title 
^^ Varia de variis argumentis Carmina a multis e societate 
Jesii." The other authors in this volume are Vaniere and 
Tarillon. In 1807, his dramatic pieces were reprinted at 
Paris, in 3 vols. 18mo, under the title ^^ Theatre k T usage 
des colleges.'' He died suddenly in 1730, atVeret, near 
Tours. ' 

CERDA (John Lewis), a Spanish Jesuit, and native of 
Toledo, who entered among the Jesuits in 1574, was a 
man of great learning, and, as his brethren have repre- 
sented him, of as great simplicity and candour. He distin- 
guished himself by several productions ; and the fame of 
his parts and learning was so great, that Urban VIIL is 
said to have had hia picture in his cabinet; and, when that 
pope sent his nephew cardinal Barberini ambassador into 
Spain, it was part of his business to pay Cerda a visit, and 
to assure him of the pope's esteem. Cerda's ^* Commen- 
taries upon Virgil," Paris, 1624 — 1641, 3 vols. fol. con- 
tain many useful and learned remarks, buried, however, 
in a multitude of what are superfluous and trifling. Bailiet 
says, there are some good things in them, and some very 
inoderate. His Commentaries upon the works of " Tel*- 
tullian," begun in 2 vols, but not flnished, have not been 
so much esteemed; Dupin says, they are long and te- 
dious, full* of digressions and explications of passages 
which are too clear to need any explaining. There is also 
P.f CerdaVs a volume of " Adversaria Sacra," printed in 
folio at Lyons, inl626. He died in 1643, aged above 80.* 
CERDO, a &mous Heresiarch, who lived at the end of 
the first, or beginning of the second century, is said to 
bave maintaiBei the existence of i^wo gods, one good, the 

Preator of heaven, the other bad, and Creator of the 


} Moreri.-rDtcL Bjjfkt 9 Moreri. — Dopin. 

A^ c « a s> o. 

eeoxtb 9 tto^bavie reacted ^iie lw!9 ibe prophets, and iU tlie 
New Testament, e^qit pnvt of Sit. lAi)ie'« iffo^pfAj uttd 
.«Qme of St P^ufs ^i»tle«. He is dd^o aaid no bAMehemk 
JAaccion'9 master ^^ but k ris oiucfa mope probdble tkat ihe 
yv^ only liis 4i8cifile, if, i^ is «taened, be taught ftbattfaie 
lody .assumed by ^/e&ns Christ «iias.a<pfaamoin, i. e. on i^- 
i)areat body^ but ii«t » neal lone, ^oomposed of Aedk md 
l)one9 lijbe ibe JbunM^n body; «Md aU the avcient witers 
.c41 Mardou the autjbor lof ibb hecesy. Tfa^ repovt af 
Cer^to^s baviag i^e^^acted k\»j&ft^KCs 15 doubted iby Xardmer, 
who gives a very .^Map^lie s^oooant Kof ibiai aad his epimoos. ^ 
CEBjNTHUSy.aQ anoi«otfaeoeitic,ivias contem^vary with 
^t. John tow9T48 ^he .end of the /firait, imt «be oomtnenoe* 
4neat of tbe^eGOud <)eotwry. fie as said itn have beeu a 
Jeiy, educated at Alexandria, but uesident ai AofUock. 
Authors differ as tp hi^ fatral character, but . Dr. Lardaer 
has found nothing of a vicious kind imputed to him. With 
respect to liis o{Nnioits,.he asoiribed the creatien of the 
world, and <thp legislatMre of tbe Jews, to^ cveatei Saueing, 
virho derived from the SupreiMe .God jextcaordinaffy vir- 
tues ajDid powers, but afterwards . hecane apostate attd 
degraded. He si^posed that Jeans was a mere nan, 
born of Joseph am Mary ; but that, in his baptism, the 
Holy Ghost, or the Cbrist, who was ooe of the ^oos, de- 
scended upon him in the form of a dove ; and that iie wos 
commissioned to oppose the degenerate god of the Jeivs, 
aod to destroy his empire, hi consequence of which, by 
bis instigajtioo, the man Jesas was seized smd cracified^ 
but Christ ascended up on high, without suffering at aii^ 
He recoinmended to bis followers the worship of tbe Su^ 
pxeipe God in conjunction with his Son ; he required tfaeon 
to abandon the lawgiver of the Jews ; and though they 
were permitted to retain circumcisioB and the rites q£ th^ 
Mosaic law, and, according to Jerom, this was the piinci- 
pal error of Cerinthus^ that he was for joining the law widi 
the gospel ; yet they were to make the pcecepts of Christ 
tbe rule of their conduct. For th^r encouragement, he 
promised them the i*csurrection of die body $ after which 
the millennium was to commence under the government of 
Christ united to the man Jesus : and this he represented 
^s consisting in eating and drinking, nuptial entertain* 
ments^ and other festivities. Cerinthus' opinions, however, 

> Urimt'% Works, vol. UL^Mosheim. 

HINT WTJ>8. i^ 

mm mit le p a riaBi) hare been doubted hy> some^ aiid^ the 
qoestioii is accurately ebcamiQed by Larckier, rilAiotlgKf 
nidi some degree? of leming toivrards Ceniithtii^S'Optmoii^ 
of J^QsGfarist. ^ 
6ERQ0Qi3ZI (Michael. Anghlo), an emmfent pointer; 
called' Ml A; m Baittagub^ from hift esicellence iii p^ieiN' 
iBg^'battlesy aad B&BiBOCcrATE, ^om his toni for {Mating- 
ninketSy fain^ &Qi Was born at Bxyme in '1*600, ot 1609. 
His fether^ a j^i^-vller, perceiving' hU disponitroHf to th^i 
art^ placed Uioi' with Jiames d^As^, a FlembU painter, theft' 
iirccedit at Rome; after three years study \tith hkn, be' 
weut to the school of P: P: Cortonese, wliom he quitted to- 
bMtne tbet diisciple and imitator of Bamboocio. We sur- 
pa^d all his> fellevr-students in taste, and hadv a mahnep of 
punting' peculiar to himself. His chearfiil tempet^- apr 
p««red* in' hi6 pictures, in which ridicule wai strongly re^- 
piiisentftd. Tii)e facility of his pencil was such, that* on 
tUa recital ' of a - battle, a: sfaip wreck, ot any uticonMoa 
fipfre, be could express it directly on his canvas. His 
cdoaring was vigorous, and his touch lightir H<e never* 
QHide des^ns or sketches, bat only retouched his pictures^- 
until he had brought them to all the perfection of whicbhe 
was:capable; Snch was his reputation thkt he'cotild hardly 
soppily. the commissions he received^ and he became- so- 
rioh that the cares of wealth begcin to perplesc bin>. He 
00' end occasion toofc all his wealth to a retired place in - 
order to bury it, but when he arrived, was so alarmed' lest 
it should be fbund, that he- brought it back, with much 
trouble^ and ba^i^ing been two nights and a> dlty without 
sleep or sustenautse, this, it is ss^, injured^ his health, 
awl brought on a violent fever which proved fatal in 1660. 
Hilr personal character is highly praisedi Mr. Fuseli says, 
that he differs from Bamboccio' in the character and'phy^ 
siogfiomy of his figures; instead- of Dutch or flettisfh 
mobs, be painted those of Italy^ Both artists have strbng- 
and vmi tints ; Bambocciq i^ superior td him in landscape^ 
andihe-ekcells^ Bamboecio in the spiritf of his figvlres. One 
oft bis mt»st copious workd i^itt'the palace Spada at Rome, 
in which hehas represented an army of fanatic Laz^dt^ni, 

wli(^ shout appl ause t»':Mtt8imidld. * < 


* lardner. — Moebeim. — Gen. Diet 

* iurjtf's Lives o/ Pataters^-«Afff <1pvil|e, ?oK I.— *Pi!kingtOn. 

46 G E R R A T L 

GERRATIj or CERATO (Paul), a lawyer and Latin 
poet, was born of the noble fimily of Alba in Lombardy, 
in 1485, and died in 1541. He composed a heroic poem 
in three books, entitled " De Virginitate," Paris, 1629 ; 
and a long " Epithalamium^* of 55S verses on the marriage 
of William IX. marquis of Montferrat with Anne of Alen- 
9on in 1508, of which there have been several editions. 
Scaiiger and Baillet speak highly of him as a Latin poet, 
but according to their account bis style was too lofty and 
pompous, as he was apt to describe a fly in as solemn terms 
as he would a hero. His works are in the " Delicise Poe- 
tarum Ital." but were more recently published separately 
by Vemazza in 1778, with a life of the author. ' , 

CERVANTES SAAVEDRA (Miguel de), the author 
of Don Quixote, was born at Alcala de Henares in 1547. 
He was the son of Rodrigo de Cervantes and Donna Leo* 
nora de Cortinas, and baptised Sunday, Oct. 9 of that 
year, as appear/'from the parish register of Santa Maria la 
Mayor in Alcala, Several concurring testimonies furnished 
the clue for this discovery, although six other places, Se- 
ville, Madrid, Esquivias, Toledo, Lucena, and Alcazac^ 
de San Juan, called him their son, and each had their ad- 
vocates to support their claims, in which respect his fame 
resembles that of Homer's. His parents designed him for 
tbe profession of letters, and although he had at home the 
opportunity of instruction in the university, be studied 
Latin in Madrid. He afterwards resided there in 156S^ 
but two years afterwards we find him at Rome in tbe ser- 
vice of cardinal Aquaviva in the capacity of chamberlain. 
Some time after this, pope Pius V. Philip IL of Spain, and 
the republic of Venice, united in a league, which was con* 
eluded May 29, 1571, against Selim the grand Turk. 
Cervantes, not satisfied with an idle court life, desirous of 
military renown, determined to commence soldier. Marco 
Antonio Colonna being appointed general of the pope^s 
galleys, Cervantes went with him, and was present in the 
famous battle of Lepanto, where he was so wounded in his 
left hand by a gun-shot as totally to lose the use of it; but 
he thought this such an honour, that he afterwards declared 
he would rather have been present in this glorious enter- 
prise, than to be whole in his limbs^ and not to have been 
there at all. 

» Moi«ri.^Dtct Hkt 


Colonna returned to Rome in the end of 1572, land it is 
probable that Cervantes was -with him, as he tells us that 
for some years b^ followed his conquering banners. He 
was ordered to join his regiment at Naples, notwithstanding 
his being maimed. In his '^.Viage del Parnaso^*' he tells 
us that he walked its streets more than a year : and in the 
copy of bis ransom, it appears that he was there a long 
time. Don J. A. Pellicer supposes that in this city he em- 
ployed his leisure hours in cultivating his knowledge of the 
Italian tongue, and in reading of its good writers, with 
whom he appears conversant in his works. As he was gO'* 
ing from Naples to Spain on board the galley of the Sun, 
Sept. 26, 1575, he had the misfortune to fall into the hands > 
of the Moors, who carried him captive to Algiers; The 
several hardships he underwent in his five years' captivity 
are noticed by a contemporary writer: apd though the 
events mentioned in the story of " The Captive,*' in the 
first part of Don Quixote, cannot strictly be applied to 
himself, yet they could hardly have been so feelingly de- ' 
scribed but by one who had been a spectator of such treat-* 
ment as he relates. Several extraordinary and dangerous 
attempts were made by him and his companions to obtain 
their liberty, which was effected at last by the regular way 
of ransom, which took place Sept. 19, 1580. The price t 
was 500 escudos; towar4s. which \iis mother, a widow, con- 
tributed 250 ducats, and bis sister 50. 

Upon his return to Spain in the spring of the year fol- 
lowing, he fixed his residence in Madrid, where his mother 
and sister then lived. Following his own inclination to 
letters, he gave himself up anew to the reading of every 
kind of books, Latin, Spanish,, and Italian, acquiring hence 
a great stock of various erudition. The first product of Jiis 
genius was his ^^* Galatea," which he published in. 1584, 
and on Dec. 12 of the, same year he m^arried at Esquivias, 
Donna Catalina de Salazar ^y Palacipsf. Madrid was still 
his place pf residence in. the years 158^5 — 6 and 7. He 
turned his studies to the theatres, tor wbicjii he wrote 
sev^ralpieces, which have never yet been published. In 
fteyear 1596, he lived in Seville, and. wrote an ironical 
sonnet upon the duke of Medina^s triumphal entry into 
Cadiz, after, the earl of ^ Essex had plundered and left the 
place. Probably Cervantes had a respect for the English 
from this event. In the fourth of his novels which takes its . 
rise hence, he introduces La Espan'ola Inglesa to our queen 

4b: c fi r' V a n t fi a 

Elizabeth,' wHo gives^ het at \^^ty' cordial reideption, atid 
faicbher speak (to her ii^ Spatiisb. In iS9B he Was still in* 
Schdlle, whete he wtDtef a sdntielt upon a niajestic tomb ofi 
enormous height, to cf4ebrat(S^ the escequiek of Philip If. 
which* be tbett' spdbeofas the b^ortout of his writings; It 
is probabiie thee 'hef had reJatidrfiy in this' rfty; a* the illuS- 
tnoQS family c^ th^ Cervantes y Saaved^as wai established' 
here^ From thift yefer, howieveri there is'a-void' in his his- 
tery, and nothinig more i» kndwhof hirtr till 1004'. Some 
ha?e heeU' willito^ to supply? this' defect^ aiud suppose him 
sent upon' b,^ commissions to^ Toboso; tfiat the natives' 
hrongbt a cfa^ge against hini, threw him infto prison, and 
t'hat he in rei^erttment nKJde^Don Quixote and 'Duhcinea* 
Manchegans. Certain it iii* that* he describes with such' 
acciimcy the* chorography of that province, and paints with" 
such marks of propriety' tfie^mannersj dresses, ahd customs 
of its^native^s, that it may be suspected* that' he had be^n an 
ey^-* witness of the whole. This probably is the whole 
foundation of the conjecture, for there is no do<iument in 
proof of this, or any other appointment of 'Cervantes in La 
Manefaa; Whfet is certainly known is, thdt at thb begin- 
ning' of the^se^'enteenth century he was in prison, but for 
an (^ence (as don Gregorio Mayans observes) which could 
not be ignominious, as he himself make^ express mention 
of it ^nd ffotQ the same* testimony it is known, that when 
in this prison^ he wrote his history of " Don Quixote,'* of 
which he |)abHshfed the first^ part ai Madrid in 1605. There. 
w«s« set:ond edition of this in 1608, at the sanie place and 
by the same printer, mucfr corretted and ' improved, no 
notieeof which is taken'by PieHibejr, who speaks of that of 
Valentiaof 1605, supposing such to exist, blit which he 
had not seen. There is- another of Lisbon in 1 605, curious ' 
only oA the score of its gr^t loppings and'amputatidhs. 

In 16p6, Cervantes returned firom ValladfaKd to Madrid, 
wheiehe passed the last ten years of his life.' In 1610, his 
second patron, don Pedro Ferriaftde^ de Castro, count of 
Leitiosf, was ifamed viceroy of Kaples, and froufi thence 
continued' to him his protection and liberality: and the 
cardinal don Bernardo de Sandoval y Rojas, archbishop of * 
Toledo, after the example of his cousin the count of Le-^ 
mos, assigned him a pension, that he might bear witli^ les& 
inoonvenience the troubles of old age. Al^ough Madrid 
was* now Cervantes^s home, he passed certain seasons in 
Esquivias^ eitheir to take care of some effects of hiirwife; or 


to avoid the noise of the court, and to enjoy the quiet of 
"ihe village, which afforded him opportunity to write more 
at bis ease. Availing himself of this convenience, he has- 
tenedj as he was advanced in years, to publish the greater 
part of his works. He printed his "Novels" in 1613; 
his "Journey to Parnassus" in 1614; his "Comedies and. 
Interludes" in 1615; and in the same year the second 
part of his "Don Quixote." He finished also his " Per- 
silas and Sigismunda," which was not published till after 
his death. In the mean time an incurable dropsy seized 
bim, and gave him notice of his approaching dissolution, 
which he saw with Christian constancy and with a cheerful 
couDtenance. He has minutely described this in the pro- 
logue to his posthumous work. One of his late biogra- 
phers says, that good-nature and candour, charity, hu- 
manity, and compassion for the infirmities of man in his 
abject state, and consequently an abhorrence of cruelty, 
persecution, and violence, the principal moral he seems to 
inculcate in his great work, were the glorious virtues'^ and 
predominant good qualities of bis soul, and^must transmit 
his name to the latest ages with every eulogium due to so 
exalted a character. At length, on the same nominal day 
with his equally great and amiable contemporary Shak- 
speare, on the 23d of April, 1616, died Miguel de Cervantes 
Saavedra, in the sixty-ninth year of his age, and was buried 
in the church of the Trinitarian nuns in Madrid. 

Of all the accounts hitherto published relative to Cer- 
vantes, we have given the preference, to the preceding, for 
which we are indebted to the late rev. John Bowie, whose 
enthusiasm for "Don Quixote" is well known. It was 
translated by him from a work published in 1778 at Madrid 
by don Juan Antonio Pellicer y Saforgada, one of the royal 
librarians, in a work entitled " Ensayo de una Bibliotheca 
de Traductores Espan'oles. Preceden varias Noticias 
Litterarias," 4to. The particulars being the result of re- 
search in the only quarters where information could be 
procured, seem more worthy of confidence than the con- 
jectures of some of Cervantes's earlier biographers, whose 
chief object seems to have, been to represent him as a man 
depressed and degraded by poverty or imprudence, and 
whose fate was a disgrace to his nation. It is necessary 
however to add that the above account was prefixed to the 
splendid edition of Don Quixote published by the Spanish 
academy about thirty years ago. From this M. Florian 

Vol. IX. E 


wrote a life prefixed to his translation of Cervantes*s ^^ Ga- 
latea," and added not a little of the marvellous when de- 
tailing Cervantes's adventures in captivity at Algiers. Flo- 
rian's account was translated into English by a Mr. Wil- 
liam Walbeck, and published at Leeds in 1785, 12mo. 
Dr. Smollett has made a very interesting story in his life of 
Cervantes, but wanting the accurate information which has 
lately been recovered, he too hastily adopts the commoii 
opinions, and presents an almost unvaried detail of miseries 
and poverty. Cervantes's own account of his person is the 
following : "His visage was sharp and aquiline, his hair 
of a chesnut colour, his forehead smooth and high, his 
hose bookish or hawkish,- bis eye brisk and chearful, his 
mouth little, his beard originally of a golden hue, his up- 
per lip furnished with large mustachios, his complexion 
fair, his stature of the middling size ;" and he adds, " that 
he was thick in the shoulders, and not very light of foot." 

Of all Cervantes's writings his " Don Quixote'* is that 
only which now is entitled to much attention, although 
some of his " Novels" are elegant and interesting. But 
on his " Don Quixote" his fame will probably rest as long 
as a taste for genuine humour can be found. It ought 
also, says ah elegant modern critic, to be considered as a 
most useful performance,^ that brought about a great re- 
volution in the uianners and literature of Europe, by ba- 
nishing the wild dreams of chivalry, and reviving a tast^ 
for the simplicity of nature. In this view, the publication 
of Don Quixote forms an important era in the history of 
mankind. Don Quixote is represented as' a man, whom it 
is impossible not to esteem for his cultivated understanding, 
and the goodness of his heart ; but who, by poring nighty 
and day upon old romances, had impaired his reason ta 
such a degree, as to mistake them for history, and form 
the design of traversing the world, in the character, and 
with the accoutrements, of a knight-errant. His distem- 
pered fancy takes the most comnwn. occurrences for ad- 
ventures similar to those he had read in his books of chi- 
valry. And thus, the extravagance of these books being 
placed, as it were, in the same groupe with the appear- 
ances of nature titid the real business of life, the hideous 
disproportion of the former becomes so glaring by the 
contrast, that the most inattentive reader cannot fail to be 
Struck with it. The person, the pretensions, and the ex- 
ploits, of the errant-ktiight, are held up to view in a thoa« 


sand ridiculous attitudes. In a word, the humour and sa- 
tire are irresistible ; and their effects were instantaneous; 
This work nd sooner appeared than chivalry vanished/ 
Mankind awoke as from a dream. They laughed at them* 
selves for having been so long imposed on by absurdity ; 
and wondered they had not made the discovery sooner. 
They were astonished to find, that nature and good sense 
could yield a more exquisite entertainment than they had 
ever derived from the most sublime phrenzies of chivalry* 
This, however, was the case ; and that Don Quixote was 
more read, and more relished, than any other romance 
had ever been, we may infer from the sudden and powerful 
effects it produced on the sentiments of mankind, as well 
as from the declaration of the author* himself ; who tells 
Qs, that upwards of 12,000 copies of the first part (printed 
at Madrid in 1605} were circulated before the second could 
be ready for the press ; an amazing rapidity of sale, at a 
time when the readers and purchasers of books were but aa 
inconsiderable^ number compared to what they are in our 
days. <' The very children (says he) handle it, boys read 
it, men understand, and old people applaud the perfor* 
mance. It is no sooner laid down by one than another 
takes it upj some struggling, and some intreating, for a 
sight of it. In fine (continues he) this history is the most 
delightfpl, and the least prejudicial entertainment, that 
ever was seen ; for, in the whole book, there is -not the 
least shadow of a dishonourable word, nor one thought 
unworthy of a good catholic.*' Don Quixote occasioned 
the death of the old romance, and gave birth to the new.' 
Fiction from this time divested herself of her gigantic size, 
tremendous aspect, and frantic demeanour : and, descend- 
ing to the level of common life, conversed with man as hi»- 
equal, and as a polite and chearful companion. Not that 
every subsequent romance-writer adopted the plan, or the 
manner of Cervantes ; but it was from him they learned to 
avoid extravagance and to imitate nature. And now pro- 
bability was as much studied, as it had been formerly 

These sentiments, which we have adopted from Dr. 
Beattie*s ** dissertations," are the sentiments of sober 
criticism ; but those who have allowed their imaginations 
to be heated by a frequent perusal of Don Quixote, have 
not scrupled to attribute to Cervantes more serious pur- 
poses than he could possibly have h&d in contemplatioB. 

£ 3 



They have supposed that his object was to bring knigbt* 
errantry into ridicule, and they infer that he was -so suc- 
cessful as to banish knight-errantry from the nations of 
Europe. But no assumption can be worse founded than 
the existence of kfiight- errantry in Cervantes's time. No 
pian in all Europe at that time went about defending vir- 
gins, redressing grievances, and conquering whole armiei 
with the assistance of enchanters. Such imaginary beings^ 
^d events existed only in the old romances, which being 
the favourite reading in Spain, Cervantes very properly 
levelled his satire at them in the person of Don Quixote^ 
whom he describes as become \nsane by a constant perusal 
of them; and so far is he from insinuating that knight- 
errantry e^xisted, that he makes his hero the ridicule of 
every person he meets. Cervantes's sole purpose was to 
introduce a better style of writing for popular amusement, 
and he fully succeeded ; and we may say with Dr. Warton, 
how great musv be the native force of Cervantes's huUiour, 
when it can be rejished by readers even unacquainted with 
Spanish manners, with the institution of chivalry, and with 
the many passages of old romances, and Italian poems, to 
which it perpetually alludes ! The great art, says the 
same critic, of Cervantes, consists in having painted his 
mad hero with such a number of amiable qualities, as to 
make, it impossible for us totally, to despise him.. This 
light and shade in drawing characters, shews the master. 
It is thus that Addison has represented his sir Roger de 
Coverley, and Shakspeare his Falstaff. We know not, how- 
ever, how to applaud what Dr. Warton calls a striking pro- 
priety in the madness of Don Quixote, " not frequently 
taken notice of," namely, his time of life. Thuanus in- 
forms us that madness is a common disorder among the 
Spaniards at the latter part of life, about the age in which 
the knight is represented. Without resting on this asser- 
tion, for whi^h we know no better authority than the " Per- 
roniana et Thuana," we conceive it highly probable that 
Cervantes made, bis hero elderly, that his pretended vigour 
of arm, and above all, his love addresses, might appear 
more ridiculous. We adopt with more satisfaction a sen- 
timent of the late Mr. Owen Cambridge, in the preface to 
bis *' Scribleriad," because it exalts Cervantes's great work 
to that superiority of rank, as a mock-heroic, to which it 
seema justly entitled, and in which it is likely to remain 
-undisturbed. Mr. Cambridge says, that in reading the 


four celebrated mock-heroic poems, the Lutrin, Dispen- 
sary, Rape of the Lock, and Dunciad, he perceived they 
had all some radical defect; but at last be found, by ^ 
diligent perusal of Don Quixote, that propriety was the 
fundamental excellence of that work; that all the mar- 
vellous was reconcileable to probability, as the author 
leads his hero into that species of absurdity only, which 
it was natural for an imagination heated with the con- 
tinual reading of books of chivalry, to fall into ; and that 
the want of attention to this was the fundamental error of 
those poems above mentioned. 

The editions of Don Quixote have been so many as to 
render it impossible to give a correct list ; nor of a work so 
easily accessible, is it, perhaps, necessary. The English 
public have been long familiarized with it in the transla- 
tions of Jarvis and Smollett, the comparative merits of 
which are so admirably adjusted in the late lord Wood- 
houselee^s Essay on Translation, The French have also 
good translations. 

Mr. D'lsraeli, in his^ " Curiosities of Literature," haa 
published an anecdote from the " Segraisiana," which 
seems to have escaped the biographers of Cervantes. ** M, 
du Boulay accompanied the French ambassador to Spain 
when Cervantes was yet alive. He has told me, that the 
ambassador one day complimented Cervantes on the great- 
reputation he had acquired by his Don Quixote ; and that 
Cervantes whispered in his ear, " Had it not been for tlie 
Inquisition, I should have made my book much more en- 
tertaining." In what manner he would have done so it 
would be useless to conjecture. 

The last act of Cervantes's life was to write a dedication 
of bis novel of ^^ Persilas and Sigismunda" to his patron, 
the count of Lemos. As this appeared in the last edition 
of this Dictionary, and illustrates in some respect the cha- 
racter of the writer, we shall conclude this sketch with it. 

^' There is an old ballad, which in its day was much in 
vogue, and it began thus : ^ And now with one foot in the 
stirrup,' &c. I could wish this did not fall so pat to my 
epistle, for I can almost say in the same words, 

' And now with one foot in the stirrup. 

Setting out for the regions of death. 
To write this epistle I chear up. 

And salute my lord with my last breath.' 

Yesterday they gave me the extreme unction, and to-day' 



I write ibis. Time is short, pains increase, hopes di«* 
minish ; and yet, for all this, I would live a little longer, 
methinks, not for the sake of living, but that I might 
kiss your excellency's feet ; and it is not impossible but 
the pleasure of seeing your excellency safe and well in 
Spain might make me well too. But, if I am decreed to 
die, heayen's will be done : your excellency will at least 
give me leave to inform you of this 'my desire ; and like- 
wise that you had in me so zealous and well-affected a 
servant as was willing to go even beyond death to serve 
you, if it had been possible for his abilities to equal his 
sincerity. However, I prophetically rejoice at your ex- 
cellency's arrival again in Spain ; my heart leaps within 
me to fancy you shewn to one anodier by the people, 
* There goes the Cond^ de Lemos !' and it revives my 
spirits to see the accomplishment of those hopes which I 
have so long conceived of your excellency's perfections. 
There are still remaining in my soul certain glimmerings 
of * The Weeks of Garden,' and of the famous Bernardo. 
If by good luck, or rather by a miracle, heaven spares my 
life, your excellency shall see them both, and with them 
the * second part* of * Galatea,' which I know your ex- 
cellency would not be ill-pleased to see. And so I con- 
clude with my ardent wishes, that the Almighty will pre- 
serve your excellency. 

Your excellency's servant, 
Madrid, Jpril 19, 1616. Michael de Cervantes."* 

CERUTI (Frederick), a learned philologist, was born 
at Verona in 1541, and was brought to France in his in- 
fancy, by John Fregosa, bishop of Agen : here he was 
educated, and for some time served in the army, after 
which his patron sent him to Rome, with a view to the ec- 
clesiastical life. Ceruti, however, being disinclined to 
this, returned to his native country, and married. He 
afterwards opened a school at Verona, in which he had 
great success, and along with Guarinoni was at the head 
of the academy of the Moderati. In 1585 he published an 
edition of Horace at Verona, with a paraphrase, 4to, and 
in 1597 an edition of Juvenal and Persius, 4ta He also 
wrote commentaries on some parts of Cicero, and on the 
Georgics of Virgil, but it does not appear that they were 

1 Life as aboTe.*»-Ditto by Smollett. — Beattie'i Dissertations, p. 562.— -War* 
tea's Essay on Pope.— Saxii Onomasticon. 

C E R U T L 95 

printed. Hid other published works are, two Letters in 
the '* Amphotides Scioppiana ;'' a ^* Dialogus de Co* 
inoBdia,*' Verona, 1593, 8vo; another, " De recta ado* 
lescentulorum institutione,'' and a collection of Latin 
poems in 1584. He died in 1579.^ 

CERUTTI (Joseph Anthony Joachim), a French poet 
and miscellaneous writer, was bom at Turin in 1738, and 
after being educated among the Jesuits, joined their order, 
and became professor of their college at Lyons. In 1761 
be gained two academical prizes at Toulouse and Dijon ; 
the subj^ect of the one was ^< Duelling," and the other an 
answer to the question " Why modern repubUcs have ac- 
quired less splendour than the ancient." This last, be- 
fore Cerutti was known as its author, was attributed to 
Rousseau* It was printed at the Hague in 1761, 8^o, 
and reprinted at Paris in 179U When the order of th(Q 
Jesuits was about to be abolished, Cerutti wrote in their 
defence ** L'Apologie de Pinstitut des Jesuites,'* 1762,. 
two parts, 8vo, the materials being furnished by the two 
Jesuits Menoux and GrifFet. Some time after, he was 
obliged to appear before the procurator-general of the 
parliament of Paris, to abjure the order which he had de- 
fended. It is said that after he had taken the prescribed oath, 
he asked if there was any thing to subscribe, to which the 
magistrate answered, " Yes, the Alcoran." His " Apo-. 
logy," however, was much admired, and recommended 
him to the Dauphin, who welcomed him. to court* Here 
be contracted an unhappy and violent passion for a lady 
of the first rank, which brought on a tedious illness, from 
which the friendship of the duchess of Brancas recovered 
him, and in her house at Fleville he found an^ honourable 
asylum for fifteen years. This lady, who appears to have 
been somewhat of the romantic kind, as soon as she re- 
ceived him into her house, put a ring on his fitiger, telling 
him that friendship had espoused merit When the revo- 
lution broke out, he came to Paris, and became a zealous 
partizan, and was much employed by Mirabeau in drawing 
up reports. His Memoir on patriotic contributions pro- 
cured him a place in the legislative body, but he died in 
1792, after which the municipality of Paris honoured him 
by giving his name to one of the new streets. Besides 
the works already mentioned, he published 1. <^ L'Aigle 

* itforeri. 

66 C E R U T T L 

0t le hibou," an apologue in verse, Glasgow and Paris^ 
1783. 2. ** Recueil de quelques pieces de literature en 
prose et en vers," ibid. 1784. The best of these is a dis- 
sertation on antique monuments, occasioned by some 
Greek verses discovered on a tomb at Naples, in 1756. 

3. " Les Jardins de Betz," a descriptive poem, 1792, 8vo. 

4. '^ Lettre sur les avantages 6t I'origine de la gaiet^ 
Franjaise," Lyons, 1761, 12mo ; Paris, 1792, 8vo. 5. 
An essay On the question " Combien un esprit trop subtit 
ressemble a un esprit faux," 1750, 8vo. 6. "Les vrais 
plaisirs ne sont faits que pour la vertu," 1761, 4to. These 
two last were honoured with the academical prizes of 
Montauban. 7. ** Pourquoi les arts utiles ne sont-ils pas 
cultiv^s preferablement aux arts agr^ables," 1761, 4to. 

8. " Sur I'origine et les efFets du desir de transmettre son 
Bom a la posterity," Hague, 1761, 8vo ; Paris, 1792, 8vo: 

9. " Traduction libre de trois odes d'Horace," 1789. 10. 
** De I'interet d'un ouvrage dans le sujet, le plan, et le 
style," Paris, 1763, 8v6. Besides these, he published 
some tracts on the subjects which arose out of the revolu- 
tion, and was joint editor with Rabaut de St Etiehne, of 
the ** Feuille villageoise," a paper calculated to spread the 
^evolutionary delusions among the country people, but his 
style was not sufficiently simple and popular. In 1793, a 
(Collection of his works was published in an 8vo volume. 
Those which are on subjects of literature are ingenious 
and interesting, but as a poet he cannot be allowed to rank 
high. ^ 

CESARINI (ViRGiNio), a very accomplished Italian 
scholar, was born at Rome in Oct. 1595, the son of Julian 
Cesarini, duke of Citta Nuova, and of Li via Ursini.^ Such 
was his application to study, that at an age when most 
scholars are but beginning, he was acquainted with lan- 
guages, philosophy, theology, law, medicine, mathematics, 
and sacred and profane history. Cardinal Bellarmin com- 
pared him in knowledge, personal character, and accom** 
plistments, to Eicus de Mirandula, and such was the ge- 
neral esteem in which' he was held, ihat a medal was struck 
with the heads of Cesarini and Picus crowned with laurel, 
and on the reverse two phenixes. His modesty and pro- 
bity were not less conspicuous than his learning. Pope 
yrban VIIL intended to have made him a cardinal, but he 

> Diet Hist. 

C E S A R I N I. 57 

died in the flower of his age, in 1624, then a member of 
the academy of the Lyncei. His Latin' and Italiran poems 
were printed in the collection entitled ** Septem illustrium 
virorum poemata," Aiitwerp, 1662, 8vo, and since re- 
printed. He wrote also a treatise against astrology, and 
on other subjects, which have not been published. Au- 
gustin Favoriti, secretary of the college of cardinals, wrote 
his life in Latin, which is in the ^^ Miemoria philosophorum, 
&c. curante Henningo Witteri, decas prima," Francfort, 
1677, 8vo. Bianchi also, in his account of the academi- 
cians of the Lyncei, Milan, 1741', notices Cesarini. * 

CESI (Bartholomew), an artist bprn in 1556, was one 
of the masters whose principles were respected by the 
school of the Caracci. From him Tiarini learnt the prac- 
tice of fresco; his works contain the germ of GuidoV 
elegance. Indeed they are not easily distinguished from 
Guidons earlier* performances. He seldom dares ; follows 
nature, fond of her best forms, and as shy to supply her 
with ideal ones ; his draperies are broad, his attitudes con* 
siderate ; his tints have more suavity than strength. Such 
are the altar-pieces at S. Jacopo and at S» Martino, works 
which Guido is said to have often spent whole hours in 
con teni^ plating. In fresco he is more vigorous, and treats 
copious subjects with equal judgment, variety, and power 
of execution ; thus he treated the History of ^Eneas, in 
the palace Favi, and with still greater felicity the Transac- 
tions of Clement VIII. on the arch of Forli, which, though 
exposed to the air for so many years, retains all the vi- 
vacity of its tints. He was esteemed by the Caracci, and 
generally loved by the professors for his honesty of cha- 
racter and attachment' tQ the art. To his exertions chiefly 
is ascribed the secession, of the painters in 1595, from 
cutlers, chasers, and sadlers, with whom they had been 
incorporated for some centuries. And though at the for- 
mation of their, new society he could not rid them of the 
cotton -workers' body (Bambagiai), he established their 
precedence and superiority of rank. Cesi died in 1627.' 

CESPEDES (Paul), a painter of Cordova, acquired 
fame in the sixteenth century, both in Spain and Italy. 
His manner approaches' somewhat to that of Correggio; 
the same exactness in the drawing, the same force in the 
expression, the same vigour in the colouring. It is im- 

' MorarU^-Saiiiet Jusemens.— ErythneiPiaacothtfca.^ * Pilkington, 


possible to contemplate without eiootton hlfl picture of the 
Last Supper in the cathedral of Cordova ; where each of. 
the apostles presents a different character of respect and 
afiection for their master ; the Christ displays at once an^ 
air ^f majesty and kindness ; and the Judas a false and 
malignant countenance. The talents of Cespedes were 
not confined to painting, if we may trust the enthusiasui 
of the Spanish authors in his behalf ; he was at the same 
time philosopher, antiquary, sculptor, architect ; an adept 
in the Hebrew, Greek, Latin, Arabic, and Italian lan- 
guages, a great poet, and a prolific author. He died in 
1608, aged upwards of seventy. ' 

CHABANON ( D£), a French writer of eminence 

in polite literature, is said to have been born in America^ 
of French parents, in 1730, and died in Paris July 12^ 
1792, but our only authority does not give his Christian 
same, nor have we been able to discover it in any of the 
French catalogues. He was a member of the French 
academy, and of that of the belles-lettres, a dramatic au- 
thor, an indifferent poet, but much esteemed for his 
writings respecting criticism and elegant literature. Hi9 
principal works are: 1. <^ Eponine/^ a tragedy, 1762^ 
which did not succeed. 2. ^^ Eioge de Rameau,'^ 1764^ 
8vo. 8. '^ Sur le sort de la poesie, en ce siecle philo* 
sophe, avec un dissertation sur Homere,'' 176^,' Svo. 4. 
'* Euxodie,^' a tragedy, 1769, 12mo. 5. <^ Discours sur 
Pindar,^' with a translation of some of bis odes, 1769, 8vo. 
6. *^ Les Odes Pithiques de Pindare,^* translated, with 
notes, 1771, Svo. This, in the opinion of Voltaire, is an 
excellent translation. 7. "Vie de Dant^," 1775, Svo. 

8. " Sabinus,*' a lyric tragedy, but unsuccessful, 1775. 

9. '^ Epitre sur la manie des jardins Anglois,^' 1775, 8vo* 
The design of this is to modify, or rather to attack the 
principle that engages many to respect all the caprices of 
nature, and to shew that this principle, or at least its un- 
restrained application, may be prejudicial to the arts, but 
he displays more ingenuity than taste in this discussion. 

10. " Jdylles de Theocrite,*' a new translation, 1777, Svo. 
The most valuable part of this volume is a judicious and 
elegant essay on the Bucolic poiets, in which, however^ 
be is thought to treat Fontenelle and madame Deshoulieres 
with too much severity. 11. << Vers sur Voltaire,*' 1778^ 

1 Pilkmgtoii.-»CttmberUiid'i Spanish Painters* 


8vo. 12. ^' De la Musique consider^e en elle meme, et 
dans ses rapports avec la parole, les langues, la poesie, et la 
theatre/' 1788, 2 vols. 8vo. The first voiume, if we mistake 
not, was published in 11 S5. In this, says Dr« Burney, 
he discovers a refined taste, nice discernment, much me- 
ditation and knowledge of the subject, and an uncommon 
$pmt of investigati<M) ; and although Dr. Bqmey's senti*- 
ments are not always in unison with the opinions and rea- 
soning of M. de Cbabanon, yet there are such enlarged 
views and luminous and elegant observations in analysing 
the sensations which music excites, in assigning reasons 
for the pleasures which this art communicates to ears that 
vibrate true to musical intervals and concordant sounds^ 
that he thinks its perusal will generate reflections on the 
art, and set the mind of a musician at work, who had 
never before regarded music but as a mere object of sense. 
This book was written in the midst of the war of musical 
opinions between the Gluckists and Piccinists. The author 
is said to have been not only an exciellent judge of instru- 
mental composition and performance, but among dilettanti 
ranked high as a performer on the violin. 13. The ^^ Dis- 
course' he pronounced on his admission into the academy 
Jan. 20, 1780, 4to. In 1795 was published from his ma- 
nuscript, ^' Tableau de quelques circonstances de ma vie,'* 
8fo, containing a faithful but not very pleasing disclosure 
of his conduct and sentiments. It appears that in his 
youth he was a devoty as serious as madame Guyon, but 
that afterwards he went into the other extreme, no uncom- 
mon transition with his countrymen. ' 

CHABOT (Peier Walter), a learned philologer, 
was born at Sainloup in Poitou, in 1516, and studied the 
Latin tongue at Sainloup, and afterwards went to Poitiers, 
at twenty -tour years of age, to study the Greek there ; 
bat he was soon recalled from thence, to teach youth in 
his native place. He taught there six years, after which 
he went to Paris, and went through a course of philoso- 
phical studies under Omer and Talon, in the college de 
PrSle. Having spent three years and a half in study, he 
took his degree of M. A. and professed teaching. The 
children of several persons of distinction were com- 
mitted to his care ; and he acquired so much reputation as 

* Diet Hist— Dr. Buniey, in Rees's Cyclopiedia, who by mistake says Cha* 
kanoB died io 1800.— Month. Rev. See Index. 

60 C H A EOT. 

a preceptor; that chancellor de l'H6pital resolved to en* 
gage him to live at his seat in the country, to teach his 
grandsons. He got Peter Ramus and John Mercier, the 
regius professors^ to- make proposals to him. Chabot ac- 
cepted them, and lived twelve years in the chancellor's 
family, viz, five years before the chancellor died, and 
seven years after. His chief work was a Commentary on 
Horace, on which he exhausted all the fruits of his studies^ 
He was a man of great regularity in life and manners, and 
submitted three times, with great patience, to the plunder 
of his effects during the civil wars. He died of an ad- 
Tanced age, about 1597. He is said to have been once 
professor in the university of Paris, which Bayle doubts, 
but Freher seems to confirm it. His commentary on Ho- 
race was printed 1615, fol. according to Bayle. Dr. Clarke 
mentions an 8vo, Paris, 1582, and says it is a very rare 
edition, but this appears to be an abridgment of the larger 

CHABRIT (Peter), member of the supreme council 
6f Bouillon, and advocate in the parliament of Paris, died 
in that capitol in 1785. Born to no fortune, his days were 
shortened by diiBculties and cares. His works give proof 
of considerable talents, and his manners are said to have 
attracted universal esteem. His book entitled " Of the 
French monarchy and its laws," 1785, 2 Vols. 12mo, dis- 
plays a novelty in the design, and a variety of knowledge 
in the execution. He is thosght to have taken Montes- 
quieu for his model, whose energy and precFsion he copies, 
as well as his dryness. He obtained in 1732 the prize of 
the French academy for the encouragement of literature. 
Diderot proposed him to Catherine H. of Russia as a proper 
person to assist her in her new code of laws, and as one 
profoundly verjsed in the subject, but Chabrit died before 
her imperial majesty returned an answer. ' 

CHADERTON (Laurence), first master of Emanuel- 
college, Cambridge, and a benefactor to that house, was 
born of an ancient family at Chatterton, in Lancashire, ia 
1546. His parents were papists, and educated him in that 
religion, sending him afterwards to study law in one of the 
inns of court, but in the twentieth year of his age, he re- 
nounced this pursuit, and went to Cambridge, where his- 
talents and industry recommended him to a scholarship in 

» Gen. Diet.— Fietteri Theatrum* « Diet. Hist^ 

<; H A D E R T O N. 61 

.Christ^ s-college. His father, enrag^ed at this, sent him a 
bag with a groat in it, and told him he might beg, as he 
meant to disinherit him, and afterwards executed his threat. 
Young Cbaderton, however, persisted in his studies, and 
in 1567, when B.A., was chosen fellow of his college. In 
1578 he commenced B. D. an4 in the same year preached 
a sermon at St. Paul's cross, which he afterwards printed. 
He was then chosen lecturer of St. Clement's churchy 
Cambridge, where he preached for about sixteen years, 
much followed and admired. Such was his reputation foe 
learning and piety, that when sir Walter Mildmay re- 
founded Emanuel college, in 1584, he chose Chadertoa 
for the first master, and on his expressing some reluctance* 
declared that if Chaderton would not be master, the foun- 
dation should not go on. In the beginning of the reiga 
of James I. he was one of the four divines for the con- 
fereuce at Hampton-court, and the same year was chosea 
one of the translators of the Bible, and was gne of the 
Cambridge divines who translated from Chronicles to Can- 
tides inclusive. In 1612, when the prince elector palatine 
visited Cambridge, he requested Mr. Chaderton to com- 
mence D. D. with which he complied ; and having regretted 
that the founder of Emanuel had provided for only three 
fellows, he made such application among his friends, as to 
make provision for twelve fellows, and above forty scholars, 
anJ procured some church livings for the college. To- 
wards the close of his life, when Arminian doctrines be- 
came prevalent, dreading lest he might have an Arminiaa 
successor, he resigned in favour of Dr. Preston, but sur- 
vived him, and lived also to see Drs. Bancroft and Holds- 
worth masters. He was a man of acknowledged piety, 
benevolence, and learning, and lived in great respect for 
many years after his resignation. He died Nov. 1640, 
aged about ninety-four, and was buried in St. Andrew'<« 
ichurch. He appears to have been related to Dr. William 
Chaderton, successively bishop of Chester and Lincoln, 
of whom some account is given by Peck in the preface to 
his ". Desiderata." Besides the sermon noticed above, 
Pr. L. Chaderton wrote a treatise on Justification, "which 
Anthony Thysius, professor of divinity at Leyden, pub- 
lished with other tracts on the same subject; and some of 
his MSS. are still in the public libraries, particularly in 
the Brit, Mus. among the Harleian MSS. Moreri says his 


** Life** was published by William Dillingham, at Cam«* 
bridge, in 1700, but this we have not seen.* 

CHADUC (Lewis), an able antiquary, was of a good 
family of Riom, in Auvergnjg, where he was born, in 1564. 
and was educated at Bourges for five years, under the eel 
lebrated Cujas. On his return to Riom, he was in 1594 
made a counsellor of the presidial, and discharged the du* 
ties of that office with great ability and integrity for the 
space of forty-four years. During this time he found lei- 
sure to improve his knowledge of antiquities, and accumu- 
lated a large library, and many series of medals. In order 
to gratify his curiosity more completely, he took a journey 
to Italy, and visited at Rome all the valuable remains of 
antiquity, receiving great kindness from the literati of that 
place, and particularly from cardinal Bellarmin. From^ 
this tour he brought home many curious MSS. scarce 
books, medals, antique marbles, and above two thousand 
gems, which rendered his collection one of the most va- 
luable then in France. After his return he caused all these 
gems to be engraven on copper-plate, ranging theia 
under fifteen classes, of which he made as many chapters 
of explanation, but the bad state of his health during his 
latter years prevented his publishing this curious work. 
He also wrote a treatise " De Annulis," which he modestly 
withheld from the press on hearing that Kirchman, a Ger- 
man antiquary, had published on the same subject. Noi;- 
withstanding his not appearing in print, he was well known 
to the learned of his time, and held a correspondence with 
most of them. Savaro, in his Commentary upon Sidonius 
Apollinaris, and Tristan, in his ^' Historical Commenta- 
ries," speak highly of him, nor was he less esteemed by 
Bignon, Petau, and Sirmond. He died at Riom, Sept. 19, 
1638, of a sickness which lasted two years, almost with- 
out any interruption. His heirs sent all his curiosities to 
Paris, where they were purchased by the president de 
Mesmes, who gave them to the duke of Orleans, And firom 
him they passed to the royal cabinet. * 

CHAIS (Charles), an eminent protestant divine, wad 
borri in 1701, at Geneva, where he probably received the 
first rudiments of education. The church being chosen 
for bis profession, after passing through the usual proba- 
tionary exercises, he was admitted into the order of priest- 

1 Clarke's Lives.— Fuller's Worthhis.— Strypc's Wbitgift, p. 435, 474, and 
Appendix, p. 155-6^— Moreri, « Memoirs ci« TreTOuz, March 1721. 

C H A I 9. 6S 

hood. In the ministry his reputation as a preacher and an 
orator soon became so popular and extensive, that in 172S 
be was elected pastor at the Hague, and his conduct in 
this establishment, while it contributed to his own reputa- 
tion, redounded no less to the honour of those who had 
appointed him. Having adorned his ministry by the purity 
of his manners, the excellence of the discourses which he 
delivered from the pulpit, and bis numerous writings in 
defence of revealed religion, he died in 1786, at the age 
of eighty-five, after having punctually discharged his 
duty as a pastor during the period of fifity-eight years. 
I'he unfortunate supported by his consolation, the 
youth enlightened by his instructions, and the poor 
succoured by his charity, lamenting the loss which they 
had sustained by the death of a benefactor and a friend, 
proved more eloquent attestations of bis merit, than any 
panegyric which might have been pronounced by the most 
sublime orator. His sermons were distinguished by a per- 
spicuous style and a pure morality. They seemed to flovr 
not only from a man who practised what he taught, but 
from one who, acquainted with the inmost recesses of the 
human heart, could exert his eloquence to win his hearers 
to the interests of virtue and religion. His portrait, which 
is prefixed to his translation of the Holy Bible, seems to 
confirm the relation of his friends, who say that his coun* 
tenance was interesting and attractive. In his manners h6 
was pcrlite and attentive ; in his address mild and insi- 
nuating. His literary excellence consisted in a judicious 
and happy arrangement of his subjects, delivered in a plain 
and unaffected style. He made no pretensions to origi- 
nality, but he illustrated the works of other writers, by 
introducing then! to his countrymen in a language that was 
more familiar to them. 

His works were : 1., ** La Sainte Bible, avec un com- 
mentaire literal & des notes choisies, tiroes de divers au- 
teurs Anglois," printed at the Hague. * The publication 
of this work was begun in 1742, and continued till 1777, 
forming 6 vols, in 4to. The 7th volume was left by ;the 
author in MS. and published in 1790, by Dr. Maclaine, 
who wrote also the preliminary dissertations. This volume 
completes the historical books of the Old Testament. 2. '^ Le 
sens literal de Tecriture sainte traduit de PAnglois de Stack- 
house," ibid. 17^1, 3 vols. 8vo. 3. " Lettres historiques 
•t dogmatiques sur les Jubil6s/' ibid. 17 50, 1751, 3 torn. 

64 C H A I & 

8vo. 4. "Theologie de I'ecriture S. ou la Science cki 
iSalut, comprise dans une ample collection de passa^s 
du V. & N. Testament," ibid. 1752, 2 torn. 8vo. 5. " Ks- 
sai apologetique sur T Inoculation," ibid. 1755 ; and several 
volumes of " Sermons." Besides these works, he super-^ 
•intended the publication of Hainault's History of France, 
which was published at the Hague in 1747, 8vo. He was 
besides engaged as a writer in the *^ Bibliotheque Histo- 
rique," which was begun at the Hague in 1738, and also 
contributed some articles in the " Bibliotheque des sci- 
ences et beaux arts."* 

CHAISE (Francis de la), a Jesuit of uncommon abili- 
ties, and confessor to Lewis XIV. was born in the chateau 
of Aix, in 1624, of an ancient but reduced family. He 
gave early indications of' talents when at school, and per- 
formed his philosophical exercises under father de Vaux, 
who was afterwards advanced to the highest employments in 
his order. When he was arrived at ^ proper age, he was 
ordained priest ; and became afterwards professor of divi-- 
nity in the province of Lyons, and rector and provincial of 
a college there. He spent at several seasons a good deal 
of time in Paris, where his great address, his wit, and love, 
of letters, made him almost qniversally known : and in 
1663, the bishop of Bayeux introduced him to cardinal 
.Mazarine, who- shewed him many marks of favour, an^l 
ojflFered him his patronage. In 1665, he presented la 
Chaise to the king, as a person of whose great abilities 
and merit he was well convinced, and afterwards got him 
admitted into the council of conscience, which indeed was 
no less than to make him coadjutor to the confessor, and 
when the cardinal died, he was made, in 1675, confessor 
to the king ; and about ten years after, was the principal 
adviser and director of his marriage with m.adame de Main- 
tenon. The king was then arrived pt an age when confes- 
sors have more than an ordinary influence : and la Chaise 
.found himself a itiinister of state, without expecting^ and 
almost before he perceived it. He did business regularly 
with the king, and immediately saw all the lords and all 
tbe prelates at his feet. He had made himself a master ia 
the affairs of the church ; which, by the disputes that cftea 
arose between the courts of France and Rome> were h^ 
come affairs of state. 

1 From tbe preceding^ edit, of this Diet. — Life by Dr. Maclaiae» 


Yet, in spite of all his address and the influence which 
lie had gained ov^er the king, he was sometimes out of 
favour with his master, and in danger of being disgraced. 
I'rovoked at the ill success of the affair concerning th« 
electorate of Cologu in 1689, the king shewed his displea<^ 
sure to the confessor, by whose counsels he had been in- 
fluenced. La Chaise excused himself, by laying the blame 
upon the marquis de Louvois ; but the king told him with 
some indignation, ^' that an enterprise suggested by Jesuits 
had never succeeded ; and that it would be better if they 
would confine themselves to teaching their scholars, and 
sever presunae to meddle in affairs of state.'* La Chaise 
was very solicitous to establish an interest with madame de 
JMaintenon ; but does not appear to have done it effectuv- 
ally, till that favourite found herself unable, by all her 
intrigues and contrivances, to remove him from the plac6 
of confessor. The Jesuit, it has been said, had not reli^ 
gion enough for this devout lady. He loved pleasure^ 
had a taste for magnificence, and was thpught too luke- 
warm in the care of his master's conscience. The jealousy 
and dislike with which she regarded him were ejspressed in 
her letters ; but her unfavourable representations of his 
temper and character were counteracted by those of the 
duke of St. Simon, who describes him as mild and mode- 
tate, humane a^d modest, possessed of honour and pro- 
bity, and though much attached to his family, perfectly 
disinterested. La Chaise died Jan. 1709, and possessed 
to the very last so great a share of favour and esteem with 
the king, that his majesty consulted him upon his cieath- 
bed about the choice of bis successor. ^ 

CHALCIDIUS was a Platonic philosopher, concerning 
whose history ecclesiastical writers are much . divided ; 
Cave, Hody, Beausobre^ and Lardner, have examined all 
the evidence they could find without coming to a conclu- 
sion, nor does it appear from his writings whether he was 
a Christian or a Gentile. It is supposed that he flourished 
^bout the year 330. He translated into Latin the former 
part of the Timxus of Plato, with ia commentary, which 
afforded great scope for the speculations of the philoso- 
phers of the middle ages. . This was printed in Gn & Lat 
by Meursius at Leydenj 1617, 4to, and reprinted by Fa- 

» Diet. mt. 

Vol IX. F 


bricias in the second volume of his edition of the works of 
HyppoUtus, Hamburgh, 1718, foL' 

CHALCONDYLES (Demetrius), a native of Athens, 
of the fifteenth century, and the scholar of Theodore 
tjraza, was one of those Greeks who about the time of the 
taking of Constantinople went into the west. At the in- 
vitation of Lorenzo de Medici, he became professor of the 
Greek language at Florence in 1479; where he had for 
his rival Angelus Politianus, to whom Laurence had com- 
mitted the tuition of one of his sons. After the death of 
Laurence, Chalcondyles was invited to .Milan by Lewis 
Sfortia; which invitation he accepted, either because he 
was tired of contending with Politian, or because he was 
hurt with Politianus acknowledged superiority in Latin 
learning. Such is the usually-received account, which 
rests only on the authority of Paul Jovius, who was always 
hostile to the character of Politian ; but Mr. Roscoe in his 
life of Lorenzo has proved that the story is without foun^ 
dation. At Milan, however, Chalcondyles taught Greek 
a long time with great reputation ; and did not die before 
1510, when there is reason to think he was above 80 years 
of age. Among the learned Greeks whom pope Nicolas V. 
sent to Rome to translate the Greek authors into Latin, 
Chalcondyles was one ; from which we may collect, that 
he probably travelled into the west before the taking of 
Constantinople in 1453, since Nicolas died in 1455. He 
published a grammar, of which we shall presently take 
notice ; and under, his inspection and care was first pub- 
lished at Florence, in 1499, the Greek Lexicon of Suidas. 
Pierius Valerianus, in his book " De infelicitate literato- 
rum,'* says, that Chalcondyles, though a deserving man 
in his moral as well as literary character, led nevertheless 
a very unhappy life; and reckons perpetual banishment 
from his country among the chief of his misfortunes. 
Others have mentioned domestic evils that have attended 
him. The particulars of his life are very imperfectly 
given. Dr. Hody has probably collected all that now can 
be found, but he has merely given the notices from various 
authors, without attempting a regular narrative. Some 
have thought that he was at one time a printer, and that 
he printed the folio Homer of Florence, which goes by bis 
name, and which was executed in 148$; but this report 

» Cave. — Lardner's Works, vol. VIII. — Moreri,— Saxii Onomasticoa: 


iiodottbt arose from the care he took in correcting the 
press, as the printefs' names are given in that rare edition. 
The " domestic evils" above alluded to have a better foun* 
dation, as he was unhappy in his wife, whose chastity was 
suspected, and in his sons : Theophilus, the eldest, who 
taught Greek at Paris, was assassinated in the streets in a 
riotous sqnabble ; and two others, Saleucus and Basil, both 
of promising talents, died young. 

The " Erotema, sive Institutiones Grammaticae," of De- 
metrius Chalcondyles, is supposed to have been printed 
at Milan about the end of the fifteenth century. It is a 
quarto, of great rarity, without date. The second edi- 
tion of this " Greek Graminar" is that of Paris, 1525, 4to. * 
. CHALCONDYLES (Laonicus), was also a native of 
Athens, who flourished in the latter part of the fifteenth 
century, but nothing farther is known of his history, and 
bis name is perpetuated only by his work " De Origine eft 
rebus gesds Turcorum," Paris, 1650, fol. containing, iti 
ten books, a history of the Turks from 1298 to 1462. He 
describes the ruin of the empire of Constantinople, at)d at 
the end are the " Annates Sultanorum," translated into 
Latin by Leunclavius. There is a French translation of it 
by Blaise de Vignere, 1660, 2 vols. fol. continued by 
Mezerai and others. It is esteemed a work of consider- 
ible aathorhy. * * 


CHA LONER (Sir Thomas), a gallant soldier, an able 
statesman, and a very learned writer in the sixteenth cenr 
taiy, was descended from a good family in Wales, and 
born at London about 1515. His quick parts discovered 
tbemselves even in his infancy ; so that his family, to pro-* 
Biote that passionate desire of knowledge for which he was 
so early distinguished, sent him to the university of Cam* 
bridge, where he remained some years, and obtained great 
credit, as well by the pregnancy of his wit as his constant 
und diligent application, but especially by his happy turn 
for Latin poetry, in which he exceeded most of his con- 
temporaries. Upon his removing from college he cfeime 
up to court, and being there recommended to the esteeni 
and friendship of the greatest men about it, he was sooil 
sent abroad into Germany with sir Henry Knevet, as th6 

* Hodiufl de Grsects illastribus.-^Fabric. Bibl. Gnec^-^Roscoe's Lorenzo.** 
Iforeri. — Saxii Onomasticon. 
^ Moreri.'^Pict. Hist* 

F 2 

88 C a A L O N E it. 

custom was in the reign of Henry VIII. when yonng itten 
of great hopes were frequently employed in the service of 
ambassadors, that they might at once improve and polish 
themselves by travel, and gain some experience in busi- 
ness. He was so well received at the court of the emperor 
Charles Y. and so highly pleased with the noble and gene- 
rous spirit of that great monarch, that he attended him in 
his journies, and in his wars, particularly in that fatal ex- 
pedition against Algiers, which cost thejives of so many 
brave men, and was very near cutting short the thread of 
Mr. Chaloner's ; for in the great tempest by which the 
cmperor^s fleet was shattered on the coast of Barbary in 
1541, the vessel, on board of which be was, suffered ship- 
wreck, and Mr. Chaloner having quite wearied and ex- 
hausted himself by swimming in the dark, at length beat 
his head against a cable, of which laying hold with his 
teeth; he was providentially drawn up into the ship to which 
It belonged. He returned soon after into England, and as 
a reward of his learning and services, was promoted to the 
office of first clerk of the council, which he held during 
the remainder of that reign. In the beginning of the next 
he came into great favour with the duke of Somerset^ 
whom he attended into Scotland, and was in the battle of 
Mussleburgb, where he distinguished himself so remarka- 
bly in the presence of the duke, that he conferred upou 
him the honour of knighthood Sept. 23, 1547, and after 
his return to court, the duchess of Somerset presented 
him with a rich jewel. The first cloud that darkened iris 
patron's fortune, proved fatal to sir Thomas Chaloner's 
pretensions ; for being a man of a wartn and open temper, 
and conceiving the obligation he was under to the duke a^ 
a tie that hindered his making court to his adversary, a 
stop was put to his preferment, and a vigilant eye kept 
upon his actions. But his loyalty to his prince, and his 
exact discharge of his duty, secured him from any farther 
danger, so that he had leisure to apply himself to his 
studies, and to cultivate his acquaintance with the worthiest 
men of that court, particularly sir John Cheke, sir An- 
thony Coke, sir Thomas Smith, and especially sir William 
Cecily with whom he always lived in the strictest intimacy. 
Under the reign of queen Mary he passed his time, though 
safely, yet very unpleasantly ; for being a zealous protes- 
taut, he could not practise any part of that complaisance 
which procured some of his friends an easier life^ He 


interested himself deeply in the affair of sir John Cheke, 
and did him all the service he was able, both before and 
after his confinement. This had like to have brought sir 
Thomas himself into trouble, if the civilities he had shewa 
in king Edward's reign, to some of those who had the 
greatest power under queen Mary, had not moved them, 
from a principle of gratitude^ to protect him. Indeed, it 
appears from his writings, that as he was not only sincere, 
but happy in his friendships, and as he was never wanting 
to his friends when he had power, he never felt the want 
of them when he had it not, and, which he esteemed the 
greatest blessing of his life, he lived to return those kind- 
nesses to some who had been useful to him in that dan* 
gerous season. Upon the accession of Elizabeth, he ap- 
peared at court with his former lustre; and it must afford 
us a very high opinion of his character as well as his capa-» 
city, that he was the first ambassador named by that wise 
prinbess, and that also to the first prince in Europe, Fer* 
dinand I. emperor of Germany. In this negociation, which 
was of equal importance and delicacy, he acquitted him- 
self with great reputation, securing the confidisnce of the 
emperor and his ministers, and preventing the popish 
powers from associating against Elizabeth, before she 
was well settled on the throne, all which she very 
gratefully acknowledged. After his return from this em- 
bassy, he was very soon thought of for another, which was 
that of Spain ; and though it is certain the queen could 
not give a stronger proof than this of her confidence in 
his abilities, yet he was very f^r from thinking that it was 
{iny mark of her kindness, more especially considering the 
terms upon which she then stood with king Philip, and 
the usage hi$ predecessor, Chamberlain, had met with at 
that court. But he knew the queen would be obeyed, 
and therefore undertook the business with the best grace 
he could, and embarked for Spain in 1561, On his first 
arrival he met with some of the treatment which he dreaded. 
This was the searching of all his trunks and cabinets, of 
which he complained loudly, as equally injurious to him- 
self as a gentleman, and to bis character as a public mini- 
ster. His complaints, however, were fruitless ; for at that 
time there is great probability that his Catholic majesty 
was not over desirous of having an English minister, and 
Viore especially one of sir Thomas's disposition, at bis 
ICQQrt, aad therefore gave him no satisfaction. Upon thi^ 


sir Thomas Chaloner wrote home, set out the affront that 
he had received in the strongest terms possible, and was 
very earnest to be Ve-called : but the queen his mistress 
contented herself with letting him know, that it was the 
duty of every person who bore a public character, to bear^ 
with patience what happened to them, provided no per- 
sonal indignity was offered to the prince from whom they 
came. Yet, notwithstanding this seeming indifference on 
her part, the searching sir Thomas Chaloner's trunks was, 
many years afterwards, put into that public charge which 
the queen exhibited against his Catholic majesty, of inju- 
ries done to her before she intermeddled with the affairs of 
the Low Countries. Sir Thomas, however, kept up his 
spirit, and shewed the Spanish ministers, and even that 
haughty monarch himself, that the queen could not have 
entrusted her affairs in better hands than his. There were 
some persons of very good families in England, who, for 
the sake of their religion, and no doubt out of. regard to 
the interest to which they had devoted themselves, desired 
to have leave from queen Elizabeth to reside in the Low 
Countries or elsewhere, and king Philip and his ministers 
made it a point to support their suit. Upon this, when a 
conference was held with sir Thomas Chaloner, he an- 
swered very roundly, that the thing in itself was of very 
little importance, since it was no great matter where the 
persons who made this request spent the remainder of their 
days ; but that considering the rank and condition of the 
princes interested in this business, it was neither 6t for the 
one to ask, nor for the other to gratit ; and it appeared 
that he spoke the sense of his court, for queen E^lizabeth 
would never listen to the proposal. In other respects he 
was not unacceptable to the principal persons of the 
Spanish court, who could not help admiring his talents as 
a minister, his bravery as a soldier, with which in former 
times they were well acquainted, his general learning an4 
admirable skill in Latin poetry, of which he gave them 
many proofs during his stay in their country. It was here, 
at a time when, as himself says in the preface, he spent 
the winter in a stove, and the summer in a barn, that he 
composed his great work of " The right ordering of the 
English republic.'* But though this employment might in 
some measure alleviate his chagrin, yet he lell into a very 
grievous fit of sickness, which brought him so low that his 
physicians despaired of bis life. In this coadition he 


addressed his sovereign in an elegy after the manner of 
Ovid, setting forth his earnest desire to quit Spain and 
return to his native country, before care and sickness 
forced him upon a longer journey. The queen granted 
bis petition, and having named Dr. Man his successor in 
his negociation, at length gave him leave to return home 
irom an embassy, in which he had so long sacrificed his 
private quiet to the public conveniency. He accordingly 
returned to London in the latter end of 1564, and published 
the first five books of his large work before-mentioned, 
which he dedicated to his gpod friend sir William Cecil ; 
but the remaining five books were probably not published 
in bis life-time. He resided in a fair large house of his 
own building in Cierkenwell-close, over-against the de- 
cayed nunnery ; and Weever has preserved from oblivion 
an elegant fancy of his, which was penciled on the frontis^- 
piece of his dwelling*. He died Oct. 7, 1565, and was 
buried in the cathedral church of St. Paul with great fqneral 
solemnity, sir William Cecil, then principal secretary of 
state, assisting as chief mourner, who also honoured his 
memory with some Latin verses, in which he observes, 
that the most lively imagination, the most solid judgment, 
the quickest parts, and the mpst unblemished probity, 
which are commonly the lot of different men, and when so 
dispersed frequently create great characters, were, which 
very rarely happens, all united in sir Thomas Cbaloner, 
justly therefore reputed one of the greatest men of his 
time. He also encouraged Dr. William Malim, formerly 
fellow of King's college in Cambridge, and then master of 
St. PauPs school, to collect and publish a correct editioa 
ofour author's poetical works; which he accordingly did, 
and addressed it fn an epistle from St. Paul's school, dated 
August 1, 1579, to lord Burleigh. Sir Thomas Chaloner 
married Ethelreda, daughter of Edward Frodsham of Elton, 
in the county palatine of Chester, esq. by whom he had 
issue his onl}' son Thomas, the subject of the next article. 
This lady, not long after sir Thomas's decease, married 

^ The lines are these, evidently alluding to the ruiiis of the nunnery : 
Casta fideg superest, velatse lecta sorores 

Isla relegatae desernere licet : 
Nam venerandu'* Hymen, hic vota jupralia servat j 

Vci^talemque foctm mcnte fovere studet. 

'Tohtm also is ascribed the following line, under a sun-dial, at the eatraace 
iato tbe nunnery : 

Nod aliter pereo species quam futilis umbrse. 


sir * « * Brocketty notwithstanding which the lord Bui% 
leigh continued his kindness to her, out of respect to that 
friendship which he had for her first husband. Sir Tbo^ 
mas's epitaph was written by one of the best Latin poets of 
that age, Dr. Walter Haddon, master of requests to queec^ 

Sir Thomas was the author of several tracts, but all thaf^ 
can now be discovered are, 1. " A little Dictionary for 
children," mentioned by Bale. 2. " The Office of Ser- 
vants," translated froni the Latin of Gilbert Cognatus, 
1543. 3. " Mori® Encomium," translated frojn Erasmus^ 
and printed in 1549. 4. "In laudem Henrici Octavi,, 
regis Anglis praestantissimi, carmen panegyricum." 5. 
^ De Republica Anglorum instauranda, libri decem," Lon- 
dini, 1579, 4to. 6. *' De illustrium quorundam encomiis 
miscellanea, cum epigrammatibus ac epitapbiis nonnullis.** 
This collection of panegyrics, epigrams, and epitaphs^ is 
printed with the book before-mentioned. Besides these 
there are some of his letters in Haynes's Collection of 
State Papers. ^ 

CHALONER (Sir Thomas) the younger, the son of 
the former by his wife Ethelreda, daughter of Mr. Frod- 
sham of Elton in Cheshire, was born in 1559, and being 
very young at the time of his father's decease, and his 
mother soon after marrying a second husband, he owed his 
education chiefly to the care and protection of the lord^ 
treasurer Burleigh, by whom he was first put under the 
care of Dr. Malim, master of St. Paul's school, and after*- 
wards removed to Magdalen college in Oxford, where he 
closely pursued his studies at the time when his father's 
poetical works were published ; and as a proof of his vene- 
ration for his father's friend, and gratitude for the many 
kindnesses himself had received, he prefixed a dedication 
to this Work to his patron the lord Burleigh. He left the 
college before he took any degree, but not before he had 
acquired a great reputation for parts and learning. He 
had, like his father, a great talent for poetry, which he 
wrote witl) niupl^ facility both in English and in Latin, but 
it does not appear that he published any thing before he 
left England, which was probably about the year 1580, 
He visited several parts of Europe, but made the longest 
«t^y in Italy, fpcmed an acquaint^ance with the gravest aod 

1 Biojj. Brit.. 

C H A L O N'E R. 


> * 

wisest men in that country, who very readily imparted to 
him their most important discoveries in natural philosophy, 
which he had studied virith much diligence ■ and attention^ 
At his return home, which was some time before 1584, he 
appeared very much at court^ and ttras esteemed by the 
greatest men there, on account of his great learning 
and manners. About this time he married his first 
wife, the daughter of his father's old friend sir William 
Fleetwood, recorder of London, by whom he had several 
children. In the year 1591 he had the honour of knight- 
hood conferred uppn him, as well in regard to bis own per^ 
sonal merit as the great services of his father ; and some 
years after, the first alum mines that were ever known to 
be in this kingdom, were discovered, by his great sagacity, 
not far from Gisborough in Yorkshire, wHere he had an 
estate*. In the latter end of queen Elizabeth's reign, sir 
Thomas Chaloner made a journey into Scotland, whether . 
out of curiosity, with a view to preferment, or by the 
direction of sir Robert Cecil, afterwards earl of Salisbury, 
who was his great friend, is uncertain; but he soon grew 
into such credit with king James, that the mbst consider-* 
able persotis in England addressed themselves to him for 
his favour and recommendation. Amongst the rest, sir 
Francis Bacon, afterwards chancellor, wrote him a very 
warm letter, which is still extant, which he sent him by his 
friend Mr. Matthews, who ' ^as also charged with another 
to the king ; a copy of which was sent to sir Thomas Cha- 
loner, and Mr. Matthews was directed to deliver him the 
original, if he would .undertake to present it He accom-« 

^ The time when this discovery was 
made is not fixed \ but from a com- 
parison of circumstances it appears to 
liave been about 1600, or perhaps 
a little earlier. Very ooosiderable 
sums of money were spent before the 
project was brought to bear; which 
probably was owing t(5 the difference 
•of cUmateSj and that different manner 
ef working, which this rendered neces- 
ury. But at length, by the bringing 
V^ privately Lan^ert Russell, a 
Walloon, and two other workmen, 
employed in this business at Rochelle 
Jo France, the matter was completed, 
, but very little to the profit of the pro- 
prietors, since upon this it was ad- 
judged to be a mine royal, 9Dd se 

came into the kands of the ^^rown. ft 
was then granted to sir Paul. Pindar, 
under the following rent, viz. twelve 
thousand five hundred pounds a year 
to the king, one thousand six hundred 
and forty pounds a year to the earl of 
Mulgrave, and six hundred pounds a 
year to ^r William Pennyman. But 
notwithstanding these high rents, and 
that no less than eight hundred persons 
were employed in the manufacture at 
a time, the farm of the alum mines 
produced a vast profit to sir Paul Pin* 
dar, who kept up the commodity at 
the rate of twenly*six pounds a ton. 
The Long Parliament voted this a 
monopoly, and restored the alum works 
to their original proprietDrs, 


psnied the king in his journey to England, and by bis 
learning, conversation, and address, fixed himself so effec- 
tually in that monarch's good gracesy that, as one of the 
highest marks he cbuld give him of bis kindness and con* 
fidence, he thought ^fit to intrust him with the care of 
prince Henry's education, August 17, 1603, not as his 
tutor, but rather governor or superintendant of his house- 
hold and education. He enjoyed this honour, under several 
denominations, during the life-time of that excellent 
prince, whom be attended in 1605 to Oxford, and upon 
that occasion was honoured with the degree of master of 
arts, with many other persons of distinction. It does not 
appear that he bad any grants of lands, or gifts in money, 
from the crown, in consideration of his services, though 
sir Adam Newton, who was preceptor to prince Henry, 
appears to have received at several times the sum of four 
thousand pounds by way of free gift. Sir Thomas Cha- 
loner had likewise very great interest with queen Anne^ 
and appears to have been employed by her in her private 
affairs, and in the settlement of that small estate which she 
enjoyed. What relation be had to the couit , after the 
death of his gracious master prince Henry, does no where 
appear ; but it is not at all likely that he was laid aside. 
He married some years before his death bis second wife 
Judith^ daughter to Mr. William Blount of London, and 
by this lady also he bad children, to whom be is said to 
have left a considerable estate, which he had at Steeple* 
Claydon in the county of Buckingham. He died Novem- 
ber 17, 1615, and was buried in the parish church of Chis- 
wick in the county of Middlesex. His eldest* son William 
Chaloner, esq. was by letters patents dated July 20, in 
the 18th of James I. in 1620, created a baronet, by the 
title of William Chaloner of Gisborough in the county of 
York, esq. which title was extinct in 1681. Few or none, 
either of our historians or biographers, Anthony Wood 
excepted, have taken any notice of him, though he was 
so considerable a benefactor to this nation, by discovering 
the alum mines, which have produced vast sums of 
money, and still continue to be wrought with very great 
profit. Dr. Birch, indeed, in his " Life of Henry Prince 
of Wales," has given a short account of sir Thomas, and 
has printed two letters of his, both of which shew him to 
have been a man of sagacity and reflection. In the Lam- 
helh library are also some letters of sir Thomas Chaloner' s^^ 


of which there are transcripts by Dn Birch in the British 
Museuta. The only publication by sir Thomas Chaloiier 
is entitled *^ The virtue of Nitre, wherein is declared the 
sundry cures by the same effected/' Lond. 1584, 4to. In 
this he discovers very considerable knowledge of chemistry 
and mineralogy. * 

CHALONER (Edward), second son of the preceding, 
was born in 1590 at Ohiswick in Middlesex, where his 
father and mother lived and died. He was educated at 
Oxford, first in Magdalen college, where he completed his 
degrees in arts in 1610, and next year was chosen fellow 
of All Souls. Entering into orders, he was made chap- 
lain to James I. and doctor of divinity, and principal of 
Alban-hall. He was reputed a very learned man for his 
time, an able preacher, and good disputant. His compo-* 
sitions were much valued by the greatest men then in the 
church ; and the sermons which be* published in his life-* 
time, as also those published after his death, in all thir« 
teen, were then looked upon as choice pieces, very ser- 
viceable to the church and commonwealth. He died of 
the plague at Oxford, July 25, 1625, and was buried in 
St. JVlary's chutch-yard, where a monument was afterwards 
erected to his memory. Of his works, six of his *' Ser- 
mons^' were published, Lond. 1623, 8vo; one Lond. 1624, 
4to; and six after his death, Oxford, 1629, 4to. He wrote 
also on " The Authority, Universality, and Visibility of 
the Church," Lond. 1625, 4to, and 1638, 12mo, and left 
some MSS. behind him. ^ 

CHALONER (Thomas), younger brother to the prece-* 
ding Edward, ^was also sent to Oxford, and spent some 
time there at Exeter college, after which he went abroad,' 
and having travelled through France and Italy, returned 
home a very well-accomplished gentleman, being much 
distinguished for the vivacity of his wit, and his extensive 
knowledge in all kind of polite literature : but having 
contracted a dislike to the royal family, on the score of 
the alum mines, of which his father had been deprived^ 
he joined the malcontents, and being elected member foe 
Aldborough in the county of York, became an active 
niember of the Long Parliament He sat as one of the 
king's judges, and was elected one of the members of the 
coancii of state. Upon a prospect of the king's return he 

^ Brit. — ^Lodge's lUastratioDS^ vol. III. — Ath. Ox. vol. 1. — Burc|i*t 
"iftce Henry. « AUi. Or. Tol. I. 

« C H A L O N E R. 

printed a paper, entitled " A Speech, containing a Plea 
for Monarchy/' in which he hinted at some limi^tions and 
restriction^. He soon after thought fit to retire to HoUand, 
and was excepted out of the Act of Oblivion, atid very 
soon after died at Middleburg in Zealand. ^ 

CHALONER (James), another brother of the pre- 
ceding, was a commoner of Brazen-nose college in Oxford, 
and afterwards studied in the inns of court. He was a man 
of great learning, and distinguished himself as an anti-^ 
quary, as also by writing the History of the Isle of Man, a 
manuscript copy of which was in the valuable museum of 
Mr. Thoresby, of Leeds, and afterwards bought by Edr- 
mondson, but it has been also printed at the end of King's 
** Vale Royal of Cheshire," in 1656. He was likewise a 
member of the Long Parliament, deep in the transactions 
of those times, and one of the king's judges; for which, 
at the restoration, he* was excepted from the benefit of 
his estate, but his life spared ; and this distinction seems to 
have been owing to his riot having signed the warrant for 
the king's death, which his brother Thomas did. He mai:-> 
ried Ursula, 'daughter of sir William Fairfax, of Seeton, in 
the county of York, and dying in 1661, wds succeeded in 
his estate by his only son Edmund. Wood says he poi- 
soned himself, when a search was making for him. One 
James Chaloner made collections of arms, &c. in the city 
of Chester, which, Mr. Gough informs us, came into Vin- 
cent's hands; but this perhaps is one of the three Chaloners 
who were herald -painters of that city, and no wise related 
to sir Thomas Chaloner's family, although ib a late history 
of Chester, 1791, James the herald-painter is said 
the author of the History of the Isle of Man. Mr. Gough 
also informs us that the author of that history made collec* 
tions of arms, monuments, &c. in Shrophire, which in 
1700 were in the Heralds' office, numbered 230 among 
Vincent's books; but they were purloined from thence 
(probably when lord Oxford was collecting his library, and 
gave any price for MSS.), and are now in the British Mu- 
aeum, No. 2163, Harl. Cat But it appears from other 
parts of the British Topography,, that even Mr. Gough 
has not always kept in view the distinction between the 
two James Chaloners. ^ • 

' Atji. Ox. Tol. T. 

» Ath. Ox. Vol. IT.— Biog, Brit.— Gougb's ^ritisji Topography.— Gent. M^. 
Tol. I4XVII. p. 1087, . .' 

C H A L V E T. 7T 

CHALVET (Matthew de), in Latin Calventicts, pre- 
sident of the Inquests of the parliament of Toulouse, was 
born in May 1528. He was brought to Paris in 1539 by 
Mr. Lizet his uncle, at that time advocate-general in the 
parliament of Paris, who kept him six years to his studies 
under Orontius Fineus, Tusan, Buchanan, and some other 
learned persons. He went to Toulouse in 1546, to leara 
the civil law, and lodged in the same house with Turne- 
bus, Mercerus, and Govea. He travelled into Italy in 
1550, in order to pursue his studies, and was Alciat's dis- 
ciple at Pavia, and Socinus's at Bologna. Being returned 
to France, he. went to Toulouse, and there completed his 
course of law-studies, and was associated with Roaldes and 
Bodinus, reading law lectures together in the public schools 
with reputation. Having taken his doctor's -degree in that 
nniversity, be resolved to go to Paris, in order to malice his 
fortune ; but though this resolution of his was strengthened 
by some letters he received from Mr. Lizet, yet he chose 
ratber to settle in Toulouse, where he married, in 1552, 
Jane de Bemuy, daughter of the lord de Palficat, baron of 
Villeneufve. He was admitted counsellor in the parliament 
of that city in 1553, afterwards created judge of French 
poesy, and raaintainer of the floral sports. He was ap* 
pointed president of the inquests by tlie parliament in 
1573. Being of a peaceable temper, he retired to his house 
in Auvergne, during the first and last furies of the civil 
wars, in order that he might uot be an eye-witness of the 
confusions which he saw would break out in Toulouse. It 
was in tbis retirement he studied and translated Seneca^ to 
administer some - consolation to himself during the wild 
havock that was then making, and to employ his leisure to 
adyantage. His attachment to fats sovereign gained him 
the particular esteem of Henry IV. who in 1603 appointed 
biiB counsellor of state and privy counsellor. The year 
after, he resigned his dignity of president to Francis 
Chalvet sieur de Fenouillet, one of his sonS) and retired 
from business to spend the remainder of his days in peaco 
and among his books. He spent two years in this retire-^ 
melnt, with so much satisfaction to himself, that he used 
frequently to declare to his relations, that he could not say 
be had lived during the previous years of his life. He died 
»t Toulouse the 20th of June, 1607, being i^eventy-nine 
y^n of age. Several authors have honoured him with 

78 C H A L V E T. 

His '^ Translation of Seneca/* was published at Paris, . 
1604, folio, and reprinted there in 1638, with a life of the 
translator, and some encomiastic verses in French and 
Latin. Chalvet himself wrote much French and Latin 
poetry, which was not published. Huet, in his treatise 
*^ De Claris interpretibus," thinks that his translation of 
Seneca is too diffuse. ^ 

CHAMBER, or CHAMBRE (John), a learned phy- 
sician in the sixteenth century, noted chiefly for being one 
of the founders of the college of physicians, London, was 
educated in Merton college ^n Oxford, of which he was 
fellow* He took his degree of master of arts about the 
year 1 502 ; after which, travelling into Italy, he studied 
physic at Padua, and there took his degree of doctor in 
that faculty. -After his return, he became physician to 
Henry VIIL ; and with Thomas Linacre and others, found- 
ed the college of physicians. Henry VHIth^s charter, for 
the foundation of this college, bears date at Westminster, 
September 23, 1518, and is said to have been obtained at 
the request of Dr. John Chamber, Thomas Linacre, Fer- 
nandez de Victoria, his physicians ; and of Nicolas Halse^ 
well, John Fraunces^ and Robert Yaxley, of the same fa- 
culty : but especially through the intercession and inte- 
rest of cardinal Wolsey. The first college of this society 
was in Knight Rider-street, being the gift of Dr. Linacre. 
Afterwards they removed to Amen-corner, where they 
bought an fa9use and ground : but the house being burnt 
down in 1666, the fellows purchased a large piece of 
ground in Warwick-lane, upon which they erected the 
present college. The number of fellows at first was but 
thirty. Charles IL at their request, augmented the num- 
ber to forty. And James IL in their new charter, was 
pleased to increase the number to eighty, and not to ex- 
ceed. To the college belong, at present, a president, four 
censors, and twelve electors. 

Dr. Chamber, being in holy orders, became in 15 10 
canon of Windsor, and in 1524 archdeacon of Bedford, and 
was likewise prebendary of Comb and Harnham in the 
cathedral church of Sarum. In 1525 he was elected war- 
den of Merton college; and about the same time wa& 
made dean of the royal chapel and college adjoining to 

Westminster- hall, dedicated to the Virgin Mary and St^ 

i . . .- . 

> GeD. Diet. — Moreri. 


Stephen. He built to it a very curious cloister, at the 
expence of 11,000 marks, and gave the canons of that 
chapel some lands, which he saw, upon the dissolution of 
the monasteries, taken into the king^s hands. Afterwards 
he was made treasurer of Wells cathedral, beneficed in 
Somersetshire and Yorkshire, and probably had other 
dignities and preferments. October 29, 1531, he was in- 
corporated doctor of physic at Oxford. In May 1 543, he 
i^signed his treasurership of Wells ; and his wardenship 
of Merton college in 1545. He died in 1549. He never 
published any thing. * 

CHAMBERLAIN (John), esq. was born about the mid- 
dle of January 1552, and was educated at Cambridge. 
To the knowledge of the learned languages, which he cul- 
tivated there, he added that of the French and Italian. He 
enjoyed great intimacy with the most considerable men in 
England, with sir Henry Savile, bishop Andrews, sir 
Thomas Bodley, sir Thomas Edmondes, sir Dudley Carle- 
ton, and sir Ralph Winwood. In the confidence of thd 
last of these he had a very great share, while that honest 
and able minister was secretary of state, and the character 
of the latter appears in a very advantageous light in the 
letters of Mr. Chamberlain. Having a fortune sufficient 
to satisfy a quiet and unambitious temper, he enjoyed the 
satisfactions of private life in the society of his friends till 
a good, old age, dying after the year 1626, and before April 
1631, for his name ' does not appear among those of the 
commissioners for the repairing of St. PauPs, in the se- 
cond commission dated the 10th of that month, though he 
had been appointed a commissioner in the first. His cor*- 
respondence is in the British Museum.' 

CHAMBERLAYNE (Edward) was descended from an 
ancient family, and born at Odington in Gloucestershire^ 
16i<6. He was educated at Gloucester ; became a com- 
moner of St. Edmund-hall in Oxford in 1634 ; took both 
his degrees in arts ; and was afterwards appointed rhetoric . 
reader. During the civil war in England, he made the 
tour of Europe. In 1658 he married the only daughter 
of Richard Clifford, esq. by whom he had nine children. 
In 1668 he was chosen F. R. S. and in 1669 attended 
Charles earl of Carlisle, sent to Stockholm with the ordet 
of the garter to the king of Sweden, as his secretary. la 

^ Biog. Brit.-— Atb. Ox. vol. 1. 

* Maty's Review, vol. V. p. 130. Irom llr. Kirch's MSS. 


1670 the degree of LL. T)i was conferred on' him at Cam* 
bridge^ and two years after he was incorporated in the 
same at Oxford. He was appointed to be tutor to Henry 
/duke of Grafton^ one of the natural sons of Charles II. 
about 1679 ; and was afterwards appointed to instruct 
prince George of Denmark in the English tongue. He 
.died at Chelsea in 1703^ and was buried in a yauit in the 
<burch-yard of that parish ; where a monument was soon 
after erected to bis memory, by Walter Harris, M. O. witji 
a Latin inscription, which informs us, among other things^ 
that Dr. Chamberlayne was so desirous of doing service to 
all, and even to posterity, that he ordered some of the 
books he had written to be covered with wax, and buried 
with him ; which have been since destroyed by the damp. 
The six .books vanity or dotage thus consigned to the grave^ 
are, 1. ^^ The present war paralleled ; or a brief relation of 
the five years' civil wars of Henry III. king of England, 
with the event and issue of that unnatural wa^, and by what 
course the kingdom was then $»ettled ag^in ; extracted out 
of the most authentic historians and records,'' 1647. It 
was reprinted in 1660, under this title, ^^ The late war 
paralleled, or a brief relation," &c. 2. ^^ England's vt^ants; 
or several proposals probably beneficial for England, offer*, 
ed to the consideration of both houses of parliament," 
1667. 3. "The Converted Presbyterian ; or the church 
of England justified in some practices," &c* 1668. 4-. 
*^ AnglioB Notitia ; or the Presejit State of England ; with 
divers. reflections upon the ancient state thereof," 1668* 
The second part was published in 1671, &c. This work 
bas gone through many editions ; the first twenty of wkich 
were published by Dr. Edward Chamberlain, and the rest 
by his son. 5. " An academy or college, wherein young 
ladies or gentlewomen may, at a very moderate expence^ 
be educated in the true protestant religion, and in all vir- 
tuous qualities that may adorn that sex, &c." 1671. 6. 
** A Dialogue between an Englishman and a Dutchman, 
iConceming the last Dutch war," 1672. He translated out 
of Italian, Spanish, and Portuguese, into English, 1. " The 
rise and fall of count Olivarez the favourite of Spain." 2^ 
<^ The unparalleled imposture of Mich, de Molina, exe«- 
i^uted at Madrid," 1641. 3. "The right and title of the 
present king of Portugal^ don John the IVth." These 
three translations were printed at London, 1653.^ 

< Biog. 


CHAMBERLAYNE (Johk)i son to the preceding, wa« 
admitted into Trinity college, Oxford, 1685; but it does 
not appear that be took any degree. He continued bis 
father's ** Auglie Notida," or ^ Present State," as long 
. as he lived, and it was continued after his death until 1755, 
which, we believe, is the last edition* He translated, 1. 
from French and Spanish, *^ The manner of making Tea, 
Coffee, and Chocolate, London," 1685, 8vo. 2, From 
Italian into English, ** A Treasure of Health,'' London, 
1686, 8vo, written by Castor Durant de Gualdo, physician 
aod citizen of Rome. 3. ^^ The Arguments of the books 
and chapters of the Old and New Testament, with practi* 
cal observations ; written originally in French, by the rer. 
, Mr. Ostervald, professor of divinity, and one of the mi- 
nisters of the church ^t Neufchatel in Swi$serland,%and by 
him presented to the society for promoting Christian 
knowledge^" Lond. 1716, &c. 3 vols. 8vo. Mr. Chamber- 
layne was a member of that society. 4. ^^ The Lives of 
the French Pbitosophers, translated from the French of M* 
de Fontanel le, republished since in 1721, under, the title 
of << Memoirs of the Royal Academy of Sciences in Paris^ 
epitomized, with the lives of the late members of that so-^ 
ciety,^' dvo. 5. << The Religious Philosopher j or, the 
aright use of contemplating the works of the Creator, &c* 
translated from the original Dutch of Dr. Nieuwentyt,'' 
Lond. 1718, &c. 3 vols. 8vo, reprinted several times since 
in 8vo, and once in 4to. 6. ^^ The History of the Refor- 
mation in and about the Low Countries, translated from the 
Dutch of Gerrard Brandt," Lond. 1721, &c. 4 vols, foh 
7. ^'The Lord's Prayer in 100 languages, 8vo, which is 
erroneously attributed by Mr. Whiston the bookseller, in a 
MS note in his copy of this Dictionary, to a Thomas Cham- 
berlayne. 8. '^ Dissertations historical, critical, theolo- 
gical, and moral, on the most memorable events of the 
Old and New Testaments ; wherein the spirit of the sacred 
writings is shewn, their authority confirmed, and the sen- 
timents of the primitive fathers, -as well as the modern 
critics, with regard to the difficult passages therein, con- 
sidered and compared ; vol. L comprising the events related 
in the Books of Moses : to which are added, chronological 
tables, fixing the date of each event, and connecting the 
several dissertations togisther," 1723, folio. He lij^ewise 
was elected ]^. R. S. in 1702, and communicated three 
pieces, inserted in the Philosophical Transactions ; one, 
Vol. IX. G 


died at Paris in 1592, much regretted by all who knew hitir. 
His wotks, which were published in one vol. 8vo, Paris, 
1579, and which relate to the succession to the crown, the 
fight of Mary to that of England, &c. consist of, 1. " His- 
toire abreg6e de tons les Roys de France, Angleterre, et 
Escosse." 2. " La recherche des singularitez plus re- 
markables concernant le estat d'Ecosse." 3. " Discours 
de la legitime succession des femmes aux possessions de 
leurs parens, et du government des princesses aux empires 
et royaumes.'* Machenzie gives a full analysis of all these, 
but bishop Nicolson has not so high an opinion of the 
soundness of the author*s principles. Dempster and others 
highly extol his learning and character. ' 

CHAMBERS (Ephraim), author of the scientific dic- 
tionary which goes under his name, was born at Kendal 
in the county of Westmorland, the youngest of three bro- 
thers! His parents were dissenters of the presbyterian 
persuasion^; and not quakers, as has been reported; and 
their occupation was that of farming. He was sent early 
to Kendal school, where he received a good classical edu- 
cation. But his father, who had already placed his eldest 
son at Oxford, and x^ould not afford the same expence a 
second time, determined to bring up Ephraim to trade. 
He was accordingly, at a proper age, sent to London, and 
spent some time in the shop of a mechanic in that city ; 
but, having an aversion to the business, he tried another, to 
which he was equally averse, and was at last put appren- 
tice to Mr. Senex the globe-maker, a business which is 
connected with literature, and especially with astronomy 
and geography. It was during Mr. Chambers's residence 
with this skilful mechanic, that he contracted that taste 
for science and learning whiqh accompanied him through 
life, and directed all his pursuits, and in which his master 
▼ery liberally encouraged him. It was even at this time 
that he formed the design of his grand work, the *' Cyclo- 
jpsBdia ;" and some of the first articles of it were written be- 
hind the counter. Having conceived the idea of so great 
an undertaking, he justly concluded that the execurion of 
it would not consist with the avocations of trade ; and, 
therefore, he quitted Mr. Senex, afid took chambers at 
Gray*s-inn, where he chiefly resided during the rest of his 
days. The first edition of the " Cyclopaedia," which was 

1 Miichenzie''s Scotch writers, toI. III.— Nicolson's Scotch Library. 



* • 

lite result of many years intense application, appeared in 
1728, in 2 vols, folio. It was published by subscription, 
the price being 4/. 4^. ; and the list of subscribers was very 
numerous. The dedication, to the king, is dated Oct. -l^y 
1727. The reputation that Mr. Chambers acquired by bis 
executioti of this undertaking, procured him the honour of 
being elected F. R. S. Nov. 6, 1729. In less than ten 
years' time, a second edition became necessary ; which 
accordingly was printed, with corrections and additions, 
in 1758*. It having been intended, at first, to give a new 
work instead of a new edition, Mr. Chambers bad prepare4^ 
a considerable part of the copy with that view, and more 
than twenty sheets were actually printed off. The purpose 
of the proprietors, according to this plan, was to have 
' published a volume in the winter of 1737, and to have 
proceeded annually in supplying an additional volume, till 
the whole was completed. But from this design they were 
diverted, by the alarm they took at an act then agitated ia 
parliament, in which a clause was contained, obliging the 
publishers of all improved editions of books to print the 
improvements separately. The bill, which carried in it 
the appearance of equity, but which, perhaps, might bav^ 
created greater obstructions to the cause of literature than 
a transient view of it could suggest, passed the bouse of 
commons, but was rejected in the house of lords. In aa 
advertisement prefixed to the second edition of the '^^ Cyclq- 
paedia,'' Mr. Chambers endeavoured to obviate the con)- 
plaints of such readers as might hav^ been led to expect 
(from a paper of his published some time before) a. new 
work, instead of a new edition. So favourable- was the 
public reception of the second edition of Chambers's dic- 
tionary, that a third was called for in the very next year, 
1739 ; a fourth two years afterwards, in 1741 ; and a fifth 
in 1746. This rapid sale of so large and expensive a work, 
is not easily to be paralleled in the history of literature : 
and must be considered, not only as a striking testimoiiy 

* Some years afterwards, when he 
was in France for the recovery of his 
^kealth, he received an intimation, that 
if be would publish a new edition there, 
and dedicate it to Lewis XV. he would 
%e Uberally rewarded : but these pro* 
|K»sals, says our informant, his British 
iejutjcceived with disdain^ and he re« 

jected the teaming solicitation of men 
who were provoking him to a sordid 
retractation of the compliments he 
had paid to his lawful sovereign. Ge|kt« 
Mag. vol. LV. p. C71, an article from 
which we have been enabled to correct 
■ and improve the account fonnerly 
jglven of Mr. Chambers. 


of the general estimation in which it is held, but likewise 
as a strong proof of its real utility and merit 

Although the ** Cyclopeedia^' was the grand business of 
Mr. Chambers^s life, and may be regarded as almost the 
sole foundation of his fame, his attention was not wholly 
tonfined to this undertaking. He was concerned in a 
periodical publication entitled ^^ The Literary Magazine,'' 
which was begun in 1735, and continued for a few years, 
containing a review of books on the analytical plan. In 
this work he wrote a variety of articles, and particularly a 
review of Morgan's " Moral Philosopher.'* He was en- 
gaged likewise, in conjunction with Mr. John Marty n, 
'F. R. S« and professor of botany at Cambridge, in pre- 
paring for the press a translation and abridgment of the 
** Philosophical history and memoirs of the royal academy 
of sciences at Paris; or an abridgment of all the papers 
relating to natural philosophy which have been published 
by the members of that illustrious society." This under- 
taking, when completed, was comprised in five volumes, 
8vo, which did not appear till 1742, some time after our 
author's decease, when they were published in the joint 
names of Mr. Martyn and Mr. Chambers. Mr. Martyn, in 
a subsequent publication, passed a severe censure upon the 
^are which his fellow-labourer had in the abridgment of 
the Parisian papers; which, indeed, he appears to have 
executed in a very slovenly manner, and to have been un- 
acquainted with the FVench terms in natural history. The 
only wOrk besides, that we find ascribed to Mr. Chambers, 
is a translation of the *' Jesuit's Perspective," from the 
French ; which was printed in 4to, and has gone through 
several editions. How indefatigable he was in his literary 
and scientific collections, is manifest from a circumstance 
which used to be related by Mr. Airey, who was so well 
known to many persons by the vivacity of his temper and 
conversation, and his bold avowal of the principles of in- 
fidelity. This gentleman, in the very early part of his life, 
was five years (from 1728 to 1733) amanuensis to Mi^. Cham- 
bers ; and, during that time, copied nearly 20 folio vo- 
lumes, so large as to comprehend materials, if they had 
been published, for printing 30 volumes in the same size. 
Mr. Chambers however acknowledged, that if they were 
printed, they would neither be sold nor read. His close 
and unremitting attention to his studies at length impaired 
his health, and obliged him occasionally to take a lodging 


at CitDonbury«*hoase9 Islington. This not Iiaving greatly 
t;ontributed to bis recovery, he made an excursion to the 
south of France, of wiiich he left an account in MS. but 
did not reap that benefit from the journey which be had 
himself hoped and his friends wished. Returning to £ng« 
land in the autumn of 1739, he died at Canonbury-house^ 
atid was buried at Westminster ; where the following in^ 
scription, written by himself, is placed on the north side of 
the cloisters of the abbey : 

^' M uUis pervulgatus, 

Paucis notus; 

Qui vitam^ inter lucem et imibram> 

Neceruditus^ necidiota^ 

literis deditua, trainegit ; sad ut homo 

• Qm humani nihil a se alknum putat. 

Vita simuly et laboribus functus^ 

Hie requiescere voluit^ 

Ephraim Chambers, R. S. S. 

Obiit XV Mail, mdccxl." 

His writings were those of a man who had a sound judg«^ 
meot, a clear and strong memory, a ready invention, an 
easy method of arranging his ideas, and who neither spared 
time nor trouble. His lite was spent rather in the company 
of books than men, and bia pen was oftener employed than 
bis tongue : his style is in general good, and his defini«« 
tions clear and unaffected. In languag/e he applied ratbec 
to the judgment than to the ear; and if he deserves to be 
censured for baldness, it should also be remembered how 
difficult technical expression is, which must be accommo*^ 
dated at once to the scholar and the artificer. In his epis-^ 
tolary correspondence, some specimens of which may be 
seen in the Gentleman's Magazine, he was lively and easy«, 

His personal character had many peculiarities. Whati 
we record with most regret is that his religious sentioienta 
leaned to infidelity, although it has been said in excas^ 
that he avoided propagating his opinions, and certainly did 
nQ% introduce them in his writings. His mode of Ufa 
was reserved, for he kept little company, and no table. Aq 
intimate friend who called on him one mprning, was asked 
by him to stay and dine. '^ And what will you give me^ 
^braim ?'' said the gentlem^^ '^ I dare engage you have 
nothing for dinner;^' to which Mr. Chambers oalmly re<r 
plied, ** Yes, I have a fritter ; and if you'll stay with me, 
I'll have two." yet, though thus inattentive tobimself, he 


was very generous to the poor. He was likewise suflScielitly 
conscious of his defects in social qualities, and when urged 
to marry that ^ he might then have a person to look after 
him, which his health required, he replied somewhat has-* 
tily, <^ What ! shall I mstke a woman miserable, to contri- 
bute to my own ease ? For miserable she must be the mo« 
ment she gives her hand to so unsocial a being as myself.*' 

It has been said in former accounts of Mr. Chambers, 
that he was not treated in' the most liberal manner by the 
booksellers with whom be was concerned; but this waa 
far from being the case, as he experienced the most gene- 
rous behavioar from them. It is true that the price of 
literary labour was not then so high as it has since risen, 
but he was paid up to the standard of his time. Among 
his employers Mr. Longman in particular (grand uncle of 
the present Mr. Longman) used him with great liberality 
and tenderness; his house was ever open to receive him, and 
when he was there, every attention was paid to his pecn- 
liarities ; and during his illness, jellies and other proper 
jrefreshments were industriously left for him at those places 
where it was least likely he should avoid seeing theml 
When we consider that he was a single man, with few wants 
and fewer wishes, and that by the assistance of his friends 
he was enabled to live happily, and die at last possessed of 
considerable property, he can scarcely be deemed unsuc«* 
cessful. Every deficiency he supplied by ceconomy ; and 
in pecuniary matters he was remartwably exact. In his last 
will, made not long before his death, and which it has been 
erroneously said was never proved, he declared that he 
owed no debts, excepting to bis tailor for his rocquelaure. 

We have already mentioned that the " Cyclopaedia" 
came to a fifth edition in 1746. After this, whilst a sixth 
edition was in agitation, the proprietors thought that the 
work might admit of a supplement, in two additional folio 
volumes : this supplement, which was published in the 
joint names of Mr. Scott and Dr. Hill, though containing a 
number of valuable articles, was far from being uniformly 
conspicuous for its exact judgment and due selection ; a 
small part only of it being executed by Mr« Scott, and Dr. 
Hill's task having been discharged with his usual rapidity. 
Thus the matter rested for some years, when the pr4h 
prietors determined to combine the whole into one work ; 
and after several inefFectaal efforts for accomplishing their 
plan, the business devolved on the rev* Dr. Abraham Rees^ 


C H A M B E R S. t* 

F. R. S. who derived from the favour of the |)ublic9 and th^ 
singularly rapid and extensive sale of the work, a recom« 
peuse, which, independently of every other consideration, 
he reckoned amply adequate to his labour. This edition 
began to be published in weekly numbers in 1778, and the 
publication was continued without a single interruption, 
till it was completed in the year 1785. The work was 
dedicated aad presented to his majesty. The popularity 
of the ** Cyclopaedia*' gave rise to a ^variety of similar puln 
lications ; of many of which it may be truly said, that most 
of the articles which compose, them, are extracted ver^ 
batun, or at least with very few alterations and additions, 
from this dictionary; and that they manifest very little 
labour of research, or of compilation. One defect seems 
to have .been common to them all, with hardly any excep- 
tion ; and that is, that they do not furnish the reader with 
references to the sources from which their materials are 
derived, and the authorities upon which they depend. This 
charge was alleged by the editors of the French Encyclo« 
pedie, with some justice, but at the same time with un«- 
w^rrantable acrimony, against Mr. Chambers. The editors 
joi that work, while they pass high encomiums on Mr. 
Chambers's Cyclopaedia, blend with them censures thatare 
unfounded. They say, e. ^. that the ^^ merited honours it 
has received would, perhaps, never have been produced 
at all, if, before it appeared in English, we had not had in 
our own tongue those works, from which Chambers has 
dra^n without measure, and without selection, the greatest 
part of the articles of which his dictionary is cqmposed* 
This being the case, what must Frenchmen think of a mere 
translation of that work? It must excite the indignation of 
the learned, and give just offence to the public, to whom, 
under a new and pompous title, nothing is presented but 
riches of which they have a long time been in possession ?'* 
They add, however, after appropriate and justly deserved 
commendation ; <^ We agree with him, that the plan and 
the design of his dictionary are excellent, and that, if it 
were executed to a certain degree of perfection, it would 
idone contribute more to Che progress of true science, than 
one half of the books that are known." However, what 
their vanity has led them to assert, viz. that the greatest 
part of Chambers's Cyclopaedia is compiled from French 
authors, is not true. When Mr. Chambers engaged ip hif 
great undertaking, he extended his researches for materials to 


tL variety of publications, foreign and domestic, and in the 
matbematical articles be was peculiarly indebted to Wol- 
fins : and it cannot be questioned, that he availed himself 
no less of the excellent writers of hi« native land than those 
of France. As to the imperfections of which they com* 
plain, they were in a great measure removed, as science 
advaiftced, by subsequent improvements; nor could the 
work, in its last state, be considered as the production of 
a single person. Nevertheless it cannot be conceived, 
that any scientific dictionary, comprised in four volumes, 
should attain to the full standard of human wishes and 
human imagination. The proprietors, duly sensible of 
this circumstance, and of the rapid progress of literature 
and science in the period that has elapsed since the publi-^ 
eation of Chambers^s '^ Cyclopedia,** have undertaken a 
work on a much larger scale, which, with the encourage^ 
ment already received and further reasonably expected^ 
will, it is hoped, preclude most of the objections urged 
against the former dictionary. Of this a very considerable 
proportion has already been published, and the editor bids 
fair to accomplish what was once thought impossible. The 
learned Mr. Bowyer once conceived an extensive idea of 
improving Chambers^s Cyclopiedia, on which his corre- 
spondent Mr. Clarke observes, " Your project of improving 
and correcting Chambers is a very good one ; but alas ! who 
can execute it ? You should have as many undertakers as 
professions ; nay, perhaps as many antiquaries as there are 
different branches of ancient learning.** This, in fact, 
which appeared to Mr. Clarke so impracticable, has been 
accomplished under Dr. Rees's management, by combining 
the talents of gentlemen who have made the various 
sciences, arts, &c. their peculiar study.— ^f the contem-> 
jporary Cyclopedias, or Encyclop»dias, it may be suffi- 
cient to notice in this place, that printed at Edinburgh 
under the title of '^ Encyclopcedia Britannica,** the plan 
of which is different from that of Dr. Rees, but which has 
been uncommonly successful, a third edition (in twenty 
vols» 4to) being now in the press ; and one begun by Dr. 
Brewster oh a lesser scale, seems to be edited with qare and 
accuracy. ' 

1 Biog. Brit— Nichols's Bowyer.-- Gent. Mag. see Index, and vol LVII, 

p. 314, 381.— Marty u^s Dissertations on the ^neids, Appendix to the Preface^ 
No. 19.— Rees*s CyclopsBdia, 


CHAMBERS (Sir Robert), for several years chirf 
JQstice of the supreme court of judicature in Bengal, a oiati 
of too exalted merit to be passed with a slight notice, was 
bom in 1737, at Newcastle on Tyne, the eldest son of Mf« 
Robert Chambers, a respectable attorney of that town. 
He was educated, as well as his brothers, at the school of 
Mr. Moises in Newcastle, which had also the honour of 
training his younger friends sir William Scott and the 
present lord chancellor, whose attachment to him, thus 
oommenced almost in infancy, was continued not only 
witbout abatement, but with much increase, to the verjr 
end of 'bis life. Mr. Chambers, and the Scotts afterwards^ 
went to Oxford without any other preparation than was 
afforded by this Newcastle school, but his abilities sooli 
rendered him conspicuous; and in July 1754 he was chosen 
an exhibitioner of Lincoln college. He afterwards became 
a fellow of University college, where he was again united 
with the Scotts, and with other eminent men, among whom 
it Biay suffice to mention sir Thomas Plomer and the 
late sir William Jones. In January 1762, Mr. Chambers 
was elected by the university Vinerian professor of the 
laws of England ; a public testimony to his abilities, of the 
strongest and most unequivocal nature. In 17^6, the eaxl 
of Lichfield, then chancellor of Oxford, gave him the 
appointment of principal of New-inn hall ; which office, as 
it required no residence or attendance, he continued to 
bold through life. He was now advancing honourably in 
the practice of the law, and was employed in many re<- 
markable causes, in which bis professional abilities were 
evinced. About the same period, and probably by the 
same means, he attracted the notice and lasting friendship 
of the ablest men of the time, many of whose names have 
since been absorbed in weiUeamed titles of nobility. 
Among these may be mentioned, the earls Bathurst, Mans- 
field, Liverpool, and Rossiyn, lords Ashburtoi^, Thurlow, 
Auckland, and Alvanley ; to which list we may add the 
names of Johnson, Burke, Goldsmith, Garrick, and others 
of that class, whose judgment of mankind was as accurate 
as their own talents were conspicuous. At Oxford, he en- 
joyed the intimacy of Thurlow, afterwards bishop of Dur- 
bam : and his Vinerian lectures were attended by many 
popils, who have since done honour to the profession of 
^e laW| or to other public situations. . 


It is a strong proof that bis knowledge and talents were 
highly estimated at an early period, that in 1768, when he 
was only thirty-one years old, he was offered the appointr 
ment of attorney-general in Jamaica, which, from various 
considerations, be thought proper to decline. From this 
time he continued the career of his profession, and of his 
academical labours, till, in 1773, another situation of pub- 
lic trust and honour was proposed to him, which he was 
more easily induced to accept. This was the appointment 
of second judge to the superior court of judicature in Ben- 
gal, then first established. On this occasion, the esteem 
and regard of the university of Oxford for their Vinerian 
professor was fully evinced. The convocation allowed 
three years for the chance of his return, from ill health or 
any other cause : during which interval his office was held 
for him, and his lectures read by a deputy. Immediately 
before his departure for the East Indies, Mr. Chambelrs 
married Miss Wilton, the only daughter of the celebrated 
statuary of that name, and his mother, Mrs. Chambers, a 
woman of uncommon virtues, talents, and accomplishments, 
undertook the voyage with them, and continued an inmate 
in their family till her death, which happened in 17.32. 
They sailed for India in April, 1774; and the climate not 
proving unfriendly, the Vinerian professorship was in due 
time resigned. 

The honour of knighthood was. not conferred on Mr. 
Chambers at the time of his appointment, but, within four 
years after, was sent out to him unsolicited, as an express 
mark of royal approbation. How well his original nomi- 
nation, and his subsequent advancement to the. office. of 
chief justice were deserved, it is not necessary here to 
demonstrate. They who acted with him, orVere present 
in any arduous discussions, can bear witness how often his 
mild but convincing arguments contributed most essen- 
tially to the public service. Without taking a violent part 
in any contentions of politics, sir Robert Chambers was 
steady in pursuing the course which his mature judgment 
approved ; and, in all the struggles that arose, no oppo- 
nent ever ventured to insinuate a doubt of his integrity. 

The unfortunate loss of the Grosvenor East Indiaman^ in 
1782, was a calamity in which the private share of .sir 
Robert Chambers was disproportionately heavy. He lost 
his eldest son, a promising youth, then going to England 


tor edacation ; and the uncertain circumstances of the case 
left to imagination the most dreadful materials for conjee^ 
tare.- In this, as in every other situation, in proportion to 
the exigence, the firm and truly Christian piety of sir 
Bobert Chambers afforded a great example ; and he ap- 
peared a worthy son of that excellent national church, 
which, on some occasions, he had strenuously defeiided 
while he was an advocate. On the resignation of sir Elijah 
Impey," in 1791, sir Robert Chambers was advanced to the 
office of chief justice : and in 1797 he became president of 
the Asiatic society. At length, after having remained in 
India twenty-five years, he also obtained permission to 
resign, and was succeeded by sir John Anstruther. 

He returned to England in 1799, but in a state of health 
which forbade the expectation of enjoying his friends and 
fais well-earned leisure. In the autumn of 1802 his lungs 
were so much affected that he was advised to winter in the 
inilder air of France, and was to have proceeded to the 
southern provinces : but the season was then too far ad- 
vanced, and he remained at Paris, where, after a partial 
recovery, ' he had an attack of a paralytic nature, and died 
May 9, 1803. The body was brought to England, and 
interred on the 23d of the same month in the Temple 
church. He had been a bencher of the Middle Temple, 
and his funeral was attended by a considerable number of 
thCit society, and many private friends. 

Sir Robert Chambers had that love for books which na- 
turally arises from a sound education and early habits of 
study. His collection, therefore, was considerable, and 
his knowledge proportionally-extensive. Even at the close 
of his life, of which so large a part had b6en engaged in 
the practice or administration of the laws, he had not lost 
his academical accomplishments : and a Latin epitaph on 
his friend sir William Jones, inscribed by Flaxman on a 
monument erected 'tft Oxford in 1H03, may testify that the 
cares of the judge had not obliterated the studies of the 
professor. His collection of Oriental books was particu* 
larly valuable. That his fortune, after so long continuance 
in office, was extremely moderate, must be considered as 
an important topic of his praise, since it was occasioned 
by his strict integrity and extensive bounty. He received 
no presents, and he gave abundant charities. On his re- 
signation^ therefore, he could not attempt to decline the 


pension which parliament has now assigned to the judges 
of India, after a much less period of service. ^ 
., CHAMBERS (Sir William), an eminent architect, waa 
a native of Sweden, but originally descended from tha 
family of Chalmers in Scotland, barons of Tartas, in France. 
His grandfather was an opulent merchant, who supplied 
the armies of Charles XII. with money and military stores, 
9,ud suffered considerably in his fortune by being obliged 
to receive the base coin issued by that monarch. Thia 
circumstance occasioned his son to reside many years ia 
Sweden, in order the more effectually fo prosecute his p^ 
euniary claims.. The subject of this article was born in 
that country, and for what reason is not known, was 
brought over from Sweden in 172S, at the age of two years, 
and placed at a school at Kippon, in Yorkshire. His firs( 
entrance into life was as a supercargo to the Swedish East 
India company* In this capacity he made one voyage to 
China ; and, it appears, lost no c^porttinity pf observing 
what was curious in that country. At the age of eighteen, 
however, he quitted this profession, and with it ail com-r 
mercial views, to follow the bent of his inclination, which, 
led him to design and architecture. 

His first residence in London was in Poland-street, but 
not, as has been asserted, in the business of a carpenter. 
At a very early period of bis life he was considered as one 
of the best architects and draughtsmen in Europe ; and his 
abilities introduced him to the patronage of the late Joha 
earl of Bute, by whose interest he was appointed to be 
drawing master to his present majesty, then prince of 
Wales* The first ^ork of consequence in which he was 
engaged was the villa of the late earl of Besborough, at 
Roehampton, in Surry. He delivered to his lordship his 
plan as architect, and bb estimate as surveyor, and, on 
being applied to afterward to know whjether he would uu** 
dertake to complete the building himself for the money 
mentioned in the estimate, he readily consented, and, in 
the execution of his contract, gave and received that sa- 
tisfaction which seldom fails to result from the happy con* 
currence of professional taste and skill with the most dis-r 
tiuguished character for punctuality and probity. His 
conduct on this occasion became the most honourable in-- 

1 From a pamuhlet privately priated, and eutiUed ** A few Memorials of tbe 
late sir Robert Chambers, Imt." obligingly eommniitcated to Ihe editor by Mr, 


tiodactioQ to con$iderabIe ediploym^rit aknong the nobility 
and gentry. 

As an aotbor, Mr. Chambers viery soon distinguished 
biofiseif. In 1759 be published ^^, Designs for Chinese 
Buildings/' and a '^ Treatise on Civil Architectute.*' Soon 
after bis present majesty's accession to the throne, he was 
employed to lay out and improve the royal gardens ait 
Kew. The result of his labours appeared in 1765, in a 
splendid publication in large folio, entitled *^ Plans, ele- 
vations, sections, and perspective views of the Gardens 
and Buildings at Kew in Surry, the seat of her royal high*- 
oesi the princess of Wales," In the execution of this 
magnificent work, the talents of several of our ablest de- 
signers and engravers are eminently displayed : the archt*^ 
tectural designs being drawn by Mr. Chambers, the figures 
by Cipriani^ and the views by Kirby, Thomas Sandby, and 
Marlow. The engravings were executed by Paul Sandby, 
Wooliett, Major, Grignion, Rooker, and others. The plates 
were, consequently, universally admired, but with reapeeH 
to the designs, the greater part were considered rather as 
objects of curiosity than of taste ; and Mr. Chambers him^ 
seM^ as if apprehensive that the style of decoration he had 
adopted would be censured, anticipates the objections by 
an apology for the disadvantages of situation under which 
helaboui^d* ^^ The gardens at Kew," he observes, <*are 
not very large : nor is their situation by any means ad« 
vantageous, as it is low, and commands no prospects. 
Originally, the ground was one continued dead flat : the 
soil was, in general, barren,' and without either wood or 
water. ' With so many disadvantages, it was not easy to 
produce any thing even tolerable in gardening; but princely 
munificence, and an able director, have overcome all dif-* 
ficulties, and converted what was once a desert into an 

Such is the apology of Mr. Chambers ; and it must be 
ackuowledged, perhaps, that these gardens are laid out as^ 
well as the nature of the place would permit ; but, with 
regard to the ornaments and buildings, it cannot be suf- 
ficiently regretted, that a fondness for the unmeaning fal.- 
kalas of Turkish and Chinese chequer-work should prevail 
over a taste for the beautiful models of Grecian and Rooian 
architecture. It is yet more to be regretted that our ar^ 
ckitect proved in a subsequent publication that he was not 
•0 much constrained by the situation of the place^ as im- 


pelled by an irresistible predilection for the Chinese mtfd^ 
of gardening. 

In 177} I Mr. Chambers was announced in the catalogue 
of the royal academy as a knight of the Swedish order of 
the Polar Star ; and the following year he published the 
work just alluded to, and entitled *< A Dissertation on 
Oriental Gardening/* 4to. The design of this work is to 
demonstrate, that notwithstanding the boasted improvement 
of our national taste in ornamental gardening, we are yet in 
a state of ignorance and barbarism with respect to this 
pleasing art, of which the Chinese alone are masters. In 
the preface be says, that bis acct)unt of the Chinese man- 
ner of gardening was collected from his own observations 
in China, from conversations with their artists, and remarks 
transmitted to him at different times by travellers. Be- 
sides sir William's failure in proving his main point, this 
publication was very unlucky in another respect. A sketch 
of it had been published some years before ; but the per- 
formance itself appearing immediately after the publica- 
tion of Mr. Mason's <* English Garden,'' it was suggested^ 
very invidiously perhaps, that our author's intention was 
to depreciate the designs of our English gardeners, in order 
to divert his sovereign from his plan of improving Rich- 
mond gardens into the beautiful state in which they novir 
appear. The strange and horrible devices described in 
thi^ <^ Dissertation^' have been much ridiculed, but are no 
more than what had been before published by father Attiret, 
in his account of the emperor of China's gardens, near 
Pekin, translated by Mr Spence (under the assumed lite- 
rary name of sir Harry Beaumont) in 1753, and since re- 
published in Dodsley's " Fugitive Pieces.'* In whatever 
lighty however, the ^' Dissertation" might be considered, it 
was certainly productive of amusement, and the cause of 
gardeners and gardening was amply revenged by a publi- 
cation which appeared next year, and was generally at- 
tributed to Mr. Mason, entitled ^^ An Heroic Epistle to 
sir William Chambersi, knt, comptroller-general of his 
majesty's works, and author of a late Dissertation on Ori^ 
ental Gardening ; enriched with explanatory notes, chiefly 
extracted from that elaborate performance." A vein o( 
solemn irony, and delicate yet keen satire, runs through 
this poetical commentary ; and sir William's principles of 
design in gardening, or rather the Oriental principles, 
which lie had so fondly adopted, are treated with very 


Jittle respect It was followed in 1774, by ** Atl Hbroic 

In 1775, sir W. Chardbers was appointed to conduct th^ 
building of that greiat national work, Somerset-place. This 
appointment was worth 2000/. a year to him, nor was he 
too liberally rewarded. The terrace behind this magnifi- 
cent building is a bold effort of conception. His designs 
for interior arrangements were excellent, but his staircases 
were his niaster-piieces,- particularly those belonging to the 
royal and Antiquary societies. He did not live, however, to 
S6e the whole Bnished according to the original plan, and 
all intention of completing what would be truly a national 
honour, and a great ornament to the metropolis, seems n6w 
to be given up. Sir William, however, continued foi? 
many years in the highest rank of his profession, arid be- 
sides beirtg architect to the king, he was surveyor-general 
of his majesty's board of works, treasurer of the royal 
academy, F: R. S. and F. S* A. and member of the royal 
academy of 'arts at Florence, and of the royal acadetny of 
architecture at Paris. 

Previously to his death, he had sustained a long and 
severe illness, arising from a derangement of the nervous 
system, fof which many remedies wer^ applied without 
success. He died at his house in Norton -street, Mary- 
bone, March 8, 1796, in the sixty-ninth year of his age^ 
and Was' interred on the 18th, in Poets-corner, Westmin- 
ster-abbey, He left a son and three daughters^ whd shared 
his ample fortune, which he acquired with gredt hodourj 
and enjoyed with hospitality bordering on niagTiificencei 
His country retirement for some years had b^en at Whit- 
ton-place, near Hounslow-heath ; in the improvement of 
which delightful spot he appears to have studied the deco- 
rations of an Italian villa. His character in private life 
was very amiable,' and the courtesy and affability with 
which he treated the workmen employed under him en- 
deared him to them, and made it ^asV for him to collect a 
numerous and able body of artificers wheii any of his works 
requiVed extraordinary expedition. * 

CHaMBRE (Fuancis Illharrart dela), an ingenidus 
doctor of the Sorbonne, Was born Jan. 2y 1698, at Paris* 
He lived a sedentary life> was appointed canon pf St. Be- 
noit, and died of a malignant fever at Paris^ August 16^ 

) Qentlem^p's and European Magazines. 

VoL.lJ^. H 

9.8 C H A M B R E. 

« — 

17 $3, ^ged fifty^six. His genius was extremely accurate, 
with great clearness and precision of ideas; bis temper 
mild, easy, and sociable. The principal works of this 
author which haye been printed are : a <* Treatise on the 
Truth of Religion," 5 vols. i2mo i a " Treatise on the 
Formulary/' 4 vols. 1 2mo ; another on the ^^ Bulls against 
Baius/* 2 voU. 12mo ; another on the ^^ Constitution Uni^ 
genitus,'' 2 vols. l2mo; and a volume in 12mo entitled 
** La Reality du Jansenisme.'* It appears from all these 
treatises, that a good Thomist may accept the bulls against 
Baius and Jansenius, and the Constitution Unigenitus. 
The dogma is unfolded with much clearness and solidity ; 
the theological opinions treated in a very methodical 
manner, and with great precision. His other works are^ 
" Introduction a la Theologie," I vol. 1 2nM). " £xposi« 
tion claire et precise des differens points de doctrine qui 
ont raport aux matieres de religion/* Paris, 1745, 12mo« 
This contains the substance of twenty-two theological trea-^ 
tises; « Tr. de PEglise," 6 vols, Ifmo ; « Tr. de la 
Grace,'* 4 vols. i2mo ; ^^ La Logique, la Morale^ et la 
Metaphysique," Paris, 1754, 2 vols. 12mo, &c.^ 

CHAMBRE (Marin Cureau de la), a native of Mans, 
and king's physician in ordinary. He was received into 
the French academy 1635, afterwards into that of sciences; 
Chancellor Sequier and cardinal Richelieu gave him public 
tesGmonies of their esteem ; and be acquired great repu*^ 
tation by his knowledge in physic, philosophy, and the 
belles-lettres. He died November 29, 1669, at Parls^ 
aged seventy*five, and left many works, the pripcipal of 
which are : ^^ Les Characteres des Passions," 4 vols. 4to ; 
or Amsterdam, 1658, 5 vols. 12mo. ^^ L'Art de connoitre 
les Hommes." " De la Connoissance des Bites." " Con- 
jectures sur la Digestion," ** De I'lris." " De la Lu- 
miere." " Le Systeme de I'Ame." ** Le Debordemeut 
du Nil," each 1 vol. 4to. Peter de la Chambre, his se- 
cond son, was curate of St. Bartholomew, and 4>ne of the 
forty members of the French academy, and died 1693^. 
leaving several panegyrics, printed separately in 4to.^ 

CHAMFORT (Sebastian Roche Nicolas), an inge- . 
nious French writer, and one of the victims of the revolu- 
tion, was born in 1741, in a bailiwick near Clermont, in/ 

t LMdvocat Diet Hist. 

' IbiU.—'Moreri.— Eloges des Acadenuciens, yol. I. . .« 

C H A M F O R T. 9*^ 

iuvergne. In supporting a revolution which levelled ail 
family distinctions, be had no prejudices to ovek*come, 
being the natural son of a man whom he never knew. Thid 
circumstance^ however, ^nlid not diipinish his afFection tot 
bis inotbdr, who Was a peasant girl, to supply whose wants 
he often dehied hiddself the necessaries of life. He was 
taken at a x^e^y ^afiy age into the college des Pra^sins at 
Paris, as a bursar, or exhibitioner, and was there known 
by his Christian name of Nicolas. During the first two 
years he indicated no extraordinary talents, but in the 
third, out of the five prizes which were distributed annu- 
ally, he gained four, failing only in Latin verses. The 
next year he gained the whole, and used to say^ ^^ I lost 
the prize last year, because I imitated Virgil ; and this 
year I obtained it, because I took Buchanan, Sarbievius^ 
and other moderns for my guides/' In Greek he made a 
rapid progress, but his petulance and waggish tricks threw 
the class into so much disordet*, that h^ was expelled, and 
not bng after left the (;oUiege altogether. Tbrowii now on 
the woi^d, without friends ot* mdney^ he became derk to 
^procurat6r, and aftef wards was taken into the family of 
a rich gentleman of Liege, as tutor. After this be wad 
employed on the " Journal Encyclopedique,*' and having 
published his Eloges on MoUere and La Fontaine, they 
were so much adihired as to be honoured with the pHzes ^ 
of the French academy, and that of Marseilles. About 
this time he had little other maintenance than what he de- 
rived from the patronage of the duke de Choiseul and 
madame Helvetius, and therefore was glad to take such 
employment as the booksellers offered. For them he com- 
piled a ** French Vocabulary," and a " Dictionary of th6 
Theatres.^' While employed on this last, he fancied hiil 
talents might succeed on the stage, and was not' disap-^ 
pointed. His tragedy of " Mustapha," acted in 1778, 
was acknowledged to have great beauties ; and yoltaire, 
Ivho witnessed the performance, said with an exclamation^ 
that he was reminded of Racine. This was followed by 
two comedies, fugitive pieces of poetry, letters, epigrams, 
ttanslations of the Anthology, and of Martial, all which 
Contributed very considerably to his reputation. His 
poetical ^^ Epistle from a father to a son, on the birth of a 
grandson,^' gained him the prize of the French academy, 
although it appears inferior to his '^ L' Homme de Lettres^ 
discours philosophique en vers.*^ At length be gained a 

H 2 

1*0 CHAM P R T. 

seat 10 tiie academy^, on the death of St Palaye, on tvhom 
he wrote an elegant eloge. His tragedy of ^^ Mustapha^^ 
procared him the situation of principal secretary to the 
primoe of Cond£, but his love of liberty and independence 
prevented him from long discharging its duties. After re* 
Agoing it, he devoted himself wholly to the pleasures of 
society^ where he was considered as a most captivating 
companioQ. He also held some considerable pensions^ 
whicby however, . he lost at the revolution. 

When this great event took place, his intimacy with 
Micabeau led him to join the revolutionists, and he assisted 
Mirabeau in many of his works. He even obtained ad- 
mission into the Jacobin-club, and in 1791 was appointed 
secretary, but soon saw through their hypocrisy, detested 
their sanguinary principles, and left them. After the 10th 
of August, Roland procured him to be appointed national 
librarian, in conjunction with Carra. He saw with horror 
the excesses of all parties, and when the words *' Frater- 
nity or Death" appeared on all the walls of Paris, he ex« 
claimed << The fraternity of these fellows is that of Cain 
and Abel.'* These^ and other sarcasms, made him ob* 
noxious to Robespierre, and he was apprehended, and en- 
deavoared to commit suicide. He only, however, mangled 
himself shockingly on this occasion, and lived till April 
1794. He was unquestionably a man of talents, but in 
his political conduct inconsistent and frivolous, attaching 
himself to no party^ yet maintaining the pernicious prin- 
ciples from which each party had arisen. In 1795, his 
friend Ginguen6 published his works in 4 vols. 8vo, with a 
Life. They are entirely of the miscellaneous ^ind, and 
the fourth volume consists of Maxims and Opinions, which 
have ;Since been published separately under the title of 
^^ Chamfortiana.'' Many of them are founded on an accu- 
rate observation of human nature, and of the manners of 
hi9 age and country. ' 

CHAMIER (Daniel), an eminent French protestant 
divine, was born in Daupbiny, and was long minister at 
Montelimart, in that province, from whence he remoii^ed 
in 1€12 to Montapbon, to be professor of divinity; and 
was killed at the siege of that place by a cannon ball in 
1621. He was no less distinguished among his party as a 

I Diet. Ht$t. — Blpg. Modenie.-:-Anecdotes of the Founders of the French 
Repttbiic* - - - . 

C H A M I E R. roi 

statesman than as a divine. No man opposed the artifices 
employed by the court to distress the protestants with 
more steadiness and infle?s;bility. Varillas says it was be 
who drew up the edict of Nantss. Though politics took Ujf 
a great part of his time^ he acquired a large fund of ex* 
tensive learning, as appears from his writings* His trea- 
tise <^ De oecumenico pontifice/* and bis *^ Epistolie Je« 
suitlcae/' are commended by Scaliger. His principal 
work is his <^ Catholica Panstratia, or the Wars of the; 
Lord/' in which the controversy between the protestants 
and Roman catholics is learnedly handled. It was written 
at the desire of the sypod of the reformed churches in 
France, to confute Bellarmine. The synod of Privas, in 
1612, ordered him 2000 livres to defray tlie charges of the 
impression 9f the first three volumes. Though' this work 
makes four large folio volumes^ it is not complete : for it 
wants the controversy concerning the church, intended 
for a fifth volume, which the author's death prevented 
him from finishing. This body of controversy was printed 
at Geneva in 1626, under the care ofTurretin, professor 
of divinity. An abridgment of it was published in the 
same city in 1643, in one vol. folio, by Frederick Spanheim^ 
the father. His *« Corpus Theologicum,*' and bis " Epis- 
tolas Jesuiticse," were printed in a small folio volume^ 1693, 
but there are 8vo editions of the latter, one Genev. 1599^ 
and the >^ Oe oecumenico pontificeV was also published in 
Svo, Genev. 1601.* 

CHAMILLARD (Stephen), a learned French antiquary, 
was born at Bourges, in 1656. In 1673 he entered among 
the Jesuits, and according to their custom, for some time 
taught grammar and philosophy, and was a popular 
preacher for about twenty years. He died at Parisj iu 
1730. He was deeply versed in the knowledge of anti- 
quity. He published: 1, A learned edition of " Pru- 
deutius^' for the use of the Dauphin, with an interpreta- 
tion and notes, Paris, 1687, 4to, in which he was much. 
indebted to Heinsius. It is become scarce. 2. Disserta- 
tions, in number eighteen, on several medals, gems, and 
other monuments of antiquity, Paris, 1711, 4to. Smitten 
with the desire of possessing something extraordinary, and 
which was not to be found in the other cabinets of Europe^ 
h^ strangely imposed on hin^self in regard to. two medals 

1 Qen, Diet,— Moreri.— Sftxil Onomuft, 

108 . C H A M I L L A R D. 

li^ich he imagined to be antiques. . The first ivas a Paca^* 
tianuscof silrer, a medal unknown till his days, and which 
is so stilly for that it was a perfect counterfeit has been 
jgenerally acknowledged since the dfeath of its possessor. 
*the other medaly on which he was the dupe of his own 
fanpy, was an Annia Faustina, Greek, of the true bronze. 
The princess there bore the name of Aurelia ; whence 
&ther Chamillard concluded that she was descended from 
f he family of the Antqnines. It had been struck, as he 
pretended, in Syria, by order of a Quirinus or Cirinus, 
descended, he asserted, from that Quirinus. who is -spoken 
of by St. |!^uke. Chamillard dispjaj'ed his erudition on 
the subject in a studied dissertatiW; but while he was 
enjoying his triumph, a dealer in antiques at Rome de- 
dared himself the father of Annia Faustina, at the same 
time shewing others of the manufacture. ^ 

CHAMOUSSET (Charles Humreet Purron de), wag 
born at Paris in 1717, and destined to supply his father's 
place in the parliament of that city as a judge, as well as 
that of his uncle in the same situation. He made choice 
of the one of them that would give him the least trouble, apd 
^ord him the most leisure for his benevolent projects. 
Medicine was his favourite study. This he practised on 
the poor only, with such an ardour and activity of mind» 
that the hours which many persons give to sleep, he be- 
stowed upon the of the sick. To make himself 
more useful to them, he had learned to bleed, which ope- 
ration he performed with all the dexterity of tlie most ex- 
perienced surgeon. His disposition to do good appeared so 
(early that when he was a boy, he used to give to the poor 
the money which other boys spent in general in an idle and . 
iiiiproii table manner. He was once very much in love with a 
young lady of great beauty and accomplishment ; but; 
Imagining that she would not make him a suitable assistant * 
in .his attendance upon the poor, he gave over all thoughts 
of marriage ; not veiy wisely, perhaps, sacrificing to the 
extreme delicacy of one woman only his attachment ta. 
that sex, in whose tenderness of disposition, and in whose 
instinctive quickness of feeling, he would have foUnd that 
reciprocation of bebevolence h^ was anxious tQ procure.- 
He was so forcibly struck with the wretched situation of * 
the great hospital of Paris (the Hotel Dieu, as it is called), 

* Moteri,— Saxii Onomasticon. 

<J H A M O U S 9 E T. lOJ 


ifcere the dead, the dying, and the living, are very often 
crowded together in the same bed (five persons at a iits^ 
occasionally occupying the same bed), that he wrote A 
plan of reform for that hospital, which he shewed in ma- 
nuscript to the famous John James Rousseau, requesting 
hiffl to correct it for him. " What correction," replied 
Rousseau, '^ can a work want, that one cannot read with- 
out shuddering at the horrid pictures it represents ? What 
is the end of writing if it be not to touch and interest the 
passions ?" M. de Chamousset was occasionally the author 
of many benevolent and useful schemes ; such as the esta- 
blishment of the penny post at Paris ; the bringing good 
water to that city ; a plan for a house of association, by 
which any'man, for a amall sum of money deposited, may 
be taken care of when he is sick ; and many others ; not 
forgetting one for the abolition of begging, which is to 
be found in ^^ Les vues d'un citoyen." M. de Chamousset 
was now so well known as a man of active and useful bene- 
volence, that M. de Choiseul (when he was in the war 
department) made him, in 1761, intendant-geheral of the 
military hospitals of France, the king, Louis XV. telling 
him, ^' that he had never, since he came to the throne, 
made out an appointment so agreeable to himself ;" and 
added, ** I am sure I can never make any one that will be 
of such service to my troops." The pains he took in this 
employment were incredible. His attention to his situa- 
tion was so great, and conducted with such good sense 
and understanding, that the marshal de Soubise, on visiting 
one of the great military hospitals at Dusseldorf, under 
the care of M. de Chamousset, said, ** This is the first time 
I have been so happy as to go round an hospital without 
hearing any complaints." Another marshal' of France told 
bis wife : ** Were I sick," said he, " I would be taken to 
the hospital of which M. de Chamousset has the manage- 
ment" M« de Chamousset was one day saying to die 
minister, that he would bring into a court of justice the 
peculation and rapine of a particular person. •* Gbd for- 
bid you should !" answered the minister, " you run a risk 
of not dying in your bed." " I had rather," replied he, 
*^ die in any manner you please, than live to see my coun- 
try devoured by scoundrels." 

This good m^n died in 1773, at the age of 56 years 
t>nly. He is supposed to have hastened his death by not 
utking sufficient care of himself in bis illness^ saying 

JO* C H A M O US S E T. 

t|.Iways, wbfn pressed to do so, that he. bad not time 4o 
^pare for it. He died as he lived, with the sentiments of 
^ good Christian, and left a considerable sum of money in 
charity ; not, however, without providing for his relations 
?nd dependents, * 

. CHAMPAGNE (Philip de), a celebrated painter, was 
bori^ at Brussels in 1602. I}e discovered an inclination to 
painting from his youth ;, and owed but little to masters for 
the perfection be attained in it, excepting that he learned 
landscape from Fouquiere. In all other branches of his art 
nature was his master, and he is said to have followed. her 
very faithfully. At nineteen years of age he set off foe 
Italy, taking prance in his way.; bpt be pro9eede(j, a^ it 
happened, no faii-ther ^han Paris, and Iqdged in, the college 
of L?iop, \yhere foussin also dwejt; and these tvvo painter* 
liecame very gpod friends. Du Chesne,- painter to queen 
^lary of Medicis, was emplpyed about the paintings in the 
palace of Luxembourg, and set Poussin and Champagne at 
work under him. Poussin did a few. small pieqes in the 
cieling, and Champagne drew some sipall pictures in the 
flueen's apartment. Her majesty liked them so well, th^t 
du Chesrie grew jealous of him ; upon- which Champagne, 
|vho loved peace, returned to Brussels, with an intent tq 
go through Germany into Italy. He was scarcely gat 
there, when a letter came to him from the abbot of 8t. 
Ambrose, who was surveyor of the buildings, to advertlW 
Jiim of du Chesqe's death, and to invite him back to France. 
He accordingly returned thither, and was presently made 
director of fhe queen's paintings, vyho settled on him a 
yearly pension of 12Q0 livres, and allowed him lodgings in 
the palace of Luxembourg. Being a lover of his business^ 
he went through a great deal of it. There are a vast nuna- 
ber of his pieces at Paris, and other parts of the. kingdoca i 
and among other places, some of his pictures are to be 
seen ip the chapter-house of Notre-dauie at Paris, and in 
several churches in that city; without reckoning an in-»> 
finity of portraits, which are noted for their likeness, 9,^ 
^ell as for being finished to a very high degree. The 
queen also ordered him to paint the vault, of the Carmelites 
church in the suburbs of St. James, where his crucitix is 
much esteemed : but the best of his works is thousrht to be 
his cieling in th<^ king's apartment at Vincennes, composed 
pn the subject of the pes^ce in 1659. After this he yva,$ 

1 Last edition of this Dictionaryi-^Dict. ](iist. ' 


made rector of tbe royal academy of painting, which office 
he exercised many years. 

He had been a long while famous in his profession, when 
le Brun arrived at Paris from Italy ; and, thotigh le Brun 
was soon at the head of the art, and made principal painter 
to tbe king, he shewed no disgust at the preference that 
was given to his detriment and loss. There is another in- 
stance upon record of Champagne's goodness of disposition 
and integrity. Cardinal Richelieu had offered to make his 
fortune, if he would quit the queen-mother's service ; but 
Champagne refused. The cardinal's chief valet-de-cham- 
bre assured him farther, that whatever be would ask, bis 
eminency would grant him : to which Champagne replied^ 
^' if the cardinal could make me a better painter^ the only 
thing I am ambitious of, it would be something ; but since 
that was impossible, the only honour be begged of his 
eminency was the continuance of his good graces." It is 
said, tbe cardinal was highly aflPected with the integrity of 
the painter ; who, thougii he refused to enter into his ser- 
vice, did not however refuse to work for him. Among 
other things he drew his picture, and it is supposed to be 
one of the best pieces he ever painted. Sir Robert Strange 
had his portrait of Colbert, which he thought claimed a 
rank with the finest of Vandyke's. 

Champagne died in 1674, having been much beloved 
by all that knew him, both as a good painter and a good 
man. He liad a son and two daughters by bis wife, da 
Chesne's daughter, whom he married after her father's 
death : but two of these children dying before him, and the 
third retiring to a nunnery (for she was a daughter), he left 
)iis substance to John Baptiste de Champagne, his nephew. 
John Baptiste was also born at Brussels, and bred up in 
^be profession of painting under his uncle; whose mannelr 
And gusto he always followed, though he spent fifteen 
ffionths in Italy. He lived in the most friendly and: affec- 
tionate manner with his uncle, and died professor. of the 
ficademy of painting at Paris, in 1688, aged 42 years.* 

CHAMPEAUX (William de), in Latin Campellensis, 
^^ a native of the village of Cbampeaux near Melon, in 
the province of Brie, and flourished in the eleventh and 
twelftjj centuries. After studying law under Anselm, dean 
of t)ie catl^edral church of Melun, he was ordained archr 

* piJ Plles.-7Ar2ei^¥ille— Descainpf .r»l^ilKiB^<'n. — ^Strang^'^ Cati^ogue, p. 24, 


deacon of Paris, and appointed to read lectures on logic ih 
the schools of that church. Some time after be retired 
with some of his pupils to a monastery, in which was St. 
Victor's chapel, near Paris, and there founded the abbey 
of regular canons. He continued to teach in that convent, 
and, as generally supposed, was the first public professor of 
scholastic divinity. He was made bishop of Chalons in 
1113, and died in Jan. 1121. None of his works are ex» 
tant, for the *' Dialogue between a Christian and a Jew,** 
printed under his name in the *^ Bibliotheca Patrum,** 
belongs to Gilbert of Westminster. It is thought that be 
wrote a book of sentences before Peter Lombard, of which 
a MS copy was in the library of Notre^dame at Paris. He 
maintained the doctrine of the Realists, who held that all 
individual things partake of the one essence of their spe* 
cies, and are only modified by accident. He had the ap- 
pellation of the Venerable Doctor. Brucker has given a 
long account of his disputes with Abelard, who was One of 
his scholars, and who ventured to question the opinions of 
his master, and leaving him, opened a school of his own at 
Melun, where the splendour of his superior talents in dispu- 
tation attracted general admiration,- and eclipsed the fame 
of Cbampeaux. * 

CHAMPIER (Benedict Curtius Symphorien), a most 
voluminous medical and historical writer, was born in 1472> 
After studying medicine he took his degree of doctor at 
Pavia in 1515, and in 1520 was made consul at Lyons, an 
honour which he again enjoyed in 1533, on returning 
from Italy, whither he had accompanied Anthony duke of 
Lorrain as bis army physician, and by whom he was 
knighted for his bravery as well as skill. He died in 1 539 
or 1540, after having founded the college of physicians at 
Lyons. His works amount to twenty-four volumes, mostly 
quarto, of which a list may be seen in our authorities, but 
there is not one of them that can be noticed for excellence 
fiither of niatter or style. Perhaps the' best of his histori- 
cal compilations is, ** Les Grandes Chroniques des dues 
de Savoie,v Paris, 1516, fol.' 

CHAMPION (Anthony), a miscellaneous writer, was 
the son of Peter Champion, a gentleman of an ancient and 
respectal>le family, seated at St. Columb in Cornwall, who 
acquired a considerable fortune as a merchant at Leghorn t 

' DupiD.^Brucker. • Morcri.— Pict^ Hist.-. Saxli Oaomasticdii. 


he was bom February 5, 1724*5, at Groydon, m Surrey^ 
and received his first instruction in the Greek and Latin 
languages at Cheam school in that couilty ; from whence^ 
in 1739, be was removed to Eton, and in Februfiry 1742, 
became a member of the university of Oxford; having 
been placed at St. Mary-hall, under the care of the rev* 
Walter Harte, a celebrated tutor, who was selected at sc 
later period by the earl of Chesterfield to finish his soii 
Mr. Stanhope's education in classical literature. After 
kaviog passed two years at Oxford, be was entered as a 
student of law at the Middle^emple, where he continued 
to reside to the day of his decease ; and was a bencher of 
that society, to which he bequeathed one thousand pounds; 
He served in two parliaments, having been elected in 
1754 for the borough of St. Germain's, and in 1761 for 
liskard in Cornwall ; but the same great modesty and re- 
serve restrained him from displaying the powers of his very 
discerning and enlightened mind in that illustrious assem* 
Uy, which prevented him also from communicating to the 
world his poetical effusions, a collection of which wai 
published in an elegant volume in 1801, by William Henry 
lord Lyttelton, who prefixed a biographical article, from 
which the above account is taken. He died Feb. 22, 1801, 
beloved and lamented, as his noble friend says, by all 
who were acquainted with the* brightness of his genius, his 
taste for the finer arts, his various and extensive learning, 
and the still more valuable qualities of his warm and bene- 
volent heart. From his *^ Miscellanies in prose and verse,j 
English and Latin," it is discernible that he was a polite 
acholar, and had many qualities of a poet, but not unmixed 
with a love for those disgusting images in which Swift 
delighted. * 

CHAMPION (Joseph), a celebrated English penman, 
was born at Chatham in 1709, and received his education 
chiefly under Snell, who kept sir John Johnson's firee 
writing-school in Foster-lane, Cheapside, and with whom 
he served a regular clerkship; He kept a boaraing«-school 
in St Paul's church-yard, and taught many of the nobility 
and gentry privately. He was several years settled in the 
New academy, in Bedford-street, where he had a good 
number of scholars, whoca he instructed with great success; 
iK^d he has x|ot hitherto been ejccelled in his art. Tha 


year of his deftth we cannot preciaely ascertain. Hta firrt 
performance appears to have been his ^^ Practical Arith- 
metic/* 1733, 8vo; and in 1747 he publislied his <* Tutor's 
assistant in teaching arithmetic/' in 40 plates, 4to. But 
bis most elaborate and curious performance is bis ^^ Com* 
parative Penmanship," 24 oblong folio plates, 1750. It is 
engraved by Tborowgood, and is an honour to British pen* 
manship in general. His '^ New and complete alphabets,'* 
Mrjth the Hebrew, Greek, and German characters, in. 21 
plates oblong folio, engraved by Bickham, . came out in 
1754, and in 1758 he began to publish bis ^^ Living-^ 
hands," or several copy-books of the di^erent hands, in 
common use, upwards of 40 plates, 4to. He contributed 
47 folio pieces for Bickham's ^< Universal Penman," in 
which he displays a beautiful variety, of writing, both for 
use and, ornament. His principal pieces besides are ^' En* 
grossing bands for young clerks," 1757. *^ The young 
Penman's practice," . 1 760. " The Penman's employment," 
folio, 1759 — 1762. In 1754 he addressed and presented 
to the Royal Society a large body of penmanship, in 20 
leaves, folio, which remains in MS. ^ 

CHAMPLAIN (Samu£L de), born in Saintopge, waa 
jient by Henry IV. on a voyage to the newly-discovered 
continent of America, in quality of captain of a man of 
war. In this expedition he signalized himself not less by 
his courage than his prudence, and may be considered as 
the founder of New France. It was he who caused the 
town of Quebec to be built ; he was the first governor of 
that colony, and greatly exerted himself in the settling of 
a new commercial company at Canada. This company, 
established in 1628, was called the company pf associates, 
and the cardinal de Richelieu put himself at their head. 
He published: "Voyages de la Nouyelle France, dite 
Canada," 1632, 4to. He goes back to the first discoveries 
^ade by Verazaiii, coming down to the year 1631. This 
work is excellent in regard to ma.terial points, and the 
simple and natural manner in which they are exhibited. If 
he is censurable for any thing, it is for rather too much, 
credulity. The author seems to be a person of sound, 
judgment and strong resolution ; disinterested, and zealous 
for the religion and interests of bis country. He was ex-> 
polled, with the French, from the colony in 1631^ huX 

} Maisey't Qufum and Pfogreisof Lcttem 


C H A M P L A I N. 109 

when restored at the peace, be returned again in 1634, 
afid was appointed governor-generaL He died about 1635. 
Lake Champlain in North America bad its name from him. 
He di>icovered it in 1608, and before his time it was called 
CorIaer*s lake. ^ 

CHANDLER (Edward), a learned English prelate, was 
the son of Samuel Chandler, esq, of the city of Dublin, 
by bis wife Elizabeth, whose maiden name was Calvert. 
Our prelate was probably born in that city, but received 
bis academical education at Emanuel college, Cambridge, 
where at the age of twenty-^five^ he commenced M. A. was. 
ordained priest, and made chaplain to Lloyd, bishop of 
Winchester, in 1693. He was prebendary of Pipa Minor, 
April 27, 1697, and afterwards canon of Lichfield and 
Worcester, He was nominated to the bishopric of Lich« 
field, Sept 5, 1717, and consecrated at Lambeth, Nov. 17. 
From that see he was translated to Durham^ Nov«.5, 1730 ; 
and it was then publicly said that he gave 9000^. for that 
opulent see, which is scarcely credible. He was, it is uni- 
versally acknowledged, a prelate of great erudition, 'having 
rendered himself justly valued and esteemed as a worthy 
father of the church of England, and patron of the truth, 
by his learning and convincing writings^ particularly *^ A 
Defence of Christianity from the prophecies of the Old 
Testament, wherein are considered all the objections 
against this kind of proof advanced in a late Discourse on 
the Grounds and Reasons of the Christian Religion," Lon- 
don, 1725, 8vo. This was reckoned a very learned and 
daborate work, and compelled Collins to produce in 1 727 
a second book, particularly in answer to the bishop of 
Lichfield, which rank our author then held : this was en- 
titled " The Scheme of Literal Prophecy considered," and 
this occasioned a second antswer from the learned bishop, 
entitled " A Vindication of the Defence of Christianity,: 
from the prophecies of the Old Testament," published ii^ 
1728 : in this he largely and very solidly vindicates the 
antkjuity and authority of the book of Daniel, and. the ap- . 
plication of the prophecies there contained to the Messiah^ : 
against Collins's objections; and also fully obviates v what i 
he had farther advanced against the antiquity and univer- 
sality of the tradition and expectation among the Jews . 
ci*^cerning the Messiah. His other -publications were 


* Moreri.— Diet. Hist. 


eight occasional Sermons, the *' Chronological Disserta* 
tion^' prefixed to Aroald^s Ecclesiasticns, and a preface to a 
posthumous work of Dr. Ralph Cadwortli% entitled ** A 
Treatise concerning eternal and immutable Morality.^' He 
died at his house in Grosvenor-square July 20, 1750, of 
the stone, several large ones being found in his body, 
when opened, and was buried .dt Farnham Royal^ in the 
county of Bucks. Whilst he was bishop of Durham, he 
gave 50L towards augmenting Monkwearmouth living, also 
200/. to purchase a house for the minister of Stockton, and 
2000/. to be laid out in a purchase for the benefit of cler- 
gymen's widows in the diocese of Durham ; and it is re- 
corded, much to his honour, tbat he nevex sold any of his 
patent offices. ^ 

CHANDLER (Mary), an ingenious English lady^ sister 
to the subject of the following article, was borii at Malms^ 
bury, in.Wiltshi/e, in 1687, and was carefully trained up 
in the principles, of religion and virtue. As her father's 
circumstances rendered it necessary tbat she should apply 
herself to some business, she was brought up to that of a 
milliner. But, as she had a propensity to literature, she 
employed her leisure hours in perusitig the best modern 
writers, and as many as she could of the antient ones, 
especially the poets, as far as the best translations could 
assist her. Amongst these, Horace was her particul:^ fa- 
vourite, and she greatly regretted that she could not read 
him in the original. She was somewhat deformed in her 
person, in consequence of an accident in her childhood. 
This unfavourable circumstance she occasionally made a 
subject of her own pleasantry, and used to s&y, *^ That as 
her person would not recommend her, she ttiust endeavour 
to cultivate her mind, to make herself agreeable." This 
she did with the greatest care, being an admirable oecono- 
mist of her time ; and it is said, that she had so tnany ex- 
cellent qualities in her, that though her first appearance 
could create no prejudice in her favour, yet it was iitipos-t 
sible to know her without valuing and esteeming her. ' She 
thought the disadvantages of her shape were such, as gave 
ber no reasonable prospect of being happy in the married 
state, and therefore chose to remain single. She had, 
however, an honourable offer from a worthy country gen- 

1 Shaw's Hist, of Staffordshire. — Hutchinscn^s Durham. — Leland's View of 
Dteisttcal Writers. — Gent Mag* vol. LXIII. in which there is an account of bis 
family and descendants,— -Whiston's Life.— Nichols's Bowyer. 


tleman, of considerable fortune, who, attracted merely bj 
the goodness of her character, took a journey of an bun^- 
dred miles to visit her at Bath, where she kept a milliner^9 
shop, and where he paid her his acldresses. But she de* 
dined his offers, and is said to have convinced him that 
such a match could neither be for his happiness, nor her 
own. She pi^blished several poems in an 8vo volume, 
but that which she wrote upon '^ Bath'* was the best re- 
ceived. It passed through several editions. She intended 
to have written a large poeoi upon the being and attributes 
of God, and did execute some parts of it, but did not live 
to finish it. It was irksome to her to be so much confined 
to her business, and the bustle of Bath was sometimes dis« 
agreeable to her. She often languished for more leisure 
and solitude : but the dictates of prudence, and a desire 
to be useful to her relations, whom she regarded with the 
warmest affection, brought her to submit to the fatigues 
of ber business for thirty-five years. She did, however, 
sometimes enjoy occasional retirements to the country 
seats of some of her acquaintance; and was then extremely 
delighted with the pleasures of solitude, on which she 
wrote some beautiful, verses, and the contemplation of 
the works of nature. She was honoured with the esteem 
and regard of the countess of Hertford, afterwards 
duchess of Somerset, who several times visited her._ Mr* 
Pope also visited her at Bath, and complimented ber 
for her poem on that place, and the celebrated Mrs. Rowe 
was one of her particular friends. She bad the misfortune 
of a very valetudinary constitution, which was supposed 
to be, in some, measu/e, owing to the irregularity of her 
form. By the advice of- Dr. Cheyne, she entered on a 
vegetable diet, and adhered to it even to an extreme. She 
died on the litb of September, 1745, in the fifty -eighth 
year of her age, after about two days illness. * 

CHANDLER (SaMU£L), an eminent dissenting minister, 
was born at Hungerford, in Berkshire, in 1693, where bis 
father was then pastor of a congregation of protestant dis- 
senters. He early discovered a genius for literature, which 
was carefuily cultivated ; and being placed under proper 
masters, he^ made a very uncommon progress in clafisicel 
learning, and especially in the Greek tongue. As it was 
intended by his friends to bring him up for the ministry, 

*' Cibber'B Lives* written by her brother.-^o|;. Brit 

112 C H A N C L i: IL 

he was sent to an academy at firidgewater ; l>ut was soon 
removed to Gloucester, that he might becoihe a pupil to 
Mr. Samuel Jones, a dissenting minister of great eriiditioii 
and abilities, who had opened an academy in that city,! 
afterwards transferred to Tewkesbury. Such was the at- 
tenttonof that gentleman to the morals of bis pupils, and 
to their progress in literature, and such the skill and dis- 
cernment with which be directed their studies, that it was 
a singular advantage to be placed under so able and ac- 
complished a tutor. ' Chandler 'made the proper use of so 
happy a situation, applying himself to his studies with 
great assiduity, and particularly to critical, biblical, and 
oriental learning. Among the pupils of Mr. Jones, were 
Mr. Joseph Butler, afterwards bishop of Durham, and Mr. 
Thomas Seeker, afterwards archbishop of Canterbury, 
with whom he contracted a friendship that continued to the 
end of their lives, notwithstanding the different views by 
which their conduct was afterwards directed, and the dif- 
ferent situations in which they were placed. 

On leaving the academy, he continued bis studies at 
Leyden, and these being finished, he began to preach 
about July 1714; and being soon distinguished by his ta- 
lents in the pulpit, he was chosen, in 1716, minister of 
the presbyterian congregation at Peckham, near London, 
in which station he continued some years. Here he en« 
tered into the matrimonial state, and began to have an in- 
creasing family, when, by the fatal South-sea scheme of 
1720, be unfortunately lost the whole fortune which he 
had received with bis wife. His circumstances being 
thereby embarrassed, and his income as a ministef being^ 
inadequate to bis expences, he engaged in the trade of a 
bookseller, and kept a shop in the Poultry, London, in 
partnership with John Gray, who afterwards became a dis- 
senting minister, but conformed, and had a living in York- 
shire. Mr. Chandler continued this trade for about two 
or three years, still continuing to discharge the duties of 
tlie pastoral office. It may not be improper to observe, 
that in the earlier part of his life Mr. Chandler was subject 
to frequent and dangerous fevers; one of which confined 
him more than three months, and threatened by its effects 
to disable him for public service. He was, therefore, ad- 
vised to confine himself to a vegetable diet, which he ac^ 
cordingly did, ai\d adhered to it for twelve years. Thia 
produced so happy an alteration in his constitatioh; tha^ 


tbougli he tdPterwards returned t6 Ae usual way of living, 
he enjoyed art uncommon share of^ spirits and vigour till 
seventy; • 

While Mr. Chandler was minister of the congregation at 
Peckham, some gentlemen of the several denominations 
of dissenters in the city, came to a resolution to set up and 
support a weekly evening lectiite at the Old Jewry, for the 
winter half year. The subjects to be treated in this lec- 
ture were the evidences of natural and revealed religion, 
and answers to the principal objections against them. Two 
of the most eminent yoiuig ministers among the dissenters 
were appointed for the execution of this design, of which 
Mr. Chandler was One, and Mr. (afterwards Dr.) Lardner, 
who is so justly celebrated for his learned writings, was 
Another. But after some time this lecture was dropped, 
and another of the same kind set up, to be preached by 
eoe person only, it being judged that ip might then be 
conducted with m6re consistency of reason and uniformity 
of design; and Mr. Chandler was appointed for this ser- 
vice. In the course of this lecture he preached some 
sermons on the confirtnation which miracles gave to the 
divhie mission of Christ, and the truth of his religion; and 
vindicated the argument against th6 objections of Collins, 
ill his ** Discourse of the grounds and reasons' of the 
Christian religion;" These sermons, by the advice of a 
friend, he enlarged, and threw into the forhi of a con- 
tinued treatise, Tuid published in 17;25, 8vo, under the 
following title: " A Vindication of the Christian Religion, 
in two parts, I. A discburse on the nature and use of Mi- 
racles ;* II. An answer to a late book, entitled a Discourse 
on the grounds and reasons, of the Christian religion." 
Having presented A copy of this book to archbishop Wake, 
his grace expressed his sense of the value of the favour, 
in a letter, which is sLn honourable testimony to Mr. 
Chandler's merit. * It appears from the lietter, that the 
archbishop did not then know that the author was any other 
than a bookseller ; for he says r " I cannot but own myself 
to be surprised to see so much good learning and just rea- 
soning in a person of your profession ; and do thmk it a 
pity you should not rather spend your time in writing books 
than in selling them. But I am glad, since your circum- 
stances oblige you to the latter, that you do not wholly 
omit the former." Besides gaining the archbishop's ap- 
. VpL. Dj;, . : I 


114 C H A N D L E It 

probation, Mr. Chandler^s performance considerably a^-^ 
vanced his reputation in general, and contributed to Iiis 
receiving an invitation, about 1726, to settle as a minister 
with the congregation in the Old Jewry, which was one of 
the most respectable in London. 'Here he continued, first 
as assistant, and afterwards as pastor, for the space of forty 
years, and discharged the duties of the ministerial office 
with great assiduity and ability, being much estecQied and 
regarded by his own congregation, and acquiring a dis- 
tinguished reputation, both as a preacher and a. writer* 

His writings having procured him a high reputation for 
learning and abilities, he might easily have obtained the 
degree of D. D. and offers of that kind were made him ; 
but for some time he declined the acceptance of a diploma, 
and, as he once said in the pleasantness of conversation, " be- 
cause so many blockheads had been made doctors.'' How- 
ever, upon making a visit to Scotland, in company with his 
friend the earl of Finlater and Seafield, he with great pro- 
priety accepted of this honour, which was conferred upoa 
him without solicitation, and with every mark of respect, by 
the two universities of Edinburgh and Glasgow. He had 
likewise the honour of being afterwards elected F. R. and 
A. SS. the former in 1754. On the death of George II. 
in 1760, Dr. Chandler published a sermon on that event, 
in which he compared that prince to king David. This 
gave rise to a pamphlet, which was printed in 1761, en- 
titled " The History of the Man after God's own Heart ;'* 
in which the author ventured to exhibit king David as an 
example of perfidy, lust, and cruelty, fit only to be 
ranked with a Nero or a Caligula; and complained. of the 
insult that had been offered to the memory of the late 
British monarch, by Dr. Chandler^s parallel between him 
and the king of Israel. This attack occasioned Dr. 
Chandler to publish, in the following year, " A Review of 
the History of the Man after God's own Heart ;" in whiclji 
the falsehoods and misrepresentations of the historian are 
exposed and corrected. He also prepared for th^ press a. 
more elaborate work, which was afterwards published in 
2 vols. 8vo, under the following title : ". A Critical His- 
tory of the Life of David ; in which the principal events 
are ranged in order of time ; the chief objections of Mr. 
£ayle, and others, against the character of t|iis prince^ 
a^d the scripture account of him, and the occurrences of 


biis reign^ af e examined and refuted ; and the psalms which 
refer to him explained.^^ As this was the last, it was^ 
IScewise, one of the best of Dr. Chandler's productions. 
The greatest part of this work was printed off at the time 
of our author's death, which happened May 8, it 66, aged 
seventy-three. During the last year of his life, he was 
visited with frequent returns of a very painful disorder, 
which he endured with great resignation and Christian for-> 
titude. He was interred in the burying-ground at Bun- 
bill-fields, on the 16th of the month; and his funeral was 
very honourably attended by ministers and other gentle- 
men. He expressly desired, by his last will, that no de- 
lineation of his character might be given in his funeral 
sermon, which was preached by Dr. Amory. He had 
several children ; two sons and a daughter who 'died before 
him, and three daughters who survived him. His library 
was sold the same year. ' « 

Dr. Chandler was a man of very extensive learning and 
eminent abilities; his apprehension was quick and his 
jadgment penetrating ; he had a warm and vigorous ima- 
gination ; he was a very instructive and animated preacher; 
and his talents in the pulpit, and as a writer, procured him 
very great and general esteem, not only among the dis- 
senters, but among large numbers of the established 
church. He was well known and much respected by many 
persons of the highest rank, and was offered considerable 
preferment in the church; but he steadily rejected every 
proposition of that kind. He was principally instrumental 
in the establishment of the fund for relieving the widows 
aod orphans of poor protestant dissenting ministers : the 
plan of it was first formed by him ; and it was by his in- 
terest and application to his friends that many of the sub- 
scriptions for its support were procured. 

Dr. Chandler's other works were: 1. " Reflections on 
the Conduct of the Modern Deists, in their late writings 
against Christianity,*' 1727. 2. " A^ Vindication of the 
Antiquity and Authority of Daniel's Prophecies," 1723. 
3^ A translation of Limborch's " History of the Inquisi- 
tion,'* 173!, 2^vols. 4to. To this he prefixed ** A lisirge 
iisiiroductioti, concerning the rise and progress of perse- 
cution, and the real and pretended causes of it." This 
W4tt^ attacked by Dr. Berriman, in a pamphlet entitled 
^' Brief Remarks on Mr. Chandler's Introduction to t!^^ 
Ilistory of the Inquisition." Our author published, in the 

I 2 

Hi C H A.N D L E R. 

form of a letter, an answer to these ^^ Remarks/- which 
engaged Dr. Berriman to write " A Review of hb Re- 
marks,'* to which Mr. Chandler replied in " A second 
Letter to William Berriman, D. D. &c. in which his Re- 
view of his Remarks on the Introduction to the History of 
the Inquisition is considered, and the Characters of St. 
Athanasiusy and Martyr Laud, are farther stated^nd sup- 
ported." This publication was soon followed by another, 
entitled ** A Vindication of a passage of the Right Reve- 
rend the Lord Bishop of London, in his second Pastoral 
Letter, against the misrepresentations of William Berri- 
man, D. D. in a Letter to his Lordship ;" and here the 
controversy ended. 4. " The Dispute better adjusted 
about the proper time of applying for a repeal of the Cor- 
poration and Test Acts," &c." 1732, 8vo. 5» " A Para- 
phrase and critical Commentary on the prophecy of Joel," 
1735, 4to. This was. part of a commentary on the whole 
of the prophets, which he did' not live to finish. 6. " The 
History of Persecution," 1736, 8vo. 7. " A Vindication 
of the History of the Old Testament," in answer to Mor- 
gan's " Moral Philosopher," 1741, 8vo. 8. " A Defence 
of the Prime Ministry and Character of Joseph," 1742, 8vo. 
9. " The Witjiesses of the Resurrection of Jesus Christ 
re-examined, and their Testimony proved consistent," 
1744, 8vo. 10. " The Case of Subscription to explana- 
tory articles of faith, &c. calmly considered," 1745, 8vo. 
11. "A Letter to the rev. Mr. John Guyse, occasioned by 
his two sermons on Acts ix. 20. in which the scripture no- 
tion of pleaching Christ is stated and defended, and Mr. 
Guyse's charges against his brethren ar<e considered and 
proved groundless," 1729, 8vo. 12. " A second Letter 
to the rev. Mr. John Guyse, in which Mr. Guys^'s latitude 
and restrictive ways of preaching Christ are proved to be 
entirely the same; the notion of preaching Christ is far- 
ther cleared and defended ; the charge alledged against 
him of defaming his brethren is maintained and supported ; 
and his solemn arts in controversy are considered and ex- 
posed," 1730, 8vo. 13. ^'A Letter to the right hon. the 
Lord Mayor ; occasioned oy his lordship's noQiination of 
five persons, disqualified by act of parliament, as fit and 
proper persons to serve the office of Sheriffs, in which the 
nature and design of the corporation act is impartially con- 
sidered and stated," 1738, Svo. 14. "An Account of 
the Conferences held in Nicholas-lane, Feb, JS, 17.34, be- 

C H A N D L E ft. 117 

tween two Romish priests and some protestant divines ; 
with some remarks on a pamphlet entitled The Confer- 
ences, &c. truly stated," 173r», 8vo. 15. " Cassiodori 
Senatoris Complexiones in Epistolas, Acta Apostolorum, 
& Apocalypsin, e vetustissimis Canonicoriim Veronensium 
membranis nnper enitaj. Editio altera ad Florentinam 
fideliter expressa, opera & cura Samuelis Chandleri," 
1722, 12mo. 16. "A short and plain Catechism, being, 
an explanation of the Creed, Ten Commandments, and 
the Lord's Prayer, by way of question and answer," 1742, 
12mo. 17. ** Great Britain's Memorial against the Pre- 
tender and Popery ; to which is annexed, the method of 
dragooning the French protestants after the revocation of 
the edict of Nantes," 1745, li2mo. This piece was thought 
so seasonable at the time of the rebellion, that it passed 
through ten editions. 18. "Many occasional sermons." 
Dr. Chandler also wrote about fifty papers in the weekly 
publication called " The Old Whig, or Consistent Pro- 
testant." In 1768, 4 vols, of his sermons were published 
by Dr. Amory, according to his own directions in his last 
will ; to which was prefixed a neat engraving of him, from 
an excellent portrait by Mr. Cbamberlin. He also ex- 
pressed a desire to have some of his principal pieces re- 
printed in 4 vols. 8vo ; proposals were accordingly pub- 
lished for that purpose, but did not meet with sufficient 
encouragement. But in 1777, another work of our author 
was published, in 1 vol. 4to, " A Paraphrase and Notes 
on the Epistles of St. Paul to the Galatians and Ephesians, 
with doctrinal and practical Observations ; together with 
a critical and practical Commentary on the two Epistles of 
St. Paul to the Thessalonians." In this there are some 
valuable criticisms, but all are not entitled to that praise. 
Dr. Chandler also left in his interleaved Bible, a large 
number of critical notes, chiefly in Latin, and which were 
intended to be published ; but the design has not yet been 
executed, and the four gentlemen to whom they were in- 
trusted, Dr, Kippis, Mr. Fanfeer, Dr. Price, and Dr. Sa- 
vage, are all dead, nor have we heard in what manner they 
disposed of the copy. ' 

CHANDLER (Richard), D.D. an eminent scholar and 
antiquary, was born in 1738, and educated at Magdalen- 
college, Oxford, of which he was some time fellow. He 

1 Biog. Brit— Nichols's Bowyar. — ^Lelaad'fl Deistical Writers. 



took his degree of M. A. Oct 15, 1761, that of B. D. April 
23, 1773, and in December of the same year that of D,D. 
Having entered into holy orders, he had the college living 
of Worldlyham, in Hampshire, and was afterwards rector 
of Tilehurst, in Berkshire. His first appearance in the 
republic of letters was as editor of the " Oxford Marbles,'* 
in which capacity he was employed by the university. The 
** Marmora Oxoniensia" were accordingly printed at the 
Clarendon press, in a magnificent folio,, in 1763, with an 
elegant Latin preface by the editor, and a very copious 
index by his friend Mr. Loveday. Mr. Chandler also cof- 
r^cted the mistakes of the former editors, and in some of 
the inscriptions, particularly that of the Parian Chronicle, 
supplied the lacuna by many ingenious conjectures. 

His next publication arose from his connection with the 
Dilletanti, a society so called, composed originally (in 
1734) of some gentlemen who had travelled in Italy, and 
were desirous of encouraging at home a taste for those ob-^ 
jects which had contributed so much to their entertainment 
abroad. On a report of the state of this society's finances 
in 1764, it appeared that they were in possession of a con- 
siderable sum above what their current services required. 
Various schemes were proposed for applying part of this 
money to some purpose which might promote taste, and 
do honour to the society ; ^.nd after some consideration it 
was resolved, that persons properly qualified should be 
$ent, with sufficient appointments, to certain parts of the 
eas^, to collect information relative to the former state of 
those countries^ and particularly to procure exact descrip- 
tions of the ruins of such monuments of antiquity as are 
yet to be seen in those parts. Three persons were accor- 
dingly selected for this undertaking ; Mr. Chandler was 
appointed to execute the classical part of the plan; the 
province of architecture was assigned to Mr. Revett ; and 
the choice of a proper person for taking views and copying 
bas-reliefs, fell upon Mr. Pars, a young painter of pro- 
mising talents. 

These gentlemen embarked June 9, 1764, on board a ship 
bound for Constantinople ; and were landed ^at the Darda- 
nelles on the 25th of August. Having visited the Sigean 
promontory, the ruins qf Troas, with the islands of Tenedos 
and Scio, they arrived at* Smyrna on the 1 1th of September, 
and from that city, as their head-quarters, they made seve- 
ral excursions. In August 1765, they arrive^ at Athens; 


vhere they sUid till June 1766"; visiting Marathon, Eleasis, 
Salamisi Megara, and other places in the neighbourhood. 
Leaving Athens, they proceeded by the little island of 
Catauria, to Trsezene, Epidaurus, Argos, and Corinth. 
Thence they visited Delphi, Patrae, Elis, and Zante ; and 
OQ the 31st of August they set sail for Bristol, and arrived 
in England November 2, following. The result of this 
tour was published in 1769, under the title of " Ionian 
Antiquities, published with permission of the society of 
Dilletanti. By R. Chandler, M. A. F. S. A. N. Revett, 
arcliitect, and W. Pars, painter.'* Imp. fol. a volume which 
while ic did honour to the society, amply justified the ex- 
pectations formed of the talents employed. 

In 1774, Mr. (now Dr.) Chandler, published what maybe 
considered as a valuable supplement to the collections of 
ancient inscriptions by Oruter, Muratori, &c. under the 
title of ^^ Inscriptiones antiquse, plerasc^ue nondum edita;, 
in Asia Minore et Graecia, fMrgesertim Athenis collectae," 
fol. Clarendon press. The year following he g'*?»tified a 
much larger proportion of the public by his " Travels in 
Asia Minor 5 or an Account of a Tour made at the expence 
of the Society of Dilletanti," 4to, a work of considerable 
learning, and replete with curious information. This was 
immediately followed by his "Travels in Greece," 1776, 
4to : the principal part of this volume consists of a descrip- 
tion of Attica and its celebrated capital Athens, which is 
highly interesting, although, both in this and the preceding 
volume of travels, there are marks of carelessness ^nd haste 
which frequently obscure the author's meaning. 

Id 1802, he published " The History of Ilium or Troy: 
including the adjacent Country^ and the opposite Coast of 
the Chersonesus of Thrace.'' 

After his return from his travels, Dr^ Chandler, if we are 
not mistaken, resided chiefly on his living at Tileburst, where 
he undertook, at the instance of the late Mr. Loveday of Ca- 
versham, to collect materials for a life of William Waynflete, 
founder of Magdalen college. These he had put together in 
a state fit for the press as early as 1791, but why he did not 
then publish them does not appear. Before his death he 
gave the MS. to the late Charles Lambert, esq. F. S. A. of 
the Inner Temple, with a request that he would arrange 
the notes and prepare the whole for publication in the best 
and speediest manner possible. The notes, however, ivere 
found in a very confused state, and we suspect that, if th^ 
learned author had himself revised the work; he would 

120 C H A N'D L E R. 

have discovered other imperfections. It itas, hOwevei*^ 
published in an elegant volunae in 1811, 8vo, and jnay be, 
considered as a very valuable addition to collegiate history. 
Dr. Chandler died at Tilehurst-house, Feb. 9, 1810, leav- 
ing by h^s wife Miss Dorrien, whom he piarried in 1785, a 
son and daughtfer..* 

a learned French antiquary, was born at Paris, Sept. 12, 
1588, and became highly distinguished for general erudi- 
tion, and especially for his knowledge of civil and canon 
law, history, politics, and the belles lettres. Nor was he 
less admired for the excellence of his private character. 
Louis XIII. made him intendant of the fortifications of the 
gabelles, or excise on salt, &c. in the principality of Sedan, 
and lastly intendant of the finances of the duchies of Bar- 
and Lorrain. He compiled, from original records, " His- 
torical Memoirs of the Houses of Lorrain and Bar f ^ the 
first part of which only was published at Paris,. 1642, folio. 
He also published other works on detached parts of French, 
history ; and after his death, his son published his " Trea- 
tise on Fiefs,'' 1662, folio, in which he m^ntains an opi- 
nion, which has been thought to be erroneous, viz. that 
hereditary fiefs commenced only after the time of Hugh 
Capet. He died at Paris in 1^358.* 

CHANTREAU (Peter Nicholas), an ingenious French 
writer, the son of an advocate, was born at Paris in 1741, 
and became teacher of the French language- in a military 
school in Spain, where he published a French grammar, 
entitled "Arte de Hablar bien Frances," Madrid, 4to, 
which went through six e ditions. On his return, to France 
he was appointed pfolessor of history in the central school 
of Gers, and afterwards in the imperial school at Fountain- 
bleau. He died at Auch, Oct. 15, 1808. His works were, 

1. ** Dictionnaire des mots et usages introduits par la revo- 
lution,*' 8vo, a curious medley of cant phrases, which he 
published under the name of M. L'Epithete of Politicopolis. 

2. "Voyage dans les troisrOyaumesd'Angleterre, d'Ecosse, 
et d'Irlande:" this journey he took in 1788 and 1789, and 
the work appeared in 1792, 3 vols. 8vo. 3. " Lettres 
ecrites de Barcelonne a un zelateur de la libert6 qui voyage 
en Allemande," 1792, 8vo. 4. "Voyage philosophique, 
politique, et litteraire, fait en Russie pendant les ann^es 

» Gfnt. Mag. 1810 Month. Rev. vols. XUI. LIT. LIV. and LV.— Nichols's 

lowyer. * Morcri. — Diet. Hl«t. 

C H A N T ,R E A U. 121 

1788 and 1789, &c.'' 2 vOi)s. SrOj replete with curious and 
original informaiioTi. 5. >' Essai didactique sur la forme 
que doivent avoir les livres eiementaires 'faits pour lea 
ecotes nationaies/' 1795, 8vo. 6. " Tables chronolo- 
giqaes,*' a translation of Blair's Chronology, 1797, 4to. 
7. The Index to Beaumarchais's edition of Voltaire's works^ 
which forms the 71st and 72d voluTne of that edition. S« 
'' Rudimens de Thistoire," a work of very considerable 
merit 9. " La Science de Thistoire,*' 1803, et seqq. 4 vols. 
4to. This work is peculiarly happy in the plan, and judi- 
citus and accurate in its execation. 10. ^^ Histoire de 
France abreg^e et chronologique depuis les Gaulois et les 
Francs jusqu'en 1808," 2 vols. 8vo. * 

CHAPELAIN (John), a celebrated French poet, was* 
born at Paris Dec. 4, 1595, and having been educated 
under Frederic Morel, Nicholas Bonrbon, and other emi- 
nent masters, became tutor to the children of the marquis 
delaTronsse, grand marshal of France, and afterwards- 
steward to this nobleman. Puring an abode of seventeen 
years in this family, be translated " Guzman d'Alfarache," 
from the Spanish, and directed his particular attention to 
poetiy. He wrote odes, sonnets, the last words of cardinal 
Richelieu, and other pieces of poetry ; and at length dis* 
tioguished himself by bis heroic poem called ^' La Pucelle,'' 
Or " France delivr6e." Chapelain was thought to have 
succeeded to the reputation of Malherbe, and after his' 
death was reckoned the prince of the French poets. Gras-' 
sendi, who was his frielid, has considered him in this light; 
and says, that ^Hhe French muses have found some com- 
fort and reparation for the loss they have sustained by the 
death of Malherbe, in the person of Chagelain, who has 
now taken the place of the defunct, and is become the 
arbiter of the French language and poetry.^' Sorbiete has 
tiot scrupled to say, that Chapelain '^ reached ^ven Virgil 
himself in heroic poetry ;'' and adds, that *^ he was a man of' 
great erudition as well as modesty." He possessed this 
glorious reputation for thirty years ; and, perhaps, might 
have possessed it now, if he had suppressed the " Pucelle,:'* 
but the publication of this poem id 1656, ruined his 
poetical character, in spite of all attempts of his friends to 
support it. He had employed a great many years about it; 
die expectation of the public, was raised to the utmost; 
and, as is usual in such cases, disappointed* The conse* 

1 Diet. Hist. 

JS5J e H A P E L A I N. 

quence of this was, that he was afterwards set as mach too 
low in his poetical capacity as perhaps before be was too 

Cbapelain died at Paris, Feb. 22, 1674, aged seventy^ 
i>ine. He was of the king's counsellors ; very ricb, and 
had some amiable qualities, but was covetous. '^ Pelisson 
and I,^' says Menage, ^^ had been at variance a long time 
with Chapelain ; but, in a fit of humility, he called upon 
me and insisted that we should go and offer a reconciliation 
to him, for that it was his intention, *^ as much as possible^ 
to live in peace with all men." We went, and I protest I 
saw the very same billets of wood in the chimney which I 
had observed there twelve years before. He < had 50,000 
crowns in ready cash by him ; and bis supreme delight was 
to have his strong box opened and the bags taken out^ 
that he might contemplate his treasure. In this manner 
were his bags about him when he died ; which gave occa- 
sion to a certain academician to say, " there is our friend 
Chapelain just dead, like a miller among his bags." He 
had no occasion therefore to accept of cardinal Richelieu's 
offer. Being at the height of his reputation, Richelieu, 
who was fond of being thought a wit lis well as a statesman, 
and was going to publish something which he would have- 
pass for an excellent performance, could not devise a bet* 
ter expedient than prefixing Chapelain's name to it. 
" Chapelain," says he, " lend me your name on this oc- 
casion,^ and I will lend you my purse on any other." The 
learned Huet endeavoured to vindicate bis great poem, 
bi^t could not succeed against the repeated attacks of 
Boileau, Racine, and Fontaine. Chapelain, however, was 
a man of learning, and a good critic, and he has found an 
able defender in the abb^ d' Olivet, in his History of the 
French Academy. It was at the desire of Malberbe and 
Vaugelas that Chapelain wrote the famous preface to the 
'^ Adone" of Marino; audit was he who corrected the 
very first poetical composition of Racine, his *^ Ode to the 
Queen," who introduced Racine to Colbert, and procured 
him a pension, for which Racine repaid him by joining 
the wits in decrying his poem.^ 

CHAPELLE (Armand de la), minister of the Walloon 
church at the Hague, died in that city in 1746. He was 
reputed a man of great piety and learning, and deserves. 

1 Moreri. — Diet Hist — Biographic Gallica. 

G H A P E L L 5- 128 

jftotice here as the editor of the " Bibliothcqnc Anglaise,'' 
a species of Review, which he carried on from 1716 to 
1727, making 15 vols. 12mo, and of the ** Bihliotheque 
raisonn^ des Ouvrages des Savans/' from July 1728 to 
June 1735, 14 vols. In these he bad the occasional as- 
sistance of other literary men, and they contain many va-» 
luable pieces of criticism. He also translated Ditton on 
the " Resurrection," and a treatise on the ** Necessity of 
public Worship," the latter in favour of the protestants of 
Langaedoc. * 

CHAPELLE (Claude Emanuel Lullier), a celebrated 
French poet, called Chapelle from the place of his nativity, 
a village between Paris and St. Denys, was born in 1621. 
He was the natural son of Francis Lullier, a man of con- 
siderable rank and fortune, who was extremely tender of 
him, and gave him a liberal education. He had the cele-* 
brated Gassendi for his master in philosophy ; but he dis- 
tinguished himself chiefly by his poetical attempts. There 
was an uncommon ease in all he wrote ; and he was ex- 
cellent in composing with double rhymes. We are obliged 
to him for that ingenious work in verse and prose, called 
" Voyage de Bachaumont," which he wrote in conjunc- 
tion with Bachaumont. Many of the most shining parts 
in Moliere's comedies it is but reasonable to ascribe to 
him : for Moliere consulted him upon all occasions, and 
paid the highest deference to his taste and judgment. He 
was intimately acquainted with all the wits of his time, and 
with many persons of quality, who used to seek his com- 
pany : and we learn from one of his own letters to the 
marquis of Chilly, that he had no small share in the favour 
of the king, and enjoyed, probably from court, an annuity 
of 8000 livres. He is said to have been a very pleasant, 
but withal a very voluptuous man. Among other stories 
in the Biographia Gallica, we are told that Boileau met- 
him one day ; and as be had a great value for ChapAle, 
ventured to tell him, in a very friendly manner, that " bis 
inordinate love of the bottle would certainly hurt him." 
Chapelle seemed very seriously affected ; but this meeting 
happening unluckily by a tavern, " Come," says he, " let 
us turn in here, and I promise to attend with patience to 
all that you shall say." Boileau led the way, in hopes 
q{ coQverting him> but both preacher and hearer became 

1 Diet. Hist. 

124 C H A P £ L L E. 

so intoxicated that they were obliged to be sent home in 
separate coaches. Chapelle died in 1686, and his poetical 
works and " Voyage** were reprinted with additions at the 
Hague in 1732, and again in 17 5^, 2 vols. 12mo.^ 

CHAPELLE (John de la), the descendant of a noble 
family, was born at Bourges in 1655, and came to Paris in 
his youth, where he was trained up to business, and ob- 
tained the place of receiver-general of the finances at 
Rochelle. During this employment he found leisure to 
indulge his taste for polite literature, and the prince of 
Conti having heard of his merits made him one of his se- 
cretaries in 1687. The prince also sent him into Swisser- 
land on political business, and the king being afterwards 
informed of his talents, employed him in the same capa- 
city. La Chapelle disclosed his knowledge of the politics 
of Europe in a work printed at Paris in 1703, under the 
disguise of Basil, in 8 vols. 12mo, entitled " Lettres d'un 
Suisse a tin Frangois," explaining the relativp interest of 
the powers at war. He wrote also " Memoires historiques 
sur la Vie d'Armand de Bourbon, prince de Conti," 1659, 
4to, and, if we are not mistaken, translated and published 
in English in 1711, 8vo. He also wrote poetry, and some 
dramas, in which last he was an unsuccessful imitator of 
Kacine. In 1688 he was admitted a member of the French 
academy. He died at Paris in 1723.* 

CHAPMAN (George), a dramatic poet, and translator 
of Homer, was born in. 1557, as generally supposed, in 
Kent, but we have no account at what school he was edu- 
cated : he was, however, sent to the university when he 
was about seventeen years of age, and spent about two 
years at Trinity college, Oxford, where he paid little at- 
tention to logic or philosophy, but was eminently distin- 
guished for his knowledge in the Greek and Roman clas- 
sics. About the year 1576 he quitted the university, and 
repaired to the metropolis, where he commenced a friend- 
ship with Shakspeare, Spenser, Daniel, Marlow, and other 
celebrated wits. In 15^5 he published, in 4to, a poent 
entitled ** Ovid's Banquet of Sauce, a coronet for his 
mistress philosophy, and his amorous zodiac f to which 
he added, a translation of a poem into English, called 
** The amorbus cdntention of Phillis and Flora," written in 
Latin by a friar in 1400. The following year he published 

* Moreri. — ^Dict. Hiit.— Bioyraphia Gallica. * Moreri. — Diet. Hist, 


i» 4io, ** Tbe Shield of Achilles,^ from Homer ; and soon 
after, in the same yesvr^ a translation of seven books of the 
Iliad, in.4to. In 1600, fifteen books were printed in a 
thin folio ; and lastly, without date, an entire translation 
of the Ili^d, in folio, under the follo'wing title: ^'The 
Iliads of Homer, Prince of Poets. Never before in any 
language truly translated. With a comment upon some 
of his chief places: done according to the Greek by 
Qeorge Chapman. At London, printed by Nathaniel 

. In 1598 he produced a comedy entitled '^ The Blind 
Beggar of Alexandria, most pleasantly discoursing his va- . 
rious humours, in disguised shapes, full of conceit and 
pleasure,'' 4to, biit hot divided either into acts or scenes, 
and dedicated to the earl of Nottingham, lord high ad- 
miral. The following year he published another comedy 
in 4to, called ^* Humorous Day's Mirth," which was acted 
by the earl of Nottingham's servants. He is said to have 
bjeen much countenanced and encouraged by sir Thomas 
Walsingham, who, as Wood informs us, had a son of the 
same name, ^' whom Chapman loved from his birth." 
Henry, prince of Wales, and Carr, earl of Somerset, also 
patronized him; but the former dying, and tbe lat^r be* 
ii^g disgraced, Chapman's hopes of preferment oy their 
means were frustrated. His interest at court was likewise 
probably lessened by the umbrage taken by king James at 
some reflections cast. on the Scotch nation- in a comedy 
called <^ Eastward Hoe," written by Chapman, in con« 
junction with Ben Jonson and John Marston. He is sup* 
posed, however, to have had some place at court, either 
under king James, or his queen Anne. 

In 1 605 he published a comedy in 4to, called '^ All 
Fools," the plot of which is founded on Terence's Heauton«> 
titnorumenos, and which was performed at Black Friars. 
Jacob says that ^< it was accounted an escellent play in 
those days, aiKi was acted before king James." The foU 
lowing year be produced two other comedies ; one called 
*^ The Gentleman Usher," and the other '^ Monsieur 
D'Olivc." They were btfth printed in quaito: it is un- 
certain whether the first was ever performed ; but tbe latter 
was often acted with success at Black Friars. In 1607 he* 
published in 4to, " Bussy d' Amboise, a Tragedy," which' 
was often exhibited at St. Paul's in the reign of James I. 
and after tbe Restoration was revived with success. The 



sume year he publidied in 4to, ** Caeaar and Pompey^ s 
Roman Tragedy^ declaxing' their wars, out of whose events 
is evicted this proposition, Only a just nian is a free nian.'' 
The following year he produced *^ The Conspiracy and 
Tragedy of Charles, duke of Biron, marshal of France," 
4to, performed at Black Friars, in two parts. In 1611 he 
published in 4to, " May-day," which is styled a witty 
comedy, and. which was acted at Black Friars ; and in 1612 
another comedy, called *f The Widow'^ Tears ;" acted 
both at Black and White Friars. It has been observed, 
that ^^ some parts of this play are very fine, and the inci* 
dents affecting and interesting:" but the catastrophe is 
thought exceptionable. 

About this time he published an *^ Epicede, or Funeral 
S9ng on prince. Henry ;" and when the societies of Lin- 
coln's Inn and the Middle Temple, in 1613, had resolved 
to exhibit a splendid masque at Whitehall, in honour of 
the nuptials of the Palsgrave and the princess Elizabeth, 
Chapman was employed for the poetry, and Inigo Jones 
for the machinery. The same year he published, in 4to, 
a tragedy entitled ^ Bussy d'Amboise his Revenge," not 
acted with much applause. In 1714 he published in 4to^ 
'^ Andromeda liberata; or, the Nuptials of Perseus and- 
Andromeda,'' dedicated, in a poetical epistle, to Robert, - 
earl of Soolerset, and Frances, his countess. The same - 
year he printed his version of the " Odyssey," which he - 
also dedicated to the earl of Somerset. This was soon fol- - 
lowed by the " Batrachomuomachy," and the " Hymns,'*" 
and ^^ Epigrams." In 1616 he published in 12mo, a trans* 
lation of *^ Musaeus," with a dedication to Inigo Jones, iiv • 
which he is addressed as the most skilful and ingenious 
architect that England had yet seen. Mr. Warton re- 
marks, that *^ there was an intimate friendship between our - 
author and this celebrated restorer of Grecian palaces.** 
Chapman also published a paraphrastic translation, in 
ver^, of Petrarch's " Seven Penitential Psalms," with " A 
Hymn to Christ upon the Cross;" " The Tragedy of Al- 
phonsus, emperor of Germany ;" " Revenge for Honour,'* 
a tragedy ; and some attribute to him the *^ Two Wise ^ 
Men," a comedy. He is also supposed to have translated - 
^' Hesiod," but it does not appear to have been printed. 

He died in 1634, at the age of seventy-seven, and was • 
buried on the south side of St. Giles's church in the Fields^ ^ 
His friend Inigo Jones planned and erected a monument 


lo his memory, which was unfortunately destroyed with 
the old church. He appears to have been much respected 
Id his own time ; and, indeed, the man who communicated 
Homer to his countrymen, even in such language as that 
of Chapman, might justly be considered as their benefac-« 
tor; and in > estimating the merit of his version, candid 
allowance ought to be made for the age in which he lived, 
and the then unimproved state of our language. Of this 
translation Mr. Warton says, Chapman ^' is sometimes 
paraphrastic and redundant, but more frequently retrenches 
or impoverishes what he could not feel and express. In 
the mean time be labours with the inconvenience of an' 
aukward, inharmonious, and unheroic measure^ imposed 
by custom, but disgustful to modern ears. Yet he is not 
always without strength or spirit. He has enriched our 
language with many compound epithets, much in the 
manner of Homer, such as the stiver-footed Thetis, the 
silver-thomed Juno, the triplet-feathered helme, the high^ 
walled Thebes, thefair^fiaired boy, the siher-Jiomng floods, . 
the hugely-peopled towns, the Grecians navy^bound, the 
strong-winged lance, and many more which might be col- 
lected. Dryden reports, that Waller never could read 
Chapman^s Homer without a degree of transport. Pope is 
of opinion that Chapman covers his defects ^ by a daring 
fiery spirit, that animates his translation, which is some- 
thing like what one might imagine Homer himself to have 
written before he arrived to years of discretion.' But his 
fire is too frequently darkened by that sort of fustiaii which 
now disfigured the face of our tragedy." Mr. Warton's 
copy once belonged to Pope ; in which he has noted many 
of Chapman's absolute interpolations, extending sometimes 
to the length of a paragraph of twelve lines. A diligent 
observer will easily discern that. Pope was no careless 
reader of his rude predecessor. Pope complains that 
Chapman took advantage of an unmeasureable length of 
line : but in reality. Pope's lines are longer than Chap- 
nan's. If Chapman affected the reputation of rendering 
line for line, the specious expedient of chusing a pro- 
tracted .measure which concatenated two lines together, 
UQdoiibtedly favoured his usual propensity to periphrasis. 
— As a dramatic writer, he had considerable reputation 
among his contemporaries, and was justly esteemed for the 
escelteoce of his moral character. Wood says that he was 


a person of most reverend aspect, religious and temperate, 
qualities rarely meeting in a poet.'' ^ 

CHAPMAN (George), LL. D. a learned schoolmaster 
in Scotland, was born at Alvab in the county of Banff, in 
August 1723, and educated at the grammar-school of Banff, 
whence in 1737 he removed to King's college, Aberdeen, 
puring the academical vacation, which lasts from April 
to October, he engaged as a private tutor ill the family of 
a gentleman, by whose interest he was appointed master 
of the school of Alvah, and bein^ indulged w;th a substi- 
tute, he continued his academical course until April 174!, 
when he took the degree of master of arts. Feeling now a 
strong propensity to tuition, in order to qualify himself for 
conducting some respectable establishment of that kind, 
and in a situation of great publicity, he became assistant 
teacher in the grammar-school of Dalkeith. On the re- 
commendation of his friend and patron Dr. George Stewart, 
professor of humanity in the university of Edinburgh, he 
was in February 1747 admitted joint master of the gram- 
mar-school , of Dumfries with Mr. Robert Trotter, on whose 
resignation from age and infirmity, three years after, Mr. 
Chapman was promoted to be rector or head-master ; and 
in this laborious office he continued with increasing reputa- 
tion and success, until Martinmas 1774. A few years after 
he had formed and experienced the good effects of the 
plan of education which he adopted in this seminary, he 
committed it to writing, and occasionally submitted it, in 
die various stages of progression, to the inspection and ob- 
servations of his particular friends, of whose animadversions 
he availed himself by subjecting them to the test of atten- 
tive experiment. In the autumn of 1774, desirous of some 
relief from his accumulated labours, the consequence of his 
extensive fame as a teacher, be resigned his office in the 
achool, and confined himself to the instruction pf a few 
pupils who boarded in his house, until conceiving that this 
limited kind of academy, which parents were often solicit- 
ing him to enlarge, might affect the interest of his succes- 
sor in the school, he removed, in ISOi, to Inchdrewer near 
Banff, a farm that had long been occupied by his father, 
and to the lease of which he had succeeded on his death. 

^ Bio;. Brit. — Wartoa's Hist, of Pbetry, see luclex.— Bifg. Dram.^r^Cibb^iH 
Lives. — Ellis's Specimens.— Malone's Drydea^ vol. III. p. 5^. IV. p. 2b7. — 
Nichols's Miscellany Poems. - 


On this he erected a handsome dwelIing-bouse> capable 
of accommodating: a considerable number of boarders for 
tuition, an employment he could never relinquish, and for 
which few men were better qualified. He afterwards re- 
ceived the degree of LL. D. from the Marischal college of 
Aberdeen^ and about the same time removed to Edinburgh 
to superintend a printing-house for the benefit of a rela- 
tioa, and occasionally gave his assistance to the students of 
the university. He died at his house in Rose-street, Edin- 
burgh, Feb. 22, 1 806, in the eighty-third year of his age, 
leaving a character, as a schoolmaster and a gentleman, 
which will not soon be forgotten by his numerous pupils 
and friends. His publications were; 1. ^^A treatise oa 
Education," 1773, 8vo, already noticed, and which added 
much to his reputation. It is now in the fifth edition. 

2. << Hints on the Education of the Lower Ranks of the 
People, and the appointment of Parochial Schoolmasters.*' 

3. " Advantages of a Classical Education, &c." 4. " An 
abridgment of Mr. Ruddiman^s Rudiments and Latin 
Grammar." 5. *^ East India Tracts ; viz. Collegium Ben- 
galense, a Latin poem. Translation and Dissertation." 
This Latin poem, in Sapphic verse, and in which there is 
a considerable portion of fancy, with correct versification^ 
may be considered as a very uncommon instance of vigouif 
of mind at the advanced age of eighty-two. A new edi- 
tion of his works, for the benefit of his family, was an-» 
nounced soon after his death, in a ^^ Sketch of his Life,** 
published in 1808, 8vo, and was^to have been sent to press 
as soon as a requisite number of subscriptions were receiv- 
ed, but we are sorry to find that this undertaking has not 
been so liberally patronized as might have been expected..^; 

CHAPMAN (John), D. D. was the son of the rev, Wil- 
liam Chapman, rector of Stratfield-sjly in Hampshire^ 
where he was probably born in 1704. He. was educated at 
King's college, Cambridge, A. B. 1727, and A. M. 1731* 
His first promotion was the rectory of Mersham in Kent^ 
and of Alderton, with the chapel of Smeeth ; to which he 
>as appointed in 1739 and 1744, being then domestic 
chaplain to archbishop Potter. He was also archdeacon 
of Sudbury, and treasurer of Chichester, two options. 
Being educated at Eton, he was a candidate for the pro^ 
vostship of that college, and lost it by a small majority^ 

i Sketch as above, 

V0L,iX. K 

130 (5 S A P M A T^; 

And after a most severe contest with Dr. George. Among 
bis papils he had the honour to class the first lord Cam- 
den, Ur, Ashton, Horace Walpole, Jacob Bryant, sir W. 
Draper, sir George Baker, and others who afterwards at- 
tained to considerable distinction in literature. His first 
publication was entitled " The Objections of a late anony- 
mious writer (Collins) against the book of Daniel, consi- 
dered," Cambridge, 1728, 8vo. This was followed by his 
" Remarks on Dr. Middleton's celebrated Letter to Dr. 
Waterland," published in 1731, and which has passed 
through three editions. In his " Eusebius," 2 vols. 8vo, 
he defended Christianity against the objections of Mor- 
gan, and against those of Tindal in his " Primitive Anti- 
quity explained and vindicated." The first volume of 
Eusebius, published in 1739, was dedicated to archbishop 
Potter ; and when the second appeared, in 1741, Mr. 
Chapman styled himself chaplain to his grace. In the 
fame year he was made archdeacon of Sudbury, and was 
honoured ^itb the diploma of D. D. by the university of 
Oxford. He is at this time said to have published the 
'* History of the ancient Hebrews vindicated, by Theo- 
phanes'Cantabrigiensis," 8vo ; but this was the production 
0f Dr. Squire. He published two tracts relating to 
** Phlegon," in answer to Dr. Sykes, who had maintained 
that the eclipse mentioned by thsit writer had no relation to 
the wonderful darkness that happened at our Saviour's Cru- 
cifixion. In 1733 Dv. Chapman published a sermon 
preached at the consecration of bishop Mawson, and four 
other single sermons, 1739, 1743, 1748, and 1752. In a 
dissertation written in elegant Latin, and addressed to 
Mr. (afterwards Dr.) Tunstall, then public orator of the 
urtiversity of Cambridge, and published with bis Latin 
€^pistle to Dr. Middleton concerning the genuineness of 
some of Cicero's epistles, 1741, Dr. Chapman proved that 
Cicero published two Editions of his Academics ; an ori- 
ginal thought that bad escaped all former commentators, 
and which has been applauded by Dr. Ross, bishop of Exe- 
ter, in his edition of Cicero's " Epistolae ad famiiiares,'* 
1749. In 1744 Mr. Tunstall published "Observations on 
the present Collection of Epistles betvveen Cicero and M. 
Brutus^ representing several evident marks of foi^ery in 
those epistles," &c. to which iivas added a *^ Letter from 
D^r. Chapman, on the ancient numeral characters of the 
Koman legions." Dr. Middleton had asserted, that the 



Roman getieraU, when they had occasion to raise new 
legions in distant parts of the empire, used to name them 
according to the order in which they themselves had raised 
them, without regard to any other legions whatever. This 
notion Dr. Chapman controverts and confutes. According 
to Dr. Middleton there might have been two thirtieth le- 
gions in the empire. This Dr. Chapman denies to have 
been customar}' from the foundation of the city to the time 
when Brutus was acting against Anthony, but affirms no- 
thing of the practice after the death of Brutus. To this 
Dr. Middleton made no reply. In 1745 Dr. Chapman was 
employed in assisting Dr. Pearce, afterwards bishop of 
Rochester, in his edition of ^^ Cicero de Officiis*." About 
this time Dr. Chapman introduced Mr. Tunstall and Mn 
Hall to archbishop Potter, the one as his librarian, the 
other as his chaplain, and therefore bad some reason to 
resent their taking an active part against him in the option 
cause, though they both afterwards dropped it. Dr. Chap* 
man's aboVe-mentioned attack on Dr. Middleton, which be 
could not parry, and his interposition in defence of his 
much-esteemed friend Dr. Waterland, provoked Dr. Mid- 
dleton to retaliate in 1746, by assailing him in what he 
thought a much more vulnerable part, in his Charge to the 
archdeaconry of Sudbury, entitled " Popery the true bane 
of letters." In 1747, to Mr. Mounteney's edition of some 
•elect orations of Demosthenes, Dr. Chapman prefixed in 
Latin, without his name, observations on the Commenta* 
ries commonly ascribed to Ulpian, and a map of aneient 
Greece adapted to Demosthenes. Mr. Mounteney had 
been schoolfellow with Dr. Chapman at Eton, and was 
afterwards a baron of the exchequer in Ireland. If arch- 
bishop Potter had lived to another election, Dr. Chapman 
was intended for prolocutor. As executor and surviving 
trustee to that prelate, his conduct in that trust, particularly 
his presenting himself to the precentorship of Lincoln, void 

* This Dr. Chapman always called 
''our edition." Its excellence was 
MBaUoDed with high eBComiutn by a- 
cardinal at Rome to Mr. Guthrie. 
Our author's aisistance was thus 
acknowledged in the preface : " Ne 
qaid rero huic editioni deesset quod 
^ me parari posset a doctis&imis 
quibusdam viris, amicis meis, im- 
petraTi, ut bos libros de officiis rele- 
garent, et mecum sua <]uisque anno- 
taU Gonunuaicarent. Gratis igituv 

tibi, lector, ill is referendss sunt; in 
primis eruditissimo Job. Chapmanno, 
cujus non paucas notas & utiles fc 
doctas meis adjunxi, ejus nomine ad 
finem uniusicujusque apposito. Mulr 
turn debet illi viro respublica literaria; 
qui nonnuUa alia lectu dignissima jam 
in lucem protuUt, plura (ut spero) 
prolaturus, cum omni fere doctrinsi 
generi se tradit, incredibili pene Ak 
eadem felici diligentia.'' 

K 2 


by the death of Dr. Trimnell (one of his grace's options)^ 
was brought into chancery by the late Dr. Richardson^ 
when lord keeper Henley in 1760 made a decree in Dr. 
Chapman's favour ; but, on an appeal to the house of lords, 
the decree was reverse'd, and Dr. Richardson ordered to be 
presented. . When Mr. Yorke had finished his argument, 
in which he was very severe on Dr. Chapman, Mr, Pratt, 
afterwards lord Camden, who had been his pupil, and Was 
then his counsel, desired him, by a friend, not to be un- 
easy, for that the next day he ^' would wash him as whit^ 
as snow." Thinking his case partially stated by Dr. Burn, 
in his ^' Ecclesiastical Law," vol. I. (article Bishops), a» 
it was taken from the briefs of his adversaries, he expostu- 
lated with him on the subject by letter, to which the doctor 
candidly replied, " that he by no means thought him ci-imr- 
nal, and in the next edition of bis work would certainly 
add his own representation." On this affair, however. Dr. 
Hurd passes a very severe sentence in his correspondence 
with Warburton lately published. Dr. Chapman died the 
J 4th of October, 1784, in the 80th year of his age.* 

CHAPMAN (Thomas), D. D. the son of John Chap- 
man, of Billinghagn, in the county of Durham, was born at 
that place in 1717, aud educated at Richmond school in 
Yorkshire. He afterwards entered of Christ college, 
Cambridge, where he took his degrees of A. B. 1737, A.M. 
174], and obtained a fellowship. In 1746 he was chosen 
master of Magdalen college, and had the degree of LL. D. 
conferred on him in 1748, and that of D. D. in 1749. In 
1748 he served the office of Tice- chancellor, and was ap- 
pointed one of his majesty's chaplains. In 1749, he was 
rector of Kirby-over-blbwer in Yorkshire, in 1750 he was 
presented by the king to a prebendal stall in the cathedral 
of Durham; and in 1758^ was appointed official to the 
dean and chapter. He died sCt Cambridge, June 9, 1760, 
in his forty-third year, and was. interred iu the chapel of 
Magdalen college. " He died," says bishop Hurd, " in the 
flower of his life and fortune ; I knew him formerly very well. 
He was in bis nature a vain and busy man." t)r. Chap- 
man is now known only by his ^' Essay on the Roman Se*- 
nate," 1750, in which he coincides with Dr. Middleton's 
opinion on the same subject. They were both animad- 

1 Bibl. Topog. Dritan. — Harwood's AlunnDi Etonenseii.— Nichols's Bowyer.'-^ 
Lcland's Deistical Writers. 

C H A P O N E. 133 

verted on by Mr. Hooke^ the Roman historian^ in his 
"Observations, &c." published in 1758, 4to. * 

CHAPONE (Hester), an ingenious English lady, was 
the daughter of Thomas Mulso, esq. of Twy well in North- 
amptonshire, and was born Oct. 27, 1727. At a very 
early age she exhibited proofs of a lively imagination and 
superior understanding. - It is said that at nnie years of 
age she composed a romance, entitled " The Loves of 
Amoret and Melissa,*' which, we. are told, exhibited "fer- 
tility of invention, and extraordinary specimens of genius." 
Her mother was a beauty, with ail the vanity that unhap- 
pily attaches to beauty, and fearing that her daughter's 
understanding might become a more attractive object than 
the personal charms on which she valued* herself, she took 
no pleasure in the progress which Hester seemed to make, 
and if she did not obstruct, employed at least no extraor- 
dinary pains in promoting her education. This mother, 
however, died when her daughter was yet young, and a 
circanistance which otherwise might have been of serious 
consequence, seemed to strengthen the inclination miss 
Mulso bad shewn to cultivate her mind. She studied the 
French and Italian languages, and made some progress in 
the Latin. She read the best authors, especially those 
who treat of morals and philosophy. To these she added 
a critical perusal of the Holy Scriptures, but history, we 
are told, made no part of her studies until the latter part 
of her life. Her acquaintance with Riciiardson, whose 
novels were the favourites of her sex, introduced her to 
Mn Chapone, a young gentleman then practisuig law in 
the Temple. Their attachment was mutual, but not hasty, 
or imprudent. She obtained her fatner's consent, and a 
social intimacy continued lor a considerable period, before 
it ended in marriage. In the mean time, miss Mulso be^ 
came acquainted with the celebrated miss Carter ; a cor- 
respondence took place between them, which increased 
their mutual esteem, and a friendship was thus cemented, 
which lasted during a course of more than fifty years. 

Miss Mulso's first production appears to have been the 
Ode to Peace, and that addressed to miss Carter on her 
intended publication of the ti'anslation of Epictetus. About 
the same time she wrote the story of Fidelia, which misB 

* Hutchiason's Durham, vol II. p. 182. — Hurd and Warburton's Lelterf, 
•p. ^?5, 226, 4to» . 

1S4 C H A P O N E. 

Carter and her other friends virho had read it, persuaded 
her to send to the editor of the " Adventurer." 

In 1^760 she was married to Mr. Chapone, removed to 
London, and for some time lived with her husband in 
lodgings in Carey-street, and afterwards in A run del- street. 
She enjoyed every degree of happiness which mutual at- 
tachment could confer, but it was of short duration. In 
less than ten months after they were married, Mr. Chapone 
was seized with a fever which terminated his life, after 
about a week's illness. At fir^t Mrs. Chapone seemed £o 
bear this calamity with fortitude, but it preyed on her 
health, and for some time her life was despaired of. She 
recovered, however, gradually, and resigned herself to a 
state of life in which she yet found many friends and many 
consolations. Most of her time was passed in London, or 
in occasional visits to her friends, among whom she had the 
happiness to number many distinguished characters of both 
sexes, lord Ly ttelton, Mrs. Montague, and the circle who 
usually visited her house. In 1770 she accompanied Mrs. 
Montague into Scotland. In 1773 she published her " Let- 
ters on the Improvement of the Mind," originally in- 
tended for the use of her niece, but given to the world at 
the request of Mrs. Montague, and her other literary friends. 
As this was her first avowed publication, it made her name 
more generally known, and increased the number of her 
admirers. This work was followed by a " Volume of Mis- 
cellanies,'^ including some pieces formerly published with- 
out her name. 

The latter years of her life were embittered by the loss 
of the greater part of the friends of her youth ; and after 
the death of her brother in 1799, as London had no more 
charms for her, she determined to settle at Winchester, 
where her favourite niece was married to the rev. Ben. 
Jeffreys; but the death of this young lady in child-bed, 
made her relinquish the design, and remain in her cheerless 
lodgings in London. So many privations had now begun 
to affect her mind, and her sympathizing friends persuaded 
her to remove to Hadley, where she died Dec. 25, 1801, 
in the seventy- fourth year of her age. In 1807, her whole 
works were published in 2 vols. 12mo, with a portion of her 
literary correspondence, and an interesting memoir of her 
life, to which we are indebted for the above sketch. * 

1 Life as abOTCw-Biitlfb Essayist!^ vol, XXIII. Preface to th« Adrenturer, 
p. 33. 

C H A P P E- 13^ 

CHAPPE D'AUTEROCHE (John), an eminent French 
astronomer, was born at Mauriac, a town in Upper Au- 
vergne, on the 23d of Ma}% 1728, o( John Chappe, lord 
of the barony of Auteroche, and Magdalen de la Farge, 
daughter of Peter de la Farge, lord of la Pierre. From 
bis birth he enjoyed the valuable advantage of not being 
under the necessity of struggling, like many men of genius, 
with adversity and penury. Tlie distinguished rank which 
his parents held in their province, added to their wealth 
and ppulence, enabled them to bestow upon their son an 
excellent education, the foundation of which was laid at 
Maui^iac, where he began bis studies. Having made con- 
siderable progress here, he went afterwards to finish them 
at the college de Louis le Grand. M. Chappe, from his 
earliest infancy, shewed a surprising turn for drawing and 
the mathematiqs. Descartes was scarcely eight years of 
9ge when be was styled a philosopher, and Chappe at 
that age might have been called a mathematician. An 
irresistible impulse, and singular disposition, as if innate, 
led him to draw plans and make calculations ; but these 
pursuits, quite foreign to the studies in which he was then 
engaged, occupied no part of that time which was allotted 
for them. He applied to the former only at those mo- 
ments which the regulations of the college suffered him to 
call his own. 

His active genius discovered to him in the silence and 
soUtude of the cloister resources which he had little ex-* 
pected. During his course of philosophy, he formed an 
acquaintance with a carthusian, named Dom Germain, 
from whom he learned the elements of the mathematics 
and of astronomy. In these two sciences he made a- rapid 
progress ; for the zeal of the master was well seconded by 
the diligence of the scholar, ^;ho followed his literary pur- 
suits with the same ardour and enthusiasm as the generality 
of young men follow dissipation and pleasure. So singular 
a phenomenon could not long remain unknown. Fathev 
de la Tour, then principal of the college, being struck 
with young Chappe, mentioned him to M. Cassini, and 
spoke of the progress he had made tn such high terms, thai 
tbe latter became very desirous to see some of his works* 
After causing him to make a few experiments in his pre-* 
sence, that celebrated academician could not help admir- 
ing his happy disposition ; but he did not confine himself 
tf> praises only. Being a warm patron and protec^tor of merits 

136 C H A P P E. 

he from that moment resolved to cultivate young Chappe^s 
talents, and to endeavour to render them useful to society. 
With this view he employed him in taking plans of several 
of the royal buildings, and made him assist in delineating 
the general map of France. 

The abb£ Chappe, however, made himself known in the 
astronomical world by a work of much greater importance. 
This was a translation of the works of Dr. Halley from the 
English. This translation appeared in 1752 ; and the ad- 
ditions made by the translator, and the new inferences he 
drew from the labours of the English astronomer, placed 
bim almost on a level with the author. The abb6 Chappe 
had now given too striking a specimen of his talents not to 
attract the notice of government. The king having ordered 
plans of several places in the district at Bitche in Lorraine 
to be taken, and the forest in the neighbourhood of the 
town of that name to be surveyed, the abbe Chappe's 
merit procured him the superintendance and direction of 
this business ; and the event shewed, that the ministry 
could not have chosen a person more deserving of their 
confidence. On his return from this expedition he was 
elected a member of the royal academy of sciences ; and 
on the 17th of January 1759, he obtained the place of 
assistant astronomer, vacant by the promotion of M . de la 
Lande to that of associate. 

The two comets which appeared in 1760 gave the abb6 
an opportunity of shewing that he was not unworthy of the 
honour conferred on him ; he observed them both with the 
greatest assiduity and attention, and the result of bis ob- 
servations was published in the memoirs of that year, with 
refiections on the zodiacal light, and an aurora borealis 
which appeared about the same period. As the transit of 
Venus over the sun's disk, which Halley announced would 
happen (?n the 6th of June 176 1,, seemed to promise great 
advantage to astronomy, it very much excited the curiosity 
of the learned throughout all Europe. It was necessslry, 
however, in order to derive benefit from it, that it should 
be observed in some very remote places ; and as Tobolsk, 
the capital of Siberia, find the island of Roderigo in the 
East- Indies, were thought to be the properest, the diflSl- 
eulty was to find astronomers bold enough to transport 
themselves thither. But what will not the love of science 
prompt men to do ? M. Pinge offered to go to the island 
gf Roderigo^ and Tohokk remained to the abb^ Cbapge^ 

C H A P P E. 137 

irfio, had the matter been left to himself, would have made 
no other choice. 

The abb^ set out for the place of his destination in the 
month of November 1760. After encountering a variety 
of almost incredible difficulties,, he arrived at Tobolsk, 
where ignorance and superstition prepared new danger for 
him. The simple Russians, attentive to all his actions, 
beheld his preparations with the utmost terror ; the obser- 
vatory which he caused to be erected, and the instruments 
he transported thither, increased their alarm; and the 
overflowing of the river Irtish, which inundated part of the 
city, a natural consequence of the thaw that took place, 
served still more to confirm them in their suspicions. The 
governor of Tobolsk, a man of education, to whom the 
world is indebted for a correct chart of the Caspian, was 
obliged to give the abb^ a guard for his protection. The 
moment so long wished for, and purchased by such fatigue 
and peril, being at length arrived, the abb^, on the 5th of 
June, inade every necessary preparation for observing the 
transit; but the pleasure which he anticipated from the 
success of his expedition was not free from a mixture of 
pain, for the sky, during the night, became quite overcast. 
This was a new source of uneasiness to the abb^ ; but 
luckily for science, a favourable wind, which sprung up at 
sun-rise, revived his hopes, by withdrawing the veil that 
obscured the object of his researches. The observation 
was made with the necessary precision, in presence of M. 
Ismailof, count Poushkin, and the archbishop of Tobolsk : 
and the academy of sciences at Paris, as well as that of 
Petersburg^ received the particulars of this event «oon after 
by a courier whom M. Ismailof immediately dispatched* 
The glory of this observation had preceded the abb6, and 
prepared new honours for htm at St Petersburg. The 
empress, with a view of inducing him to settle there, made 
bim an offer, by means of baron de Breteuil, of the distin- 
guished place which had been occupied by M. Delisle; 
But choosing rather to pass his days at home, he rejected 
the offers made him. On his arrival in France he began 
to prepare an account of his journey, which was published 
in 1768, in 3 vols. 4to, elegantly printed and adorned 
with engravings. Besides the account of the particular 
object of his journey, the philosopher finds in it the history 
of mankind and of nature ; and the statesman the political 
system ancl interest of nations. The great labour required 

ns . C H A P P E, 

to prepare this work for publicatipa did not interrupt this 
abba's astronomical pursuits. , He enriched the memoiry 
of the academy with several instructive pieces; and that 
which he presented in 1767 is the more valuable^ as it 
confirms the experiments made upon electricity at To- 
bolsk^ and demonstrates the identity of the electric fluid 
with lightning. 

Another transit of VeDUs, which, according to astrono- 
mical calculation, was to happen pn the 3d of June 1769, 
afforded the abb6 Cbappe a new opportunity of manifest- 
ing his zeal for the advancement of astronomy. California 
was pointed out as the properest place in that quarter for 
observing this phaenomenon; and the abb^, who had tri-' 
umphed over the' rigoui-s of the north, thought be could 
Inrave. also the ardours of the torrid zone. He departed 
therefore from Paris in 1768, in company with M. PauH^ 
an engineer, and M. Noel, a draftsman, whose talents 
gave reason to hope, that he might contribute to render 
the expedition interesting in more respects than one. He 
carried with him also a watchmaker, to take care of his 
instruments, and to keep them in proper repair. On his 
arrival at Cadiz, the.vessfel belonging to the Spanish fiota, 
in which he was to embark for Vera Cruz, not being ready 
in time, he obtained an order for equipping a brigantin4&, 
which carried twelve men. The fragility of this vessel, 
which would have alarmed any other person, appeared to 
the abbe as adding to the merit of the enterprise. Judging 
of its velocity by its lightness, he considered it as better 
calculated to gratify his impatience; and in this he was 
not deceived : for he arrived safe at the capital of New 
Spain, where he met with no delay. The marquis de 
Croix, governor of Mexico, seconded his activity so well, 
that he reached St. Joseph nineteen days before the tiixie 
caarbed out for the observation. The village of St. Joseph, 
where the abb^ landed, was desolated by an infectious 
joUsorder, which had raged for some time, and destroyed 
great numbers of the inhabitants. In vain did his friends, 
from a tender solicitude for his preserv^^tion, urge him to 
remove from the infection, not to expose himself impru^ 
dently, and to take his station at some distance towards 
Cape San Lucar. His lively and ardent zeal for the pro« 
mo^n of science, shut his ears against all these remonr 
fitrances; and the only danger he dreaded was, that of 
losing the opportunity of accomplishing the object of hU 

C H A P P E. ' IM 

t^isfaes. He had the good fortune, however, to tniake hit 
observation in the completest manner on the 3d of June t 
but, becoming a victim to his resolution, he was three 
days after attacked by the distemper whi€h seemed hitherti^ 
to have respected him. Surrounded by his acquaintanceit 
either sick or dying, and destitute of that assistance which 
he had given them as long as health remained, the abbA 
was struggling between life and death, when by his own 
imprudence he destroyed every ray of hope, and hastened 
that fatal period which deprived the world of this valuable 
member of society. The very day he had taken physic be 
insisted upon observing an eclipse of the moon ; but^ 
scarcely had he finished his observation, when bis disorder 
grew considerably worse, and the remedies administered 
not being able to check its progress, he died on the 1st of 
August 1769, in the 42d year of his age. 

Had it not been for the care of a very respectable French 
academician, the fruits of this observation would have, 
been entirely lost to the learned. The abb^ Chappe haV'^ 
ing at bis death committed his papers to the care of M« 
Pauli, they were afterwards arranged and published by 
M. Cassini, the son, who at an age when others only afford 
hopes of their future celebrity, had acquired the highest 
reputation ; and if any thing could console the public for 
the loss occasioned by the abb6 being prevented from put- 
ting the last band to his work, it certainly was the seeing 
it appear under the auspices of so able an editor. 

The evening before his departure from Paris, being at 
supper with count de Merci, the Imperial ambassador^ 
several of his friends represented to him, that he ought not 
to undertake such a voyage, and offered to lay a consider-*' 
able wager that he would never return. " Were I certain,*' 
replied the abb^, " that I should die the next morning 
after I had made my observation, I would not hesitate 
amouient, nor be in the least deterred from embarking.'* 
An heroic sentiment, which paints in a few words the cha« 
racter of this learned man. 

The published works of M. Chappe, are, 1. *^ The As- 
tronomical Tables of Dr. Halley ; with observations and 
additions," 1754, 8vo. 2. *' Travels into tSiberia," i76Si, 
2 vols. fol. 3. " Voyage to California to observe the 
transit of Venus over the Sun, the 3d of June 1769,^ 
1772, 4to. 4. He had a considerable number of papers 
iosented in th<? Mem^rs of the Academy, for the years 

146 C H A P P E L. 

1760, 1761, 1764, 1765, 1766, 1767, and 1768, chiefly 
relating to astronomical matters. * 

CHAPPEL (WiLUAM), avery learned and pious divine, 
bishop of Cork, Cloyne, and Ross, in Ireland, was de- 
scended, as he himself tells us, from parents in narrovir 
circumstances, and was born at Lexington, in Notting- 
hamshire, I>ec. 10, 1512. He was sent to a grammar- 
school at Mansfield, in the same county ; and thence, at 
the age of seventeen, removed to Christ's-coUege, in Cam- 
bridge ; of which, after having taken his degrees of B. and 
M. A. he was elected fellow in 1607. He became a very 
eminent tutor, and was also remarkable for his abilities as 
ia disputant, concerning which the following anecdotes are 
recorded. In 1624 king James visited the university of 
Cambridge, lodged in Trinity-college, arid was enter- 
tained with a philosophical act, and other academical per- 
formances. At these , exercises Dr. Roberts of Trinity - 
college was respondent at St. Mary's, where Chappel as 
opponent pushed him so hard, that, finding himself unable 
to keep up the dispute, he fainted. Upon this, the king, 
who valued himself much upon his skill in such matters, 
undertook to maintain the question, but with no better 
success than the doctor ; for Chappel was so much his su- 
perior at these logical weapons, that his majesty openly 
professed his joy to find a man of great talents so good a. 
subject. Many years after this, sir William St. Leger 
riding to Cork with the popish titular dean of that city, 
.Chappel, then dean of Cashel, and provost of Dublin, ac* 
cidentally overtook them ; upon which sir William, who 
was then president of Munster, proposed that the two 
deans should dispute, which, though Chappel was not 
forward to accept, yet he did not decline. But the 
popish dean, with great dexterity and address, extri- 
cated himself from this difficulty, saying, ^' Excuse me, 
sir ; I don't care to dispute with one who is wont to. kill 
his man." 

It is probable that he would have spent his days in col- 
lege, if he had not received an unexpected offer from 
Laud, then bishop of London, of the deanery of Cashel, 
in Ireland ; which preferment, though he was much dis- 
turbed at Cambridge by the calumnies of some who envied 
his reputation, he was yet very unwilling to accept, For 

1 From the last edit, of this Dictionary. — ^Dict Hist. 

C H A P P E L. 141 

being a man of a quiet easy temper, be had no inclination 
to stir, nor was at all ambitious of dignities ; but he de* 
termined at length to accept the offer, went over to Ire- 
land accordingly^ and was installed August 20, 1633. Soon 
after he was made provost of Trinity-college, Dublin, by 
Laud, then archbishop of Canterbury, and chancellor of 
the university of Dublin, who, desirous of giving a nev^ 
form to the university, looked upon Cbappel as the fittest 
person to settle the establishment that was proposed* 
Chappel took great pains to decline this charge, -the bur-^ 
den of which he thought too heavy, and for this purpose 
returned to England in May 1634, but in vain. Upon 
this he went down to Cambridge, and resigned his fellow- 
ship ; which to him, as himself says, was the sweetest of 
earthly preferments. He also visited bis native country, 
and taking his last leave of his ancient and pious mother, 
he returned to Ireland in August. He was elected provost 
of Trinity-college, and had the care of it immediately 
comaiitted to him ; though he was not sworn into it till 
June 5, 1637, on account of the new statutes not being 
sooner settled and received. The exercises of the univer- 
sity were never more strictly looked to, nor the discipline 
better observed than in his time ; only the lecture for 
teaching Irish was, after his admission, wholly waved. 
Yet, that be might mix something of the pleasant with the 
pro6table, and that young minds might not be oppressed 
with too much severity, he instituted, as sir James Ware 
tells us, among the juniors, a Roman commonwealth, which 
continued during the Christmas vacation, and in which 
they had their dictators, consuls, censors, and other of- 
ficers of state in great splendour. And this single cir- 
cumstance may serve to give us a true idea of the man, 
who was remarkable for uniting in his disposition two very 
different qualities, sweetness of temper, and severity of 

In 1638 his patrons, the earl of Strafford, and the arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, preferred him to the bishoprics of 
Cork, Cloyne, and Ross; and he was consecrated at St. 
Patrick's, Dublin, Nov. 11, though he had done all he 
could to avoid this honour. By the king's command he 
continued in his provostship till July 20, 1640 > before 
which time he had endeavoured to obtain a small bishopric 
in England, that he might return tovhis native country, as 
he tells us, and die in peace. But his endeavours were 

U9 ' C H A P P E L. 

fruitlesis; and be was left in Ireland to feel all the fury of 
the storni^ which h^ bad loiyg foreseen. He was attacked 
in the house of commons with great bitterness by the pn* 
jitati party, and obliged to come to Dublin from Cork> 
and to put in sureties for his appearance. June 1641, 
Articles of impeachment were exhibited against bim to the 
Iiouse of peers, consisting of fourteen, though the substance 
€f them was reduced to two ; the first, perjury, on a sup-f^ 
posed breach of his oath as provost ; the second, malice 
towards the Irish, founded on discontinuing the Irish lee* 
ture during the time of his being provost. The prosecu* 
lion was urged with great violence, and, as is supposed^ 
for no other reason but because he had enforced uniformity 
«nd strict church discipline in the college. This divine's 
fate was somewhat peculiar, for although his conduct was 
consistent, be was abused at Cambridge for being a pu<- 
ritan, and[ in Ireland for being a papist. Yet as we find the 
name o^ archbishop Usher among his opponents in Ireland^ 
there seems reason to think that there was some foundation 
for his unpopularity, independent of what was explicitly 
stated. While, however, he laboured under these troubles, 
he was exposed to still greater, by the breaking out of the 
rebellion in the latter end of that year. He was under a 
kind of confinement at Dublin, on account of the impeach* 
ment which was still depending ; but at length obtained 
leave to embark for England, for the sake of returning 
thence to Cork, which, from Dublin, as things stood, be 
could not safely do. He embarked Dec. 26, 164], and 
the next day landed at Milford-haven, after a double 
escape, as himself phrases it, from the Irish wolves and 
the Irish sea. He went from Milford-baren to Peqibroke, 
^nd thence to Tenby, where information was made of him 
to the mayor, who committed bim to gaol Jan. 25. After 
. lying there seven weeks, he was set at liberty by the in* 
terest of sir Hugh Owen, a member of parliament, upon 
giving bond in lOOO/. for his appearance ; and March 16, 
set out for Bristol. Here he learnt that the ship bound 
from Cork to England, with a great part of his effects, was 
lost near Mipehead ; and by this, among other things, be 
lost his choice collection of books. After such a series of 
misfortunes, and the civil confusions increasing, he with-* 
drew to his native soil, where be spent the remainder of 
bis life in retirement and study; and died at Derby, where 
he had some time resided, upon Whitsunday, 1649. 

C H A P P E L. 14S 

He published the year before his deaths ^' Methodus 
€oncionandi/' that is^ the method of preaching, which for 
its usefulness was also translated into English. His ^^ Use 
of Holy Scripture," was printed afterwards in 1653. He 
left behind him also his own life, written by himself in 
Latin, which has been« twice printed ; first from a MS. ia 
the hands of sir Philip Sydenham, hart, by Hearne, and 
a second time by Peck, from a MS, still preserved in Tri» 
Tiity-bail, Cambridge, for the author left two copies of it. 
Mr. Peck adds, by way of note upon his edition, the fol- 
lowing extract of a letter from Mr. Beaupr^ Bell : " 'Tis 
certain * The whole Duty of Man' was written by one who 
suffered by the troubles in Ireland ; and some lines in this 
piece give great grounds to conjecture that bishop Chappel 
was the author. March 3, 1734.'* Thus we see this 
prelate, as well as many other great and good persons^ 
comes in for part of the credit of that excellent book ; yet 
there is no explicit evidence of his having been the autfacnr 
of it. It appears indeed to have been written before the 
death of Charles I. although it was not published till 1657^ 
and the manner of it is agreeable enough to this prelate's 
plain and easy way of writing ; but then there can be no 
reason given why his name should be suppressed in the 
tide^page, when a posthumous work of his was actually 
published with it but a few years before. ^ 

CHAPP£LOW (Leonard), an eminent oriental scholar, 
•f whom we regret that our information is so scanty, wasi 
born in 1683, and educated at St. John's college, Cam» 
bridg^, where he took his bachelor's degree in 1712, his 
master's in 1716, and that of B. D. in 1723. To his other 
studies he united an uncommon application to oriental 
languages, in which such was bis reputation, that he wa» 
chosen to succeed the learned Simon Ockley in 1720, as 
Arabic professor. He held also a fellowship in his college^ 
until they bestowed on him the livings of Great and Little 
Hormead, in Hertfordshire. To this fellowship he was 
chosen in 1717, in the room of a Mr. Tomkinson, one of 
the nonjuror-fellows ejected at that time by act of parlia- 
ment. The celebrated Mr. Baker was another, and always 
afterwards designated himself " Socius ejectus." In Fe- 
bruary 1754-5, we find Mr. Chappelow a candidate for 
the mastership of St. John's college, but he failed, although 


I Bio||. Brit— Peck's Desiderata. 



after a very severe contest. Mr. Chappelow constantly 
read lectures during one term on the Oriental languages^ 
ibr which he had a peculiar enthusiasm^ and in which he 
was critically versed. This inclined him to the publication 
of the first work by which his name was more extensively 
known^ his edition of Spencer " De Legibus Hebrseorunt Ri« 
tualibus.'^ Spencer, after the first publication of this capital 
work in 1685, had continued to make improvements in it, 
and by will left such of his papers and writings as were 
perfect, to be added in their proper places, if ever there 
should be occasion to reprint it ; with the full right and 
property of them to his executor, bishop (afterwards arch- 
bishop) Tenison, who bequeathed them to the uni4^ersity of 
Cambridge, after having caused them to be prepared for 
the press, with fifty pounds towards the expences of 
printing. These the senate, by grace, gave leave to -Mr. 
Chappelow to publish, and as an encouragement, bestowed 
upon him the archbishop^s benefaction likewise. The work 
was accordingly executed in 1727, 2 vols. fol. by a sub- 
scription of two guineas the small, and three guineas the 
large paper, begun in 1725. Bene' t college, on this oc- 
casion, was at the expence of prefixing an elegant engra- 
ving of the author, as a small testimony of gratitude to 
their munificent benefactor* In 1^30, he published " Ele- 
menta Linguae Arabicae," chiefly from Erpenius. 

Mr. Chappelow' s next publication, at a considerable dis- 
tance of time, was "A Commentary on the book of .lob, in 
which is inserted the Hebrew text, and English translation ; 
with a paraphrase from the third verse of the third chapter^ 
where it is supposed the metre begins, to the seventh verse 
of the forty-second chapter, where it ends," 1752, 2 vols* 
4to. In this curious work Mr. Chappelow maintains that * 
an Arabic poem wa$ written by Job himself, and that it 
was modelled by a Hebrew at a later period, but this pe-* 
riod he does not take upon him to ascertain. In other re-* 
spects his opinions, as to the intention of this sublime book, 
are judicious. In 1758 he published " The Traveller ; an 
Arabic poem, entitled Tograi, written by Abu Ismael ; 
translated into Latin, and published with notes in 1661, 
by Dr. Pocock, and now rendered into English in the same 
Iambic measure as the original ; with some additional notes 
to illustrate the poem,^' 4to. This, although ably exe-* 
cuted, is rather a paraphrase than a translation, but well 
expresses the sense of the original. In 1765 be published 

C H A P P E L O W. U5 

^^ Two Sermons concerning the State, of the Soul on its im-* 
niediate separation from the body ; written by bishop Bull| 
together with some extracts relating to the same subject ; 
taken from writers of distinguished note and character^ 
With a preface/* Svo. This preface is all that belongs to 
Mr. Chappelow, and is very short tie coincides with 
bishop Builds opinion, that the final state of man is deter- 
mined at death, and he supports it by extracts from Til« 
]otson, Whitby, Lightfoot, Stanhope^ Smalridge, and 
Limborch. His last publication was entitled *^ Six Assem-^ 
biies ; or Ingenious Conversations of learned men among; 
the Arabians, &c. formerly published by the celebrated 
Schultens, in Arabic and Latin, with large notes and ob- 
servations, &c." 1767, Svo. This amusing collection of 
prose and poetry is part of a larger work written in Arabic 
by Hariri of Barsa, a city in the kingdom of Babylon, and 
throws considerable light upon many passages of Scripture. 
The editor's notes are very valuable. Mr. Chappelow, 
after holding his professorship with much reputation for 
nearly half a century, died Jan. 14, 1768, in his seventy- 
fifth year, leaving a widow, who died July 177S^, at Cam- 
bridge. * 

CHAPUZEAU (Samuel), a protestant writer, born at 
Geneva, whose family were originally of Poitiers, was 
preceptor to William III. king of England ; afterwards go- 
vernor of the pages to George duke of Brunswick Lunen- 
burg, which post he held till his death, August 31, 1701, 
at Zell. Three days before his death he wrote a sonnet, in 
which he complains of being old, blind, and poor. He 
collected and printed ." Tavernicr's Voyages,'* 1675, 4to» 
Jurieu having written against what is there said of the 
l)utch, in his book entitled " L'Esprit de M. Arnauld,'* 
Chapuzeau answered him in 1691, by a work called ^* De« 
'fense du Sieur Samuel Chapuzeau contre PEsprit de M» 
Arnauld." He wrote, besides, ^' Eloge de la Ville de 
Lyons," 4to. *' Une Relation de Savoye ; P Europe vi- 
vante, ou relation nouvelle, historique, politique, et de tons 
les Etats, tels quUls etoient en 1666,"' Paris, 1667, 4to. 
He also published ^^ Traite d6 la maniere de Pr^cher, suivi 
de quatre Sermons prononc^es a Cassel.'* Chapuzeau 
tried every kind of writing, even comedies, the greatest part 

\ Cole's MS AtheHdB in Brit. Mus.— Bidg. Brit art. Spcneer.-^Month. a'o<i 
Crk. Reviews. — ^Nichols's Bowjrer. 

Vol. IX' L 

146 C H A P U Z E A U. 

of which have been collected under the title of '* La Mus^ 
enjouee, on le Theatre Comique." In 1694 he published 
the plan of an " Historical, Geographical, and Philological 
Dictionary,'* on which he employed many years, but it 
was not finished at his death. He complains, however, 
of Moreri having availed himself of .his manuscripts, but 
does not inform us where he found them. ' 

CHARAS (Moses), a skilful apothecary, borrfatUsez, 
in Upper Languedoc, in 1618, followed his profession at 
Orange, from whence he went and settled at Paris. Having 
obtained a considerable share of reputation by his treatise 
on the virtues and properties of treacle, he was chosen 
to deliver a course of chemistry at the royal garden of 
plants at Paris, in which he acquitted himself with general 
applause during nine years. His " Pharmacopoeia," 1673, 
of which an improved edition by Monnier was published ia 
1753, 2 vols. 4 to, was the fruit of his lectures and his studies, 
and has been translated into all the languages of Europe, 
and even into the Chinese, for the accommodation of the 
emperor. The edicts against the Calvinists obliged him 
to quit his country in 1 680. He went over to England, 
from thence to Holland, and afterwards into Spain with the 
ambassador, who brought him to the assistance of his master 
Charles II. languishing in sickness from bis birth. Every 
good Spaniard was at that time convinced that the vipers 
tor twelve leagues round Toledo were innoxious, ever since 
they were deprived of their venom by the fiat of a famous 
archbishop. The French doctor endeavoured to combat 
this error, and the physicians of the court, envious of the 
merit of C haras, failed not to take umbrage at this im- 
piety ; they complained of him to the inquisition, from 
whence he was not dismissed till he had abjured the pro- 
testant faith. Charas was then seventy-two j'ears old. He 
returned to Paris, and was admitted a member of the royal 
academy, and there he continued until his death, Jan. 17, 
1698. « 

C HARDIN (Sir John), a celebrated traveller, the son 
of an opulent protestant jeweller, was born at Paris Nov. 
16, 1643. For some time it is probable that he followed 
his father's profession ; but he was only twenty- two years 
old when, in 1664 (not 1665, as Niceron says), he went to 
the East Indies. There be remained for six years, pass- 

» Moieii.— .L'ATOcat « Moreri.— Diet. Hist— Haller BibK Med. 

C H A R D I N. 147 

ing his time chiefly in Persia* He published qo regulat 
account of this voyage, which he modestly says he con- 
ceived might be uninteresting, but confined himself to a 
detail of certain events of whieh he had been an eye-.wit- 
ness. This was contained in a twelves volume printed at 
Paris in I67I9 the year after he, returned, under the title of 
^' Le Couronnement de Soliman II. roi de Perse, et ce qui 
s^est pass6 de plus memorable dans les deux premieres an- 
nj£es de son regne/' In this work he was assisted by a 
Persian nobleman, Mirza Sefi, one of the most learned 
men of the kingdom, who was at that time in disgrace, 
aod confined to his palace at Ispahan, where Mr. Chardin 
was entertained and instructed by him in the Persian lan«' 
guage and history. It is introduced by a dedication to the 
Hog which, according to the '^ Carpenteriana," was writ- 
tea by . M. Charpentier. M. Petis de la Croix criticised 
the work with some severity, as to the orthography, and 
etymology of some Peraiau words, and Tavernier objected 
to the title, insisting tjiat Soliman never wore the crown ; 
but Chardin found an able defender in P. Aoge de la 

After Chardin's return to Paris, he remained there only 
fifteen months, the king of Persia having made him his 
agent in 1666, and commissioned him to purchase several 
tnokets of .value. Chardin accordingly left Paris Aug.|i7^ 
1671, and set sail in l^ovember from Leghorn in a vessel 
bound for Smyrna, again visited Persia, and did not return 
to Europe until 1677. He now determined to settle ia 
England, and came to London in April 1681, and on the 
24th of that month was knighted by Charles II. The jsame 
day he married a young lady of Rouen, the daughter of a 
pFotestant refugee in London. Next year he was chosen 
a fellow of the royal society. After this, Charles II. seat 
him to Holland ; and in 1683, we find him there aa agent 
for the English East India Company. In 1686 he publish- 
ed the first part of his Voyages, (the other not appearing 
HDtil 1711), under the title of ^^ Journal du Voyage de 
Chardin en Perse, et aux Indes Orientales, par la«Mer 
Noire et par la Colchide," folio. This was immediaitely 
translated into English under bis inspection, and published. 
the same year. The dedication to James 11. is singular for 
a high complimentary strain, arising from his gratitude to 
Charles and James for their patronage of him, and, what 
he was more unfortunate in attempting, a prophecy of the 


14S C H A R D I N. 

duration of Jameses reign. After this he carried on a eon- 
siderable trade in jewels, but continued his studies of the 
oriental languages and antiquities. The continuation of 
his Travels was published along with the first part much 
enlarged at Amsterdam in 3 vols. 4to, and 10 vols. Svo, 
with plates on which he employed the skill of M. Grelot, 
being himself no draftsman. There was also a new edition 
at Amsterdam in 1735, 4 vols. 4to*. He died, according 
to Musgrave^s ^* Adversaria/' on Dec. 25, and not Jan. 5, 
1713, as the French biographers report, and tlie register 
of Chiswick proves that he was buried there December 29.. 
There is no memorial of him at Chiswick, but there is a 
monument to his memory in Westminster Abbey, with 
only this inscription, ** Sir John Chardin. — Nomen sibi 
fecit eundo." He lived in bis latter days at a house in 
Tumham-green, which at his death was sold to Thomas 
Lutwyche, esq. His Travels have been translated into 
English, or at least large extracts in Harris's and other 
collections of voyages, and into Gerq^an, and Flemish ; and 
as they contain authentic and valuable information wkh 
regard to the religion, manners, products, and commerce, 
&c. of the countries he visited, they obtained an extensive 
circulation. Among other curious particulars, he records 
several medical facts ; and particularly an account of his 
o^n case, when he was attacked with a dangerous fever at 
Gombron, and cured by the country physicians, who em« 
ployed the repeated affusion of cold water. This fact has 
suggested an useful hint to modern practitioners. 

In the preface to his Voyages, he promised other works, 
as ** A Geography of Persia ;'* ** A Compendious History 
of that Empire, taken from Persian Authors;*' and *^ Ob« 
servations on Passages of the Holy Scripture, explained by 
the manners and customs of the East," but the two former 
never appeared, and the latter was discovered by a public 
advertisement In 1770, sir John's descendants adver- 
tised a reward of twenty guineas for this manuscript, which 
they call <* A Commentary or Explanation of the Old Tes- 
tament, from the manners and customs of the East, written 
in French by sir J. Chardin," and which, they add, about 
twenty years before, i. e. 1750, was seen by a gentleman 

* Two years ago M. L. JLangles, Us, Paris. 1811; bat we find no par* 

lu^eper of the l^rencb Imperial library, ticulars of Chardin's life which we 

publiibed a new edition of Chardin's had not befora oollectcd. 
Travels, 10 volt. 8to, wiUi a folio At- 

C H A R D I N. 1« 

in the possession of Dr. Oldfield. It was described to have 
been a thin quarto volume, in a very small hand. But 
when Mr. Harmer compiled his " Observations on divers 
passages of Scripture, &c." illustrated by books of travels^ 
he recovered this treasure by means of sir William Mus- 
grave, bart. in whose possession it was, not a single quarto 
volume, but six small MS volumes, the principal part of 
which Mr. Harmer incorporated in his valuable work. ^ 

CHARES, an ancient statuary, a native of Lindus, and 
disciple of Lysippus in the seventh century, imovortalized 
himself by the Colossus of the Sun at Rhodes, which has 
been reckoned one of the seven wonders of the world. 
This statue was of brass, and above 100 feet high; and 
was placed at the entrance of the harbour at Rhodes, with 
the feet upon two rocks, in such a manner, that ships could 
pass in full sail betwixt them. Chares employed twelve 
years upon it$ and aft'er standitig forty-six, it was thrown 
down by an earthquake. Moavius, a caliph of the Sara* 
cens, who invaded Rhodes in the year ^67, sold it to a 
Jew merchant, who is said to have loaded 900 camels with 
the materials of it. ' 

CHARITON, of Aphrodisium, secretary to a rhetorician 
flamed Athenagoras, lived at the end of the fourth century^ 
if these are not fictitious names, which there is great rea« 
son to think. A Greek romance, in his style, was some 
years ago found, entitled ^'The Loves of Chaereas and 
Cailirho^,*' an edition of which was published by M. d'Or- 
vilie, professor of history at Amsterdam, 1750, 4to, with a 
Latin translation and notes. A French translation appeared 
At Paris, 1763, 2 vols. 8vo, and M. Pallet published a new 
one, 1775, 8vo. Gesner, Fabricius, and M. Huet, had 
spoken of this romance as being only known by name. It 
is a very amusing composition, and the notes of D*OrvilIe 
contain a treasure of critical learning. They were adopted 
afterwards by Reiske in his edition of Leipsic, 1783, 8va, 
and the novel was translated into English, 1763, 2 vols. 
]l2mo, with a preface giving all the account that is knowa 
of the author. ' 

* Chattfepie.— Morerl— Sir Wm. MusgravB'f Adrersaria in Brit Mu8.-^ 
Lysons's EnviroQii, vol. Il.«— Harmer^ Preface.— Haller Bibl. Botan.— ^$axU 
Onomaatieoo. «^/ 

« Diet. Hist— PUn. Nat. Hist. J 

* Pniacei as abore.— f adrio. Bibl. Grsec^—Saxii Onomast.— Diet. Histt 


Cfl A R K E. 

CHARKE (Charlotte) was yopngest daughter of 
CoUey Gibber the player, and afterwards poet-laureat. At 
eight yeard old she was put to school, but had an ^ducatiop 
more suitable to a boy than a girl ; and as she grew up» 
followed the same plan, being more frequently in the stable 
than in the bed-chamber, and mistress of the curry-comb^ 
though ignorant of the needle. Her very amusements all 
took the same masculine turn ; shooting, hunting, riding 
races, and digging in a garden, being ever her favourite 
exercises. She also relates an act of her prowess when a 
mere child, in protecting the house when in expectation of 
an attack from thieves, by the firing of pistols and blunder* 
busses out at the windows. All her actions seem to have 
had a boyish mischievousness in them, and she sometimes 
appears to have run great risque of ending them with the 
most fatal consequences. This wildness, however, was put 
Bome check to, by her marriage, « when very young, with 
Mr. Richard Cbarke, an eminent performer on the violin^; 
immediately after which she launched into the billows of 
a stormy world, where she was^- through the remainder of 
Iter life, buffeted about without ever once reaching n 
peaceful harbour. Her husband's insatiable passion for 
women soon gave her just cause of uneasiness, and in fi 
$hort time appears to have occasioned a, separation. 

She then applied to the stage, apparently from inclina^- 
tion as well as necessity ; and opened with the little part 
of Mademoiselle in the ** Provoked Wife," in which she 
met with all the success she could expect. From this she 
rose in her second and third attempts to the capital cha- 
racters of Alicia in " Jane Shore," and Andromache in th<e 
** Distressed Mother ;" in which, notwithstanding the re- 
inembrance of Mrs. Porter and Mrs. Oldfield, she met with 
^eat indulgence from the audience ; and being remarkable 

* Br. Blimey says he was a danc- 
ing-masteir, an actor, a man of hn- 
Viour, and a performtr on the violin, 
with a strong hand. He was leader of 
the band at Drury-Iane theatre. As 
a composer, he only distinguished 
himself by being supposed the first 
vho produced that species of musical 
buffoonery called a " Medley Over- 
ture," wholly made up of shreds and 
patches of well-known vulgar tunes. 
Sut we believe that this very easy spe- 
cies of pleasantry was first suggested 

by Dr. Pepusch, in the overture to the 
Beggar's Opera, brought on the stage 
in 1*738, and Charke's medley over- 
ture bears date 1735. There is a slang 
hornpipe under Charke's name, which 
used to be a favourite among the tars. 
We believe him to have been a face- 
tious fellow, gifted with a ttfrn for low 
humpur, of which, and of his . tricks 
and stories, Dr. Arne, in moments of 
jocularity, used to give specimcos* 
Rce»*B Cyolopaadia. 

C H A B K E. Ul 

for reading wdl, was sufTered upon sudden emergencies to 
read characters of no less iaiixurtance than thoi>e of Cleo« 
patra and queen Elizabeth. She was after this ej)gaged at 
a good salary and sufficient supply of very conslderaULe 
parts, at the Uaymarket, and after tiiat at Drury-lane. She 
novf seemed well settled, and likely to |;iave made no in- 
glorious figure in ilieatrical life ; but tiiat ungovernable 
impetuosity of passions, which ran through all her actions, 
iDduced her to quarrel with Fleetwood, the then manager ; 
whom she not only left on a sudden without any notice 
given, but even vented her spleen against him in public, 
by a little dramatic farce, called " The Art of Manage- 
ment ;" and though Fleetwood forgave that injury, and 
restored her to her former station, yet she ack now i edges 
that she afterwards very ungratefully left him a second 
time, without any blame on bis part. > 

Her adventures during the remainder of her life are no- 
thing but one variegated scene of distresses, of a kind tjo 
which no one can be a stranger, who has either seen ^r 
read the accounts of those most wretched of all human 
beings, the members of a strolling company of ^actors : we 
may therefore be excused the entering into particulars. In 
1755 she came to London, where she published the " Nar- 
rative of her own Life ;" whether the profits of her book 
enabled her to. subsist for the short remainder of it, with- 
out seeking for farther adventures, is uncertain. Death, 
however, put a period to it, and thereby to one continued 
course of misery, April 6, 1760. " 

CHARLES XII. (king of Sweden)*, was born June 27, 
1682 ; and set off in the style and with the spirit of Alex- 
ander the Great. His preceptor asking him, what he 
thought of that hero ? " I think," says Charles, '' that I 
should choose to be like him.'* Ay, but, says the tutor, 
he only lived 32 years : " Oh, answered the prince, that 
is long enough, when a man has conquered kingdoms.'' 
Impatient to reign, he caused himself to be declared ^f 
age at 1 5 : and at his coronation, he snatched the crown 
from the archbishop of Upsal, and put it upon his head 
biiQseify with ^n air of grandeur ivhich struck the people.^ 

* This account obtained a place in characteristics and anecdotes, than the 
the liit edition of this Dictionary, and lives of crowntd heads in general, 
«• have been miwilUng to displace mi which bdoog to history, and sdldom 
vticU 'tljiat contains more personal can be usefolly separated from it« 

A Biog. Dram, 


Frederic IV. king of Denmark, Augustas king of Poland^ 
and Peter tzar of Muscovy, taking advantage of his mi* 
' nority, entered into a confederacy against this youth. 
Charles, aware of it, though scarce 1 8, attacked them one 
after another. He hastened first to Denmark, besieged 
Copenhagen, forced the Danes into their entrenchments, and 
caused a declaration to be made to king Frederic, that, 
** if he did not justice to the duke of Holstein, his brother- 
in-law, against whom he had committed hostilities, he must 
prepare to see Copenhagen destroyed, and his kingdom 
laid waste by fire and sword." These menaces brought on 
the treaty of Frawendal; in which, without any advan* 
tages to himself, but quite content with humbling his ene- 
iny, he demanded and obtained all he wished for his ally. 

This war being finished in less than six weeks, in the 
course of the year 1700, he marched against the Russians, 
who were then besieging Narva with 100,000 men. He 
attacked them with 8000, and forced them into their en- 
trenchments. Thirty thousand were slain or drowned, 
20,000 asked for quarter, and the rest were taken or dis- 
persed. Charles permitted half the Russian soldiers to 
return- without arms, and half to repass the river with their 
arms. He detained none but the commanders in chief, to 
whom, however, he returned their arms and their money. 
Among these there was an Asiatic prince, born at the foot 
of mount Caucasus, who was now to live captive amidst 
the ice of Sweden; "which," says Charles, "is just the 
same as if I were some time to be a prisoner among the 
Crim-Tartars :" words, which the capriciousness of for- 
tune caused afterwards to be recollected, when this 
Swedish hero was forced to seek an asylum in Turkey. It 
is to be noted, that Charles had only 1200 killed, and 800 
wounded, at the battle of Narva. 

The conqueror turned himself now, to be revenged upon 
the king of Poland. He passed the river Duna, beat 
marshal Stenau^ who disputed the passage with him, forced 
the Saxons into their ports, and gained a signal victory 
over them. He hastened to Courland, which surrendered 
to him, passed into Lithuania, made every thing bow down 
before him, and went to support the intrigues of the cardi* 
pal primate of Poland, in order to deprive Augustus of the 
crown. Being master of Warsovia, he pursued him, and 
gained the battle of Clifsaw, though his enemy opposed 
iO him prodigies of valour. He again f^U in with the 


Saxon afmy commaDded by Stenau, besieged Thorn, and 
caused Stanislaus to be elected king of Poland. The ter<- 
for of bis arms carried all before them : the Russians were 
easily dispersed ; Augustus, reduced to the last extremi- 
ties, sued for peace; and Charles, dictating the condi- 
tions of it, obliged him to renounce his kingdom^ and ac« 
knowledge Stanislaus* 

This peace was concluded in 1 706, aiid now he might 
and ought to have been reconciled with the tzar Peter ; 
but he chose to turn his arms against him, apparently with 
« design to dethrone him, as be had dethroned Augustus* 
Peter was aware of it, and said, that ** his brother Charles 
affected to be Alexander, but would be greatly disap- 
pointed if he expected to find him Darius.*' Charles left 
Saxony in the autumn of 1707, with an army of 43,000 
men : the Russians abandoned Grodno at his approach* 
He drove them before him, passed the Boristhenes, treated 
with the Cossacks^ and came to encamp upon the Dezena; 
and, after several advantages, was marching to. Moscow 
through the deserts of the Ukraine. But fortune aban- 
doned him at Pultowa, July 1709 ; where he was beaten by" 
Peter, wounded in the leg, had all his army either destroy- 
ed or taken prisoners, and forced to save himself by being 
carried off in a litter. And, thus reduced to seek an asy* 
lum among the Turks,' he gained Otchakof, and retired to 
Bender. All which replaced Augustus on the throne of 
Poland, and immortalized Peter. 

The grand seignor gave Charles a handsome reception^ 
and appointed him a guard of 400 Tartars. The king of 
Sweden's view, in coming to Turkey, was to excite the 
Porte against the tzar Peter : but, not succeeding either 
by menaces or intrigues^ he grew in time obstinate and 
restive, and even braved the grand seignor, although *he 
was his prisoner. The Porte wanted much to get rid of 
their guest, and at length was compelled to offer a little 
violence. Charles entrenched himself in his house at 
Bender, and defended himself against an army with 40 
domestics^ and would not surrender ^till his house was on 
fire. From Bender he was removed to Demotika, where 
he gprew sulky, and was resolved to lie in bed all the time 
he should be there : apd he actually did lie in bed 10 
months, feigning to be sick. 

Meanwhile his misfortunes increased daily. His ene« 
taking advantage of his absence^ destroyed his jai^mjf 

15i C H A R L E a 

and took from him not only bis own eonquests, but those <rf 
his predecessors. At length be left Demotika ; travelled 
post, with two companions only, through Franconia and 
Mecklenbourg ; and arrived on the lltfa day at Stralsund, 
Nov. 22, 1714. Beset in this town^ he saved himself in 
Sweden, now reduced to a most deplorable condition* But 
bis misfortunes had not cooled his ps^ssion for warring : h^ 
attacked Norway with an army of 20,000 men : he formed 
the siege of Frederickshall in Dec« 1718, where, as he was 
visiting the works of his engineers by star*ltght, he was 
struck upon the head with a ball, find killed upon the spoii. 
His death happened on December 11. 

Thus perished Charles and all his projects : for he was 
meditating designs which would have changed the face of 
Europe. The tzar was uniting with him to re-establiah. 
Stanislaus, and dethrone Augustus. He was about to fur- 
fiish shi^s to drive the house of Hanover from the throne of 
England, and replace the pretender in it; and land-forces 
at the $ame time to attack George I. in bis states of Han* 
over, and especially in Bremen and Verden, which he bad 
taken from Charles. ^^ Charles XII." says Mootesquieu, 
^^ was not Alexander, but he would have been Alexaiider's 
best soldier.'* H^naut observes, ^^ that Charles in his pro- 
jects had no relish for the probable : to furnish giyii to bim, 
success must lie beyond the bounds of probability." Doubt- 
less he might be called the Quixote of the north. He car- 
ried, as his historian says, all the virtues of the hero to an 
excess, which made them as dangerous and pernicious as 
the opposite vices. His firmness, was obstinacy, bis libe- 
rality profusion, bis courage rashness, his severity cruelty : 
he was in his last years less a king than a tyrant, and more 
a soldier than an hero. The projects of Alexander, whom 
he affected to imitate, were not only wise, but wisely exe- 
cuted : whereas Charles, knowing nothing but arms, never 
regulated any of his movements by policy, according to the 
exigencies of the conjuncture, but suifered himself to be 
borne along by a brutal courage, which often led him into 
difficulties, and at length occasioned his death. He was 
a singular man, rather than a great man. 

As to his person, he was tall and of a noble mien, had a 
fine open forehead, large blue eyes, flaxen hair, fair com- 
plexion, an handsome nose, but Tittle beard, and a laugh 
not agreeable. His manners were harsh and austere, not 
to say savage : and, as to religion^ he was indifferent to- 


wards all^ though outwardly a Lutheran. A few anecdotes 
will illustrate his character. No dangers, however greats 
made the least impression upon him. When a horse or 
two were killed under hioi at the battle of Narva in 1700, 
ke Jeaped nimbly upon fresh ones, saying, " These people 
find me exercise." One d^y, when be was dictating letters 
to a secretary^, a bomb fell through the roof into the next 
room of the house, where they were sitting. The secretary, 
terrified lest the house should come down upon them, let 
his pen drop out of his hand : ^^ What is the matter,'* sayg^ 
the king calmly. The secretary could only reply, " Ah, 
sir, the bomb." " The bomb !" says the king ; ^' what has 
the bomb to do with what I am dictating ? Go on.'* 

He preserved more humanity than is usually foun4 
^mong conquerors. Once, in the middle of an action, 
fiading a young Swedish officer wounded and unable to 
inarch, he obliged the officer to take his horse, aujd eon«- 
tinued to command his infantry on foot. The princess 
Lubomirski, who was very much in the interest and good 
graces of Augustus, falling by accident into the hands of 
one of bis officers, he ordered her to be set at liberty; 
saying, " that he did not make war with women." One 
day^ near Leipsic, a peasant threw himself at his feet, with 
a complaint against a grenadier, that he had robbed him 
of certain eatables provided for himself and his family^ 
" Is it true," said Charles sternly, " that you have robbed 
this man ?" The soldier replied, " Sir, I have not done 
near so much harm to this man, as your majesty has done 
to his master : for you have taken from Augustus a king- 
dom, whereas I have only taken from this poor scoundrel a 
dinner." Charles made the peasant amends, and pardoned 
the soldier for his firmness : " however^ my friend," says 
he to him, ^^ you will do well to recollect, that, if I took a 
kingdom from Augustus, I did not take it for myself." 

Though Charles lived hardily himself, a soldier did not 
fear to remonstrate to him against some bread, which was 
very black and mouldy, and which yet was the only pro- 
vision the troops had. Charles called for a piece of it, and 
calmly ate it up ; saying, ^' that it was indeed not good, 
but that it might be eaten." From the danger he was in 
in Poland, when he beat the Saxon troops in 1702, a 
comedy was exhibited at Marienburg, where the combat 
was represented to the disadvantage of the Swedes, " Oh," 
^ys Charles^ hearing of it, <* I am far from envying them 

156 C H A R L E T O N, 

in this pleasure. Let them beat ine upon the theatres as 
long as they will, provided I do but beat them in the field."' 
CHARLETON (Walter), a very learned physician, 
and voluminous writer, the son of the rev. Walter Charle- 
, ton, M. A. some time vicar of Uminster, and afterwards 
rector of Shepton pallet, in the county of Somerset^ 
was born at Shepton Mallet, February 2, 1619, and was 
first educated by his father, a man of extensive capacity, 
though but indifferently furnished with the goods of ^ for- 
tune. He was afterwards sent to Oxford, and entered of 
Magdalen Hall in Lent term 1635, where he became the 
pupil of the famous Dr. John Wilkins, afterwards bishop 
of Chester, under whom he made great progress in logic 
and philosophy, and was noted for assiduous application 
and extensive capacity, which encouraged him to aim at 
the accomplishments^ of an universal scholar. But as hb 
circumstances confined him to some particular profession, 
he made choice of physic, and in a short time made as 
great a progress in that as he had done in his former studies* 
On the breaking out of the civil war, which brought the 
king to Oxford, Mr. Charleton, by the favour of the king, 
had the degree of doctor of physic conferred upon him in 
February 1642, and was soon after made one of the phy- 
sicians in ordinary to his majesty. These honours made 
him be considered as a rising character, and exposed him 
to that envy and resentment which he could never entirely 
conquer. Upon the declension of the royal cause, he came 
up to London, was admitted of the college of physicians, 
acquired considerable practice, and lived in much esteem 
with the ablest and most learned men of the profession ; 
such as sir Francis Prujean, sir George Ent, Dr. William 
Harvey, and others. In the space of ten years before the 
Restoration, be wrote and published several very ingenious 
and learned treatises, as well on physical as other subjects, 
by which he gained great reputation abroad as well as at 
home; and though they are now leSk regarded than per- 
haps they deserve, yet they were then received with al- 
most universal approbation. He became, as Wood tells 
us, physician in ordinary to king Charles IL while in exile, 
which honour i^e retained after the king's return ; and, 
upon the founding of the royal society, was chosen one of 
the first members. Among other patrons and friends were 

I Modem Univ. Hist-^Life by Vqltaurei fcc ^ ^^ 

C H A R L E T O JJ. 151 

William Cavendish, duke of Newcastle, whose life Dr. 
Charleton translated into Latin in a very clear and elegant 
style, and the celebrated Hobbes, but this intimacy, with / 
his avowed respect for the Epicurean philosophy, drew 
some suspicions upon him in regard to his religion, not« 
withstanding the pains he had taken to distinguish betweea 
the religious and philosophical opinions of Epicurus in his 
own writings against infidelity. Few circumstances seem ^ 
to have drawn niore censure on him than his venturing to 
differ in opinion from the celebrated Inigo Jones respecting 
Stonehenge, which Jones attributed to the Romans, and 
asserted to be a temple dedicated by them to the god Coe- 
lus, or Coelum ; Dr. Charleton referred this antiquity to 
later and more barbarous times, and transmitted Jones's * 
bookf which was not published till after its author's death, 
to Olaus Wormius, who wrote him several letters, tending 
to fortify him in his own sentiment, by proving that this 
work ought rather to be attributed to his countrymen the 
Danes. With this assistance Dr. Charleton drew up a 
treatise, offering many strong arguments to shew, that this 
could not be a Roman temple, and several plausible rea- 
sons why it ought rather to be considered as a Danish mo* 
nument ; but his book, though learned, and enriched with 
a great variety of curious observations, was but indifferently 
received, and but coldly defended by his friends. Jones's 
son-in-law answered it with intemperate warmth, and many 
liberties were taken by others with Dr. Charleton's cha- 
racter, although sir William Dugdale and some other emi« 
Dent antiquaries owned themselves to be of our author's 
opinion; but it is now supposed that both are wrong* 
Notwithstanding this clamour, Dr. Charleton's fame was 
advanced by his anatomical prelections in the college 
theatre, in the spring of 1683, and his satisfactory defence 
of the immortal Harvey's claim to the discovery of the 
circulation of the blood, against the pretence that was set 
up in favour of father Paul. In 1689 he was chosen pre- 
sident of the college of physicians, in which ofHce he con- 
tinued to the year 1691. A little after this, his circum- 
stances becoming narrow, he found it necessary to seek a 
retreat in the island of Jersey ; but the causes of this are not 
explained, nor have we been able to discover how long he 
continued in Jersey, or whether he returned afterwards to 
London. All that is known with certainty is, that he died 
in the latter end of 1707, and in the eighty-eighth yejir 

15S G H A R L E TON. 

of his age. He appears from his writings to have been a 
man of extensive learning, a lover of the constitution in 
church and state, and so much a lover of his country as to^ 
refuse a professor's chair in the university of Padua. In 
his junior years he dedicated much of his time to the study 
of philosophy and polite literature, was as well read in 
the Greek and Roman authors as any man of his time, and 
he was taught very early by his excellent tutor, bishop 
Wilkins, to digesthis knowledge so as to comnaand it readily 
when occasion required. In every branch of his own 
profession he has left testimonies of his diligence and his 
capacity ; and whoever considers the plainness and per- 
spicuity of his language, the pains he has taken to collect 
and produce the opinions of the old physicians, in order 
to compare them with the moderns, the just remarks with 
which these collections and comparisons are attended, the 
succinctness with which all this is dispatched, and the 
great accuracy of that method in which his books are 
written, will readily agree that he was equal to most of his 
contemporaries. As an antiquary, he had taken much pains 
in perusing our ancient historians, and in observing their 
excellencies as well as their defects. But, above all, he 
was studious of connecting the sciences with each other, 
and thereby rendering them severally more perfect; in 
which, if he did not absolutely succeed himself, he had at 
least the satisfaction of opening the way to others, of show- 
ing the true road to perfection, and pointing out the 
tneans of applying and making those discoveries useful, 
which have followed in succeeding times. There i3 also 
good reason to believe, that though we have few or none 
of his writings extant that were composed during the last 
twenty years of his life, yet he was not idle during that 
space, but committed many things to paper, as rfiaterials 
at least for other works that he designed. There is now a 
large collection of his MS papers and letters on subjects of 
philosophy and natural history in the British Museum. 
(Ayscough's Catalogue.) His printed works are, 1 . " Spiritus 
Gorgonicus vi suS, saxipar^ exutus, sive de causis, signis, 
et sanatione Lithiaseos," Leyden, 1650, 8vo. This book 
is usually called De Lithiasi Diatriba. 2. " The darkness 
of Atheism discovered by the light of nature, a physico- 
theological treatise," London, 1651, 4to. 3. "TheEphe- 
sian and Cimmerian Matrons, two remarkable examples of 
the power of Love and Wit," Loudon, 1653 and 1658, 8vo. 

C H A R L E T O N. 159 

4, *' Physiologia Epicuro-Gassendo-Cbarletoniana : or a 
fabric of natural science erected upon the most ancient 
hypothesis of atoms," London, 1654, in foi. 5. " The Im- 
mortality of the human Soul demonstrated by reasons na* 
tural," London, 1657, 4to. 6. " Oeconomia Animalis no- 
vis Aiiatomicorura inventis, indeque desumptis moderno- 
ram Medicorum Hypothesibus Physicis superstructa et 
mechanice explicata,'* London, 1658, 12mo; Amsterdam, 
i659f 12mo; Leyden, 1678, I2mo; Hague, 1681, 12mo. 
It is likewise added to the last edition of " Gulielmi Cole 
desecretione animali cogitata.*' 7. *' Natural history of 
nutrition, life, and vohintary motion, containing all the 
new discoveries of anatomists," &c. London, 1658, 4to, 
8. " Exercitationes Physico-Anatomicse de OeconomiS, Ani- 
mali," London, 1659, 8vo ; printed afterwards several 
times abroad. 9. " Exercitationes Pathologicae, in quibus 
morborum pene omnium natura, generatio, et causae ex 
novis Anatomicorum inventis sedulo inquiruntur," London, 
1660, and 1661, 4to. 10. ** Character of his most sacred 
Majesty Charles II. King of Great Britain, France, and 
Ireland," London, 1660, one sheet, 4to. 1 1 . " Disquisi- 
tiones duae Anatomico-Physicse ; altera Anatome pueri de 
calo tacti, altera de Proprietatibus Cerebri humani," Lon- 
don, 1664, 8vo. 12. ** Chorea Gigantum, or the most 
famous antiquity of Great Britain, vulgarly called Stone- 
henge, standing on Salisbury Plain, restored to the Danes," 
London, 1663, 4to. 13. " Onomasticon Zoicon, plero- 
rumque animalium difFerentias et nortina propria pluribus 
linguis exponens. Cui accedunt Mantissa Anatomice, et 
quaedam de variis Fossilium generibus," London, 1668 and 
1671, 4to; Oxon. 1677, foi. 14. « Two Philosophical 
Discourses ; the first concerning the different wits of men ; 
the second concerning the mystery of Vintners, or a dis- 
course of the various sicknesses of wines, and their re- 
spective remedies at this day commonly used, &c. Lon- 
don, 1668, 1675, 1692, 8vo. 15. " De Scorbuto Liber 
singuiaris. Cui accessit Epiphonema in Medicastros," 
London, 1671, 8vo; Leyden, 1672, 12mo. 16. "Natural 
History of the Passions," London, 1674, 8vo. 17. "En- 
quiries into Humane Nature, in six Anatomy-prelections in 
the new theatre of the royal college of physicians in Lon- 
don," London, 1680, 4to. 18." Oratio Anniversaria ha- 
bita inTheatro inciyti Collegii Medicorum Londinensis 5to 
August! 1680, in commemorationem Beneficiorum a Doc- 

160 C H A R L 6 T O M/ 

tore Haryey aliisque prsstitorum/' Londaif, 1680, 4M^ 
19. " The harmony of natural and positive i)ivine Laws,** 
London, 1682, 8vo. 20. ** Three Anatomic Lectures con* 
ceming, l.The motion of the blood through the veins and 
arteries. 2. The organic structure of the heart 3. The 
efficient cause of the hearths pulsation, liead in the 1 9tb, 
20th, and 21st day of March 1682^ in the anatomic theatre 
of his majesty's royal college of Physicians in London,'* 
London^ 1683, 4to. 21. *' luquisitio Pbysica de causis 
Catameniorum, et Uteri Rheumatismo, in quo probatur 
sanguinem in animali fermentescere nunquam,*' London, 
1685, 8vo. 22. *^ Qulielmi Ducis Novicastrensis vita," 
London, 1668, fol. This is a translation from the English 
original written by Margaret, the second wife of William 
duke of Newcastle. 23. " A Ternary of Paradoxes, of the 
magnetic cure of wounds, nativity of tartar in wine, and 
image of God in man," London, 1650, 4to.. 24. ** The 
errors of physicians concerning Defluxions called Delira- 
menta Catarrhi,'' London, 1650, 4to, both translations froia 
Van Helmont. 25. " Epicurus his Morals,'* London, 1655, 
4to. This work of his is divided into thirty-one chapters, 
and in these he fully treats all the principles of the Epi* 
curean philosophy, digested under their proper heads ; 
tending to prove, that^ considering the state of the hea- 
then world, the morals of Epicurus were as good as any, as 
in a former work he had shewn that his philosophic opi- 
nions were the best of any, or at least capable of being 
explained in such a manner as that they might become so 
in the hands of a modern philosopher. This work was 
trapslated into several modern languages. 26. ^< The Life 
of Marcellus," translated from Plutarch, and printed in the 
second volume of ^ Plutarch's Lives translated from the 
Greek by several hands," London, 1684, 8vo. * 

CHARLEVAL (Charles, or as in the Diet Hist John 
Lewis Faucon de Ris, lord of), was born in 1613, with a 
very delicate body, and a mind of the same quality. He 
was passionately fond of polite literature, and gained the 
love of all that cultivated it. His conversation was mingled 
with the gentleness and ingenuity that are apparent in 
his writings. Scarron, who was ludicrous even in his 
praises, speaking of the delicacy of his genius and taste, 
said, ^^ that the muses had fed him upon blanc-mange and 

» Biog. Brit— Ath, Ox, ▼ol. 11. 


chicken broth.^* His benevolence was active and muni-* 
ficeat. Having learnt that M. and madame Dacier ware 
about to leave Paris, in order to live more at their ease in 
the country, he offered them ten thousand francs in gold^ 
and insisted on their acceptance of it. Notwithstanding 
the feebleness of his constitution, by strictly adhering to 
the regimen prescribed him by the faculty, he spun out 
his life to the age of eighty. The frequent use of rhubarb 
heated him so much^ that it brought on a fever, which the 
physicians thought of curing by copious bleeding, and one 
of them said to the rest : *' There, the fever is now going 
off." " I tell you,'* replied Thevenot, the king's librarian^ 
who hap(>ened to be present, ^^ it is the patient that is 
going off;" and Charleval died in an hour or two after, 
in 1B93. His poetical pieces fell into the hands of the 
president de Ris, his nephew, who never would consent to 
publish them. A small collection, however, was printed in 
1759, 12mo; but they have scarcely supported their ori- 
ginal reputation, although in France several of his epi- 
grams are yet frequently quoted in all companies. The 
conversation of the marechai d'Horquincourt and father 
Canaye, printed in the works of St. Evremond, a piece 
full of originality and humour, is the composition of Char- 
leval, excepting the little dissertation 6n Jansenism and 
Molinism, which St.- Evremond subjoined. to it; but it falls 
&r short of the ingenuity of the rest of the work, y 

CHARLEVOIX (Peter Francis Xavier de), a learned 
and industrious French Jesuit, was born at St. Quintin in 
1684, and died m 1761, aged 78. His fame rests chiefly 
on the histories of his travels, which were extensive, ^nd 
his accounts, although diffuse, are in general reckoned 
very good authority. They consist of: l. " Histoire et 
description g^u^rale du Japon,^^ 1738, 2 vols. 4to; and 
1754, 6 vols. 12avo. 2. " Histoire de I'lsle de St. Domi- 
nique,'* 1720, 2 vols. 4to. 3. " Histoire g6n6rale de la 
Nouvelle France," 1744, 3 vols. 4to, and 6 vols, 12mo. 
4. ^^ Histoire g^n^rale du Paraguay," 1756, 6 vols. 12mo> 
and 3 vols. 4to. From these were translated into English, 
the ''Journal of a Voyage to North America," 1760, 2 
vols, 8vo, abridged afterwards under the title of '^ Letters 
to the duchess of Lesdiguieres, giving an account of & 
Toy^ge to Canada/' &.c. 1763, Svo; and '' The History of 

^ aior?ri.— IMiQt. Hift* - 

Vol. IX- M 


Paraguay," 1769, 2 vols. 8vo. Charlevoix also published in 
1724, " Vie de Mere Marie de rincarnation," 12mo; and 
he was for tweuty-four years employed on the ^^ Journal 
de Trevouxy" which he enriched with many valuable arti«- 
cles. * 



CHARNOCK (John), esq. F. S. A. an ingenious but 
unfortunate writer, was born Nov. 28, 1756, the only son 
of John Cbarnock, esq. a native of the island of Barbadoes, 
and formerly an advocate of eminence at the English bar^ 
by Frances, daughter of Thomas Boothby, of Chingford 
in Essex, esq. About 1767 he was placed at the rev. 
Reynell Cotton's school at Winchester, and went from 
thence to the college, where, in the station of a commoner^ 
he was under the immediate care of the celebrated Dn 
Joseph Warton, the head master, in whose house h% 
boarded, and became the peculiar favourite of that eminent 
tutor. Having attained to the seniority of the school, and 
gained the prize medal annually given for elocution, he 
removed from Winchester to Oxford, and was, in 1774^ 
entered a gentleman-commoner of Merton college. Here 
he soon discovered his passion for literary composition, in 
a multiplicity of fugitive pieces on various subjects, which 
appeared in the periodical papers ; many of them, how« 
ever, were not of a kind likely to confer permanent repu«« 
tation, being invectives against the American war, written 
in a vehement spirit of opposition, under the^signatures of 
Casca, Squib, or Justice. 

He left the university to return to a domestic life totally 
nnsuited to the activity both of body and mind for whicti 
be was remarkable, but which, amidst some family differ-^ 
ences, be contrived to employ on the study of naval and 
military tactics ; and with no other asstsitance than that of 
bis mathematical knowledge, aided by a few books, be 
made a very considerable proficieiicy. The noble coUeo*^ 
tion of drawings which he left, executed during thai short 
period solely by his own hand, would alone furnish an am<^ 
pie proof of his knowledge of these subjects, and of tb^ 
indefatigable 2eal with which he pursued them. He novir 
became anxious to put into practice wh&t he bad learnt^ 
and earnestly pressed for permission to embrace the navat 

1 Diet. Hftt 

G H A R N G K. 168 

€t military profession; He was at this titne sole heir to 't 
Fery considerable fortune, and the darling of his parents^ 
bat derived none of the advantages which usually folloiilr 
these circaoistances* His request being denied, be entered 
a volunteer into the naval service, and very soon attained 
that proficiency of which' his publications on the subject 
will be lasiing monuments. A sense of duty afterwards 
withdrew htm again into private life ; but his mind had re^ 
ceived a wound iil the disappointment| and other circum<^ 
stances, which, his biographer says, it would be indelicate 
to particularize, contributed to keep it open. By the un« 
kindness of those to whom he had most reason to lool: 
up, and partly by his own imprudence, he was obliged 
to have recourse to his pen for support, and although he 
employed it with talent and industry, it did not yield faim 
the due recompence of bis labours, nor the necessary sup«- 
pUes for his own maintenance and that of a beloved wife. 
Hence he became etnbarrassed in his circumstances, and 
the sourc^es ftt>m which he had the fairest right to expect 
relief being unaccountably closed against him, he wa^ suf^ 
fered to linger out the remainder of life in the prison of 
the King's- Bench, in which he died May 16, 1807. His 
funeral desierves to be recorded. It was not that of an 
insolvent debtor. To the surprise of all who knew his tne*- 
lancholy history, be was interred with great ceremony and 
expence at Lea, near Blackheath, in the same grave whicfa^ 
within two years after, received his father and mother. 

His works, besides many smaller pieces^ were, I . *^ The 
Rights of a Free People,*^ 1792, 8vo, an irony on the de^- 
Biocracy of that period. 2. ^' Biograpfaia Navalis/' 1794, 
&c. 6 Tols. 8vo. 3* '< A Letter on Finance and on Na- 
tional Defence^** 1798. 4. " A History of Marine Archi«- 
tecture," 3 vols. 4to. 5. ^ A Life of Lord Nelson,'? 1800. 
His ^* Biographia Navalis" is a truly valuable work, and 
supplies those deficiencies in the previous liaval biographies 
of Cfunpbell and Berkenhout, over whom Mr. Chamock 
had the superior advantage of professional knowledge. 
After bis death was printed, " Loyalty ; or Invasion de*- 
feated,'' 1810, an historical tragedy. ^ 

CHARNOGK (Stephen), son of Richard Charnock aa 
attonieyy descended froin an andent family of that name 
ixk Laocasbirei was bom in LonSon in 1628, and educated 

* Ceatura Literaria, vol. V.*<»BMg. Onirn 

M 2 

164 C H A R N O C K. 

£rst in Emanuel college in Cambridge, from whence he 
removed to New college, Oxford, in 1649, and obtained a 
fellowship by the parliamentarian interest. AJfterwards he 
went into Ireland, where he preached, and was much ^A* 
mired by the presbyterians and independents. Upon the 
restoration of king Charles II. he refused to conform, but 
returned into England, and lived mostly in London, where 
adhering to the principles of the nonconformists, he 
preached in private meetings, and had the reputation of a 
man of good parts, learning, and elocution. He died in 
July 27, 1680. He printed only a single sermon in his 
life-time, which is in the <' Morning Exercise ;*' but after 
his death, two folio volumes from his manuscripts were 
published in 1683, and still bear a high price. Wood says 
that diose who differed from him in opinion, admired his 
extensive learning, into which he was first initiated at 
Emanuel college, Cambridge, by his tutor, Dr. Sancroft^ 
afterwards archbishop of Canterbury* ^ 

CHARPENTIER (Francis), dean of the French acade- 
my, was born at Paris, Feb. 1620. His early discovery of 
great acuteness made his friends design him for the bar : 
but his taste led him to prefer the repose and stillness of 
the closet, and he became more delighted with languages 
and antiquity, than with the study of the law. He was 
made a member of the French academy in 1651, and had 
the advantage of the best conversation for his improvement. 
When Colbert became minister of state, he projected the 
setting up a French East-India compatiy ; and to recom- 
mend the design more effectually, he thought it proper 
diat a discourse should be published upon this subject. 
Accordingly he ordered Charpentier to draw one up, and 
was so pleased with his performance, published in 1664^ 
that he kept him in his family, with a design to place him 
in another academy which was then founding, and which 
was afterwards known by the name of ** Inscriptions and 
Medals.'* The learned languages, in which Charpentier 
was a considerable master, his great knowledge of anti- 
quity, and his exact and critical judgment, made him 
very serviceable in carrying on the business of this new- 
academy ; and it is agreed on all hands, that no person of 
that learned society contributed more thati himself towards 
that noble series of medals, which were struck of the mosl 

1 Ath. Ox; ToL II,— Calamy.— Fuiera! Senaon by Johnion. 

C H A R P E.N TIER. 165 

Gonfiiderable events that happened in the reign of Lewis 
XIV. but his adulation of the king exceeded that of all 
bis contemporaries. 

He died April 22, 1702, aged 82. His harangues and 
discourses, delivered before the academy, or when he was 
chosen to make a speech to the king, are extant in the 
collections of the academy. As to the character of his 
works, it may be said in general, that wit and learning 
are every where visible; but although we meet with some 
high flights of eloquence, and masterly strokes of compo- 
sition, bis taste has not been thought equal to his learning. 
]9is principal works are, ^^ La Vie de Socrate,*' 1650, l2mo. 
A translation of the " Cyropajdia," 1659, 12mo. *' Dis- 
^ours touchant PEtablissement d'une Compagnie Frangoise 
pour le Como^erce des Indes Orientales,'' 4to. *^ De I'ex* 
cellence de la Langue Fran^oise,*' 1683, 2 vols. 12ma 
*^ Carpentariana," 12mo, &c. in which there are some 
amusing anecdotes, but they are not esteemed the best of 
the Ana. ^ 

CH AKRON (Peter), was bom at Paris in 1 541. Though 
Iiis parents were in narrow circumstances, yet discovering 
their son's capacity, they were particularly attentive to bis 
education. After making a considerable proficiency in 
grammar-learning, he applied to logic, metaphysics, moral 
and natural philosophy, and afterwards studied civil and 
common law at the universities of Orleans and Bourges, 
and commenced doctor in that faculty. Upon his return 
to Paris, he was admitted an advocate in the court of par- 
liament. He always declared the bar to be the best and 
most improving school in the world ; and accordingly at* 
tended at all the public hearings for five or six y^ars : but 
foreseeing that preferment in this way, if ever attained at 
adl, was like to come very slow, as he had neither private 
interest, nor relations among the solicitors and proctors of 
the court, he gave over that employment, and closely ap- 
plied to the study of divinity. By his superior pulpit 
eloquence, he soon came into high reputation with the 
greatest and most learned men of his time, insomuch that 
the bishops seemed to strive which of them should get him 
into his diocese; making him an offer of being theological 
c^.non or divinity lecturer in their churches, and of other 
digaities and benefices^ besides giving him noble presents^ 

* Moreri.— G«ii. Dlct,*«»Dict Hift, 

166 C H A R R O N. 

He was successirely th^ologal of Bazas, Aqcs, Letfaour#^' 
Agen, Cahors, and Condom^ canon and schoolmaster in 
the church of Bourdeaux, and chanter in the charch .of 
Condom. Queen Margaret, duchess of Bulois, enter- 
tained him for her preacher in ordinary; and the king, 
though at that time a protestant, frequently did him the 
bonour to be one of his audience. He was also retained 
by the cardinal d^Armagnac, the pope's legate at Avignon, 
who had a great value for him ; yet amidst all these pro-* 
motions, he never took any degree or title in divinity, but 
satisfied himself with deserving and being capable of the 
highest. After about eighteen years absence from Paris^ 
be resolved to end his days there; and being a lover of 
retirement, vowed to become a Carthusian. On his arrival 
at Paris, he communicated his intention to the prior of the 
order, bat was rejected, notwithstanding his most pressing 
entsreaties. They told him that he could not be received 
on account of bis age, then about forty-eight, and that the 
order required all the vigour of youth to support its auste- 
rities. He next addressed himself to the Celestines at 
Paris, but with the same success, and for the same reasons v 
io this embarrassment, he was assured by three learned 
casuists, that as he was no ways accessary tb the non-per- 
formance of his vow, it was no longer binding ; and that 
he might, with a very safe conscience, continue in the 
"world as a secular. He preached, however, a course of 
Lent sermons at Angers in 1589. Going afterwards to 
Bourdeaux, he contracted a very intimate friendship with 
Michael de Montagne, author of the well known Essays^ 
from whom he received all possible testimonies of regard ; 
for, among other things, Montagne ordered by his last 
will, that in case he should leave no issue-male of his own, 
M. Charron should, after his decease, be entitled to bear 
the coat of arms plain, as they belonged to his noble 
family, iand Charron, in return, made Montague's brother- 
in-law his residuary legatee. He staid at Bourdeaux from 
1589 to 1593; and in that interval composed his book, 
entitled, <* Les Trois Veritas," which he published in 
1594. These three truths are the following : 1 . That there 
is a God and a true religion : 2. That of all religions the 
Christian is the only true one : 3. That of all the Christian 
communions the Roman catholic is the only true church. 
This work procured him the acquaintance of M. de Sulpice, 
bisbop and count of Cahors, who sent for him and offered 

C H A R R O Ni 16T 

bun the places of his vicar-general and canon theological 
i;i his church, which he accepted. He was deputed to 
the geueral assembly of the clergy in 1595, and was chosea 
first secretary to the assembly. In 1599 he returned to 
Cahorar; and in that and the following year composed eight 
discourses upon the sagrament of the Lord's supper ; and 
others upon the knowledge and providence of God, the 
redemption of the worlds the communion of saints, and 
hkewise his " books of Wisdom." Whilst he was thus 
employed, the bishop of Condom, to draw him into his 
diocese, presented him with the chaptership in his church; 
and the theologal chair falling vacant about the same time, 
made him an offer of that too, which Charron acceptedi 
and resolved to settle there* In 1601 he printed at Bour- 
deaux his books ^^^ of Wisdom," which gave him a great 
reputation, and made his character generally known* 
October 1 603, he made a journey to Paris, to thank the 
bishop of Boulogne ; who, in order to have him near him- 
self, had offered him the place of theologal canon. This 
he was disposed to accept of; but the moisture and cold- 
nests of the air at Boulogne, and its nearness to the sea, 
not only made it, be said to a friend, a melancholy and 
unpleasant place, but very unwholesome too ; adding, that 
the sun was his visible god, as God was his invisible sun* 
At Parii^ he began a new edition of bis books ^^ of Wisdom,*' 
of which he lived to see but three or four sheets printed, 
dying Nov. 16, 1603, of an apoplexy. The impression of 
the new edition of his book << of Wisdom," with alterations 
by the author, occasioned by the offence taken at some 
passages in the former, was completed in 1604, by the 
care of a friend ; but as the Bourdeaux edition contained 
some things that were either suppressed or softened in the 
subsequent one,, it was much sought after by the curious. 
Hence the booksellers of several cities reprinted the book 
after that edition ; and this induced a Paris bookseller to 
print an edition, to which he subjoined all the passages of 
the first edition which had been struck out or corrected, 
and all those which the president Jeannin, who was em- 
ployed by the chancellor to examine the book, judged 
necessary to be changed. This edition appeared in 1707. 
There have been two translations of it into Engliish, the 
last by George Stanhope, D. D. printed in 1697. Dr. 
;Stanhope says, that M. Charron " was a person that feared 
God, led a pious and good life, was charitably disposed, 

16S C H A R R O N. 

a person of wisdom and conduct, serious and considerate; 
a great philosopher, an eloquent orator, a famous and 
powerful preacher", richly furnished and adorned with the 
most excellent virtues and graces both moral and divine ; 
such as made him very remarkable and singular,, and de« 
servedly gave him the character of a good man and a good 
Christian ; such as preserve a great honour and esteem for 
his memory among persons of worth and virtue, and will 
continue to do so as long as the world shall last." From 
this high praise considerable deductions may surely be 
made. Cbarron^s fame has scarcely outlived his century.; 
bis book on *^ Wisdom" certainly abounds in ingenious, 
and original observations on moral topics, but gives a 
gloomy picture of human nature and society. Neither is 
it free from sentiments very hostile to revealed religion^ 
but so artfully disguised as to impose on so orthodoic a di-* 
vine as dean Stanhope. ' 

CHARTIER (Alain), a native of Bayeux, one of the 
first French writers who aspired to elegance, flourished 
about 1430. He was secretary to tbe kings Charles VI. 
and VI I. and employed in several embassies. His compo* 
sitions in prose excelled those that were poetical, and he 
spoke as well as he wrote, so that he was esteemed the fa^ 
tber of French eloquence. The following curious anec- 
dote relating to him is recorded : Margaret of Scotland, 
first wife to the dauphin, afterwards Lewis XI. as she 
passed through the Louvre, observed Alain asleep, and 
went and kissed him. When her attendants expressed 
their surprize that she should thus distinguish a man re<» 
markable for his ugliness, she replied, *^ I do not kiss the 
man, but the mouth that has uttered so many charming 
things.'' His works were published by the elder Du 
Chesne, in 1617, 4to; the first part consisting of bis 
works in prose, viz. the " Curial;" a " Treatise on Hope ;*' 
the *^ Luadrilogus Invectif,'' against Edward HI. ; and 
others, partly spurious ; and the second part containing 
bis poems, which are for the most part obscure and te* 
dious. Alain Chartier died at Avignon in 1449. We find 
much difference in the bic^^phers of Chartier, some as* 
cribing to him the " Chroniques de St. Denys," Paris, 149S, 
3 vols. fol. and others to his brother John ; and the ^^ History 
of Oharles VIL" likewise attributed to him,, is given by Du 

J Gen. Diet.— Morerii— Brucker.— >Dtct Hist 

C H A R T I E R. 169 

Chesne to Berri, first herald to Charles VIL and by Moreri 
toGiiles de Bouvier. * 

CHARTIER (Rene'), a native of Vendome, studied me- 
dicine at Paris, where he took his doctor's degree in 1 608, 
and was afterwards professor of surgery, and physician to 
the king. He is principally known as the editor of a very 
splendid edition of the works of Hippocrates and Galen, 
on which he expended all his fortune. It was printed in 
13 vols. foL usually bound in nine, the dates of which ap« 
pear to be from 163£r to 1649, and that of the supple- 
mentary volumes about 1672. We have no account of 
bis death, but he appears to have died before 1639.' 

CHASLE8 (Gregory de), who was born August 17, 
1659, at Paris, studied at the college de la Marche, and 
there became acquainted with M. de Seigneley, who pro- 
cured him an employment in the marine. The greatest 
part of his life passed in voyages to the Levant, Canada, 
and the East Indies. In Canada he was taken prisoner 
by the English ; he was also a prisoner in Turkey. Charles 
was gay, sprightly, and loved good cheer, but yet satiri- 
cal, particularly against the monks, and the constitution. 
He was banished from Paris to Chartres, for some of these 
liberties^ where be was living in a sordid manner, in 1719 
or 1720. He wrote " Les Illustres Francoises,** 3 vols. 
12mo, containing seven histories, to which two others are 
added in the edition of Utrecht, 1737, 4 vols. '12mo, and 
of Paris, 4 vols. ; but these two are much inferior to the 
rest. ** Journal d'un Voyage fait aux Indes Orientales sur 
Tescadre de M. du Quesne en 1690 et 1691,** Rouen, 
1721, 3 vols. 12mo; and a sixth volume of Don Qui Kote. 
Though Chasles was an advocate,' the *^ Diet, de Justice, 
Police, et Finances," written by Francis James Chasles, 
172ii, 3 vols. fol. must not be ascribed to him.' 

CHA8SENEUZ (Bartholomew), was born at Issy- 
TEvgque, in Burgundy, 1480. He held the office of king*s 
advocate at Antun till 1522, when Francis I. appointed him 
counsellor to the parliament of Paris, then president of 
that of Provence. Chasseneuz was in the latter office 
when that court gave sentence against the inhabitants of 
Cabrieres and Merindol. . He prevented the execution of 
it during his life, and died 1542, leaving several works: 

* Gen. Diet.— Moreri. — Diet. Hist 

• Moreri.— Halier Bibl. Med.— Saxii Onoowit. » Diet Hitt 

170 C H A S S E N E U Z. 

lUQong th^ rest, n *^ Cpoameotaiy on the Cufttpm of Eur* 
gundy/' of which there were five editions in his life-time» 
and above fiffceea'since. The last edition is by the pre- 
sident Boubier, 1717, 4to, new modelled in that which he 
has since published in 2 vols. fol. ^ 

CHASTELAIN (Claude), canon of the cathedral 
church of Paris, his native place, where he was born iii 
16^9, possessed a very superior degree of knowledge in 
the liturgies, rites, and ceremonies of the church ;> and had 
fpr that purpose travelled over Italy, France, and Ger- 
Qaany ; studying every where the particular customs of 
each separate church. He died 1712, aged seventy-three^ 
leaving a <* Universal Martyrology," Paris, 1709, 4tQ, and 
the '^ Life of St Chaumont,'' 1697, 12mo. He also pub^ 
lished the ^^ Hagiographical Dictionary," which was in-» 
serted by Menage in his etymologies of the French tongue^ 
with great praise of the author, as one whose merit was 
not duly estimated by the age he lived in.* 

CHASTELAIN (George, or Castellanus), a Flemish 
gentleman, who was educated at the court of the dukes of 
Burgundy, and esteemed as one of those by whom thtt 
French language was at that time best understood. John 
Molinet was his pupil. He died 1475, leaving in French 
verse, an account of all the extraordinary things .which 
happened in his time, 1531, 4to ; and at the end of the 
Legend of lairfeu, 1723, 8vo^ *' Le Chevalier d^lib6r«» 
ou la Mort du Due de Bourgogne devant Nanci,'' 1489, 
4to. Sqme attribute this work to Oliver de la Marche. 
" Hist, du Chevalier Jaques de Lalain," Antwerp, 1634, 
4to; " Les Epitaphes d' Hector et d'Achille," 1525, 8vo.* 

CHASTELET (Gabriel Emilia de Breteuil, Mar- 
chioness), descended of a very apcieht family of Picardy, 
was born December 1 7, 1706. Among the women of. her 
nation who have rendered themselves illustrious, she is 
certainly entitled to the first rank. Before her, many of 
them had acquired reputation by agreeable romances^ 
and by poetical pieces, in which there appeared the graces 
of wit, and the charms of sentiment. Several ako, by 
applying themselves to the study of languages, by making 
their beauties. to pass into their own, and by enriching 
their versions with valuable commentaries, had deserved 

' Diet. Hist.— Moreri. — Niceron. * 'Moreri. — Diet. Hist 

3 L*Avocat.-*Dict. Hist. — Moreri in Cbatelain. 

C H.A S T E L E T. 171 

Weil of the republic of letters. By composing W6rks on 
subjects wbiob unfold themselves only to men of rare ge- 
BUiSy Mhb has classed herself, in the opinion of her country'-^ 
men, with the greatest philosophers, and may be said to 
bare rivalled Leibnitz and Newton. From her early youth 
ihe read the be^t authors, without the medium of a |rans-> 
Ration: Tasso, Milton, and Virgil were alike familiar to 
her ; aad her ear was particularly sensible to the melody 
of verse. She was endowed with great eloquence, but not 
of that sort which consists only in displaying wit or ac-* 
quirements ; precision was the character of ber's. She 
would rather have written with the solidity of Pascal than 
with the charmaof S^vigne. She loved abstract^ sciences, 
9tudied mathematics deeply, and published an explana-< 
tion of the philosophy of Leibnitz, under the title of '< In-» 
stitutions de Physique," in 8vo, addrei^sed to her sqn^ 
the preliminary discourse to which is said to be a model of 
reason and eloquence. Afterwards she published a treatise 
on ^* The Nature of Fire." To know common geometry , 
did not satisfy her« She was so well skilled in the philo-* 
sopby of Newton, that she translated his works, and en^ 
ricbed tbem by a commentary, in 4 vols. 4to ; its title itf 
** Principes Mathematiques de la Philosophe Naturelle*'* 
This work, which cgst her infinite labour, is supposed to 
have hastened her death, which took place in 1749. With 
sill her talents and personal qualifications, however, it is ge«< 
DM^Uy admitted that she had no pretensions to chastity.* 

CHASTELLUX (Francis John, Marquis de), a marshal 
in the French army, and a member of the French academy, 
and of many other literary societies, was born in 1734, of 
a distinguished family. His military talents raised him to 
the rank of brigadier-general, and he is said to'have served 
in that capacity with great reputation in America. Of his 
military, however, we know less than of his literary ca- 
reer, which he pursued amidst all his public employments. 
He bad early in life a strong passion for poetry and piusic* 
Many of bils comedies, written for private theatres, and 
heard with transport, might have been equally successful 
on the public stages, bad he had courage sufficient to make 
the experiment. He was an officer in the French guards 
ifi 1765, when he published his ingenious ** Eissay oti the 
I^nion of Poetry and Music.'* This essay was th^ conse- 

1 Diet Hist. 


quence of a voyage into Italy, where be, seems to have 
adopted an exclusive taste for the dramatic music of that 
country, as Rousseau had done before. He even adopts 
some of Rousseau^s ideas upon music ; but in general he 
tliinks for himself, both deeply and.originally. By his re- 
flections on the musical drama, he not only offended the 
musicians of France, but the lyric poets of every country ; 
not scrupling to assert that in an opera, music, which ought 
to be the principal consideration, had been too long a slave 
to syllables ; for since the cultivation of the melo-drama, 
it was found thajt music had its own language, its tropes, 
'metaphors, colouring, movements, passions, and expres-« 
sion of sentiment. This little tract, for it was but. a 
pamphlet of 90 or 100 pages, 12mo, gave birth to along 
controversy in France, in which, the author was supported 
by the abb^ Arnaud, M. D'Alembert, the abb^ Morellet, 
and M. Marmontel. His chief antagonist was the author 
of a " Treatise on the Melo- Drama," who, loving poetry 
better than music, wished to reduce the opera to a mere 
recitative or musical declamation. During the subsequent 
feuds between the Gluckists and Piccinists, the opponents 
of the marquis de Chastellux enlisted with the former, and 
his friends with the latter of these sects. 

The next work which the marquis wrote, was his essay 
^^ De la felicity publique," published at Amsterdam, with- 
out his name, which was given to the English public in a 
translation entitled " An Essay on Public Happiness, in;- 
vestigating the state of human nature, under each of its par- 
ticular appearances, through the several periods of history 
to the present times," London, 2 vols. 8vo. While the 
marquis was engaged on this work he frequently shifted 
his abode, and was also obliged to attend his regiment (that 
of Guienne) during four months of the year : at these times 
be could only have recourse to such books as were at hand^ 
many of which were translations, and but a small number 
originals ; yet, notwithstanding these disadvantages, h^ 
has brought together a great variety of historical informa-* 
tion, accompanied with many useful, and some fanciful 
observations. Viewing the then placid state of socie^ in 
his own and neighbouring countries, he was deceived bjr 
his love of peace and happiness, into a kind of precUotioii 
that wars would be no more so frequent, or produce such 
great calamities, as they had in ages past ! The traosla- 

C H A S T.E L L U X. 175 

ttoD, we have heard, was by J. Kent, esq. a country gen- 

We have already noticed that the marquis served in 
America, under Rochambeau, during the war with Great 
Britain. This produced his ** Voyage dans I'Amerique,'* 
wliich was immediately translated into English, under the 
title ** Travels in North- America, in the years 1780, 1781, 
1782,** 1787, 2 vols. 8vo. In this work, which is rather 
to be read as amusing than relied on as authentic, there is 
much of that enthusiasm for theoretic liberty and happiness 
which pervades the marquis's former work ; but his want 
of impartiality did not escape even his own countrymen. 
Brissot de Warville wrote an " Examen Critique'* of the 
travels, in which he convicted the writer of great partiality, 
as well as of unjust representations of events ; and the 
same charges were brought against him by an anonymous 
writer in our own country, who, after the appearance of 
the translation, pubUshed ^* Remarks on the Travels, &c.^ 
1787, 8vo. The only other publication of the marquis's 
pen, was ** Notice sur la vie et les ecrits d'Helvetius,'* 
printed with his poem ^^ Du Bonheur." We give this on 
the authority of the Diet. Hist, but it has been attributed 
to Duclos, to Saurin, and to the baron Holbach. The 
marquis de Chastellux died suddenly at Paris, Oct 24^ 
1788. * 

CHATEL (Peter du), in Latin Castellanus, a very 
learned French prelate, is said by some to have been of 
obscure birth, but his biographer Galland makes^ him of 
an ancient family, and the son of a brave knight. Yet this 
is doubtful, if what he. said to king Francis I. be more than 
a witticism. The king once asked him if he was a gentle- 
man ; to which Chatel answered *^ that there were three 
in the ark, but he did not really know from which of them 
he descended." He was, however, bom at Arc, in Bur* 
gundy, and in the eleventh year of his age, before which 
his parents died, he was sent to Dijon, for education, 
where he made an astonishing progress, and before he had 
been there six years, w^s appointed a teacher, in which 
capacity he soon distinguished himself; and on one occa*- 
tion made a public display of more than grammatical 
talents. His master, Peter Turreau, was accused of being 

' ^ Diet. Hiftt. — Bifay on Pbblie Happiness^ notes to' vol. I«*^Biirae7's M«» 
ao9k9 of Metas tasio> toI. U. p. 3S9. 

174 C H A T E Ia 

an astrologer, and Cfaatel pleaded his cause so i^bly tbit 
he was acquitted. He afterwards travelled, in order 4o 
cultivate the acquaintance of the learned men of his time, 
and particularly of Erasmus, whom he met at Basil, and 
who conceived such a high opinion of his learning, as to 
recommend him to Frobenius, to be corrector of the Greek 
and Latin authors, printed at his celebrated press. While 
here he had also an opportunity of correcting some of 
^rasmus^s works ; but they left Basil together, when the 
popish religion was established there. Erasmus retired to 
Fribourg, and Chatel returned to France, where be ac^ 
cepted the offer made him by some persons of distinction^ 
to be tutor to certain young men who were to study law at 
Bourges, under the celebrated Alciat. As they were not 
yet prepared to depart, he read public lectures on the 
Greek text of St. Paul's epistle to the Romans ; and un* 
fortunately for his reputation, was entrapped into an in* 
trigue with a young woman, a circumstance on which 
Bayle expatiates with his usual delight in what is indeli^ 
cate* Chatei's scholars, however, being at length ready^ 
he accompanied them to Bourges, and studied law, filling 
pp his leisure hours with topics of polite literature. Hii 
diligence was unremitting, as he slept scarcely three hours 
in the night, and the moment he waked ran with eagerness 
to his books. This method of study he preserved, even afw 
terwards, when appointed reader to the king. 

Having an inclination to visit Italy, the bishop of 
Auxerre, who was going there in a diplomatic charactei^ 
took him with him, but at Rome he found little enjoyment 
except in contemplating the remains of antiquity. Thd 
corruption of morals at the court of Rome appeared se 
atrocious in his eyes, that for many years afterwards he 
^ould not speak on the subject without indignation, and 
appears indeed to have conceived as bad an opinion of thd 
court of Rome as any of the reformers, and expressed 
himself with as much severity. From Rome he went to 
Venice, and was induced to accept the office of teaching 
polite literature in the island of Cyprus, with a pension ei 
two hundred crowns, and there he read lectures for two 
years with great success. He afterwards went into Eg}^t^ 
Jerusalem, and Constantinople, and on his retarn hoaie^ 
the French ambassador at the Porte gave him letters of 
strong recosnxiendation to Francis I. who appointed hi^ 
his reader, and entertained him with the utmost famili&dty.' 

C H A T E L. 175 


Chatel avaited himself of this favour to procure advantages 
to learning and learned men ; but although his sentiments 
were so lar liberal as to admit that the church wanted re- 
forming, be supported the catholic religion, and even as- 
sisted the inquisitors and informers. He was also averse 
to capital punishments for heresy, and involved himself in 
danger by pleading for some pretended heretics, who, it 
was reported, were to be put to death. He likewise ap* 
peased the king's wrath againat the Waldenses before the 
slaughter of Cabrioles and Merindol, and once delivered 
Doiet out of prison. His zeal for maintaining the rights 
'Of the Gallican church against the pretensions of the court 
^Rome, rendered him odious there, and the doctors of 
the Sorbonne were not less displeased with him for the 
protection he granted in 1545, to Robert Stephens, the 
celebrated printer. These were favourable symptoms of 
liberality, at least, if not of an inclination to befriend th^ 
cause of the reformation, and soften the rigours of perse^^ 
cution. But Chatel wanted firmness, and withdrawing his 
protection from Stephens, the latter was forced to retire 
into another country. Chatel was perhaps influenced by 
tile favours heaped upon him by Francis T. who made hint 
bishop of Tulle in 1539, and afterwards bishop of Magon. 
He is said never to have appeared to more advantage as a 
divine and a man of eloquence than when he prepared 
Francis I: for death, and delivered his funeral orationi 
Yet in this oration, by hinting that the soul of Francis had 
immediately gone to heaven, he alarmed the doctors of the 
Sorbonne, who complained that he was heretic enou^rh to 
oppose the doctrine of purgatory. A more valid objec<- 
tion, perhaps, m4ght have been his high praise of Fran<^ 
Cli I. whose character was not that of perfect purity. 

Henry II. tiie successor of Francis, finding that Chatel 
intended to leave the court, by way of detaining him, be« 
stowed on him the important office of grand almoner, and 
translated him to the bishopric of Orleans, in which he is 
said to have introduced some salutary reformation among 
Ibe ignorant and vicious priests. Here he frequently 
preached, and very wonderful accounts are given of the 
effects of his eloquence upon the mo^t hardened impe- 
niteiAtft. On one of these occasions he was seized with a 
fit of the palsy, which proved fatal Feb. 3, 1 552, and 
WhicfaP%ome protestant writers considered as a judgment on 
him for maintaining a conduct contrary to the convictions 

176 C H A T E L. 


of his own mind. Hq was undoubtedly a man inclined 
mocieratiun, but appears to have been ambitious, and to« 
much ensnared by a court life. ' His learning waa Tery ex- 
tensive ; but we have only in print a Latin letter from 
Francis I. to Charles V, ascribed to him, and his funeral 
oration on Francis I. both printed in his life by Galland^ 
published by Baluze, Paris, 1674, 8vo. There was, how- 
ever, an edition of the oration printed in 1547, under the 
title ^' Le trepas, obseques, et enterrement de Frangois I. 
avec les deux sermons funebres,^* &c. 4to. ^ , - 

CH ATELET (Paul Hay, lord of), a gratleman de^ 
scended f'rom an* ancient family in Bretany, one of the 
members of the French academy, advocate-general to the 
parliament of Rennes, afterwards master of the requests^ 
and counseller'of state, was born in 1593. The court 
entrusted him with several important commissions; but, 
upon his refusing to be among the judges at the trial of the 
inarechal de Marillac, he was sent to prison, but set at 
liberty some time after. It is said, that, being one day 
with M. de 8t. Preuil, who was soliciting the due de Mont** 
morenci's pardon, the king said to him, '^ I believe M. du 
Chatelet would willingly part with an arm to save M. de 
Montmorenci.'* To which he repUed, ^\ I would, sire, that 
I could lose them both, for they can do you no service^ 
and save one« who has gained many battles for you,^ and 
would gain many more.'^ After his release from prison 
above noticed, he went to the king's chapel; but that 
prince affecting to look another way that he might noli 
meet the eyes of a person to whom he had lately done 
^uch a flagrant injury, Du Chatelet whispered one of the 
noblemen, ^^ Be so good, my lord, as to tell the king, that 
I freely forgive him, and beg the honour of one look.*^ 
This made the king smile, and Du Chatelet was forgiven. 
It was after the same release, that, when the cardinal de 
Richelieu (most of whose state papers were the products of 
bis pen) made some excuses for his detention, he an* 
8\yered, <^ I make a great difference betwixt any ill your 
eminency does of yourself, and any whic1iyt)u permit tor 
be done ; nor diall you find me the less devoted to your 
service.^' Du Chatelet died April 6, 1 636, leaving several 
works in prose and verse, the principal of which are, 1^ 

1 Oen. Diet— >Moreri. — ^Dict Hist,-- Jortin's Erasmui.— CfeTier Vfx&U ^ 
WtkwtnxXk de Paris* 

",Hial;p^pei<te Bertraad d^QMes^bin, cgpn^t^tbjc^Je Franpe," 
/1.66jS, « fol. a^id lj6;93, 4to. .2, " Obseryatipns sur }^ yie^^et 
kccuida^nia^Dn du mareschal de Marillacy?^ Paris^ l^P, 
4l;o, 3. ".Plq^iejitSt de pi^es pour servjr a.l*Hi8tpire/' 
J635, fpl, and. some satires aii^d poeoTs which jire npt in 
^uck ^$jua)atioo. ^ 

CHAT^TERTON (Thomas), an English poet o(si^^ 

.ffllar,^eniu»^nd character, jyas born Nov. ,20, 1752. l|is 

^j;her, \aras.,p|^mjajly a writing usher to a school in Bjristpl, 

afterwards , a siqigipg man in the cathedral, and.las^fy, 

m^ the fr^e-school in Pylcrstreet in the same city. 

,Q(S died aJbputitbree months before, this son was born. It 

. n aot.quite piymportaut to add that our po^t was descended 

.fkqo) a. IpngJine'of ancestors who held the office qi sexton 

of,St. JVJafy R^dclifFe; since it was in the muniment, room 

of this church that the materials were found from Wibi^h be 

cpjQSjTupted tiiat. system of imposture which has rendered 

l^s jaam^ i^Olebrat^d, and bis history interesting. At^.^ye 

yeara.ipf,4ge. be was ^ent to the school in Pyle-str^et, then 

superintended by a Mr.. Love; but here he improved io 

little, that his mother took him bacL While under b^r 

care bis, cbildisb attention is said to have been engaged by 

' the. illuminated capitals of an old musical maqusci'ipt \n 

/French, , which circumstance encouraged her to initiate.bini 

in thp alphabet, and she afterwards taught him to read 

• from an old bla^k-ietter Testament or Bible. That a per-' 
;son of ber rank jn Ufe ^should be able to read the Mack* 
letter is ^qmewha^ extraordinary, but the fact rests, upc^n 
her.j^utbQrity, and b«LS bfeen considered as an introduction 
ta that, fondness for anti^Mities for wbichhe wa^ afterwards 

His next remoyal was to Colston's charity school, . at the - 
rage of eight ^'(^aors, where he lyas taught reading, writing, 
and afitl^pe.Uo,, at :tbe daily rate of nine hours in summer,' 
,a^d.sey^nih\ winter. Such at least wa» the prescribied* 
.diacipUpejof^he school^ although it was far. more, than a 
boy of his capacity tequired. One of bis masters, Phillips, . 
, wium,be4}as celebrated in an elegy, was a frequent writer 
of yei:ses in, the Q^iagazines, and was the means jof ^^c^tiiig 
^degree o^^pp^tical emulation among bis scholars,., but to = 

• tl^is ChattertQU appeared for. soipe time quite indifferent, 
.Abo^t bis tenth year be began to read from inclination} 

» Marcri.—Dict. Hirt. ' 

Vol. IX N 

17S C tt A T T E R T O N. 

sometimes hiring his books from a circulating library, arid 
sometimes borrowing them from hiis friends; and before 
he was twelve, had gone through about seventy volumes, 
principally history and divinity. Before this time also he 
had Composed some verses, particularly those entitled 
" Apostate Will ;" which, although they bear no compa- 
tisph with what he afterwards produced, discover at that 
early age a disposition to personal satire, anda conscious- 
ness of superior sense. It would be more remarkable, were 
it true, that while at this school he is said to have shown 
to his master Phillips, one of those manuscripts which he 
pretended had been found in a chest in Redcliffe church, 
put as neither Phillips or another person to whom this 
treasure was exhibited, could read it, the commencement 
of his Rowleian impostures must be postponed to a future 

At school be had gathered some knowledge of music, 
drawing, and arithmetic, and with this stock he was bound 
apprentice July 1767, to Mr. John Lambert, an attorney 
at Bristol, for seven j^ears. His apprenticeship appears 
to have been of the lower order, and his situation more 
resembling that of a servant than a pupil. His chief em- 
ployment was to copy precedents, which frequently did 
uot require more than two hours in a day. The rest of his 
time was probably filled up by the desultory course of read- 
ing which he had begun at school, and which terminated 
'chiefly in the study of the old English phraseblogy, he- 
raldry, and miscellaneous antiquities : of the two last he 
acquired, hot a profound knowledge, but enough to en- 
able him to create fictions capable of deceiving those who 
had less. His general conduct during his appretiticeship 
was decent and regular. On one occasion only Mr. Lain- 
bert thought him deserving of correction for writing an 
abusive letter in a feigned hand to his old school-mastelr. 
So soon did this young man learh the arts of deceit, which 
he was now preparing to practise upon a more extensile 

In the beginning of October 1768, the completion of 
the new bridge at Bristol suggested to him a fit oppor- 
tunity for playing off the first of his public deceptions. 
This was an account of the ceremonies on opening the old 
' bridge, said to be taken from an ancient manuscript, a 
copy of which he sent to Farley's Bristol Journal, in a short 
letter signed Dunhelmtits Bristoliensis. Such a^nemoii^ at 

C H A T T,E H.T N. 179 

so critical a timei naturally excited attention^ and Fitrley, 
who was called upon to give up the author, after much 
iuquiry, discovered that Chatterton had sent it. Chatter- 
ton was consequently interrogated, probably without much 
. ceremony, where he had obtained it. And here his un-/ 
happy disposition shewed itself in a manner highly affect- 
ing in one so young, for he had not yet reached his six- 
teenth year, and according to all that can be gathered, had 
not been corrupted either by precept or example. " To 
.the threats," we are told, "of those who treated him 
(agreeably to his appearance) as a child, he returned no- 
thing but haughtiness, and a refusal to give any account. 
By milder usage he was somewhat softened, and appeared 
inclined to give all the information in his power." 

The effect, however, of this mild usage was, that instead 
of all or any part of the information in his power, he tried 
two different falsehoods : the first, " that he was employed 
to transcribe the contents of certain ancient manuscripts 
^y ^ gentleman, who had also engaged him to furnish 
complimentary verses inscribed to a lady with whom that 
gentleman was in love." But as this story was to rest on 
proofs which he c^guld not produce, he next asserted, " that 
he had received the paper in question, together with many 
other manuscripts, from his father, who had found them 
in a large chest in the upper room over the chajpel, on the 
north side of Redcliffe church.V 

As this last story is the foundation of the whole contro- 
versy respecting Chattertpn, it will be necessary to give 
the circumstances as related in his life written for the 
Biographia Britannica, and prefixed to the recent edition 
of his works. 

" Over the north porch of St. Mary Redcliffe church, 
which was founded, or at least rebuilt, by Mr. W. Canynge 
(an emioent merchant of Bristol, in the fifteenth century, 
and in the reign of Edward the Fourth), there is a kind of 
muniment room, in which were deposited six or seven 
chests, one of which in particular was called Mr. Canynge's 
ctfre: this chest, it is said, was secured by six keys, two 
of which were entrusted to the minister and procurator of 
the church, two to the mayor, and one to each of the 
church-wardens. In process of time, however, the six 
keys appear to have been lost : and about the year 1727, a 
notion prevailed that some title deeds, and other 'writings 
«f value, were contained in Mr. Canynge's cofre. In con* 

I«0 C k 'a T T "E K T 6 U, 

sequence of this opinion an order of Vestry Was made, that 
the chest should be opened under the inspection of an 
attorney ; and that those writings which appeared of con- 
sequence should be removed to the south porch of the 
church. The locks were therefore forced, and not only 
the principal chest, biit the others, which were also sup- 
posed to contain writings, were all broken open. The 
deeds imn:iediately relating to the church were removed, 
and the other manuscripts were left exposed as of no value. 
Considerable depredations had, from time to time, been 
committed upon them by different persons : but the mast 
insatiate of. these plunderers was the father of Chatterton. 
His uncle being sexton of St. Mary Redcliffe gave him 
free access to the church. He carried off, from time to 
time, parcels of the parchments, and one tihie alone, with 
the assistance of his boys, is known to have filled a large 
basket with them. They were deposited in a cupboard in 
the school and employed for different purposes, such ds the 
covering of copy-books, &c. : in particular, Mr. Gibbs, the. 
minister of the parish, having presented . the boys with* 
twenty Bibles, Mr. Chatterton, in order to preserve these 
books from being damaged, covered them with some of 
the parchments. At his death, the widow being under a 
. necessity of removing, carried the remainder of them to 
her own habitation. Of the discovery of their value by the 
younger Chatterton, the account of Mr. Smith, a very 
intimate acquaintanoe, which he gave to Dr. Glynn of 
Cambridge, is too interesting to be omitted. Whenyou6g 
Chatterton was first articled to Mr. Lambert, he used fre- 
quently to come home to his mother, by way of a short 
visit. There one day his eye was caught by one of these 
jparchments, which had been converted into a thread-paper. 
He found not only the writing to be very old, the charac- 
ters very different from common characters, but that the 
subject therein treated was different from cotnmon subjects. 
Being naturally of an inquisitive and cufious turn, he vi'ks 
, very much struck with their appearance, and, as might be 
. expected, began to question his mother what those thread- 
. papers were,, how she got them, and whence they Catae. 
. Upon further inquiry, he was led to a full discovery of all 
. the parchments which remained; the bulk of them con- 
\sisted of poetical and other compositions, by Mr. Canynge, 
^,ahd a particular friend, of his, Thomas RoWiey, whom 
Chattvrtbn at first called a monk, and sli^erWards a seci^lar 

pfiest of the fifteenth, qentury. Sucbj, at Ieast| appears to 
^^ the account wt^jch Cbatterton thought proper to give^ 
and which be wish^4 tp bp believed/ It is, indeed, coQ« 
filmed by the, t^si^n^op]^ of bis motlier apd sister/ Mrs^ 
Chattertou informed a fripnd, of the dean of Exeter (Dr. 
Milles), that on her removal from Pyle-street, she emptied 
thfi. cupboard, of its contents^ partly into a large long deaj 
bpj^, ^pTfi^ be|r husband used- to keep his clothes, and 
Djir^tly iDtQ. 1^ square oak box of a smaller size ; carrying 
bothi with their contents to her lodgings^ where, according 
to b^r account, thpy continued neglected, and u;uUsturbea 
tiii her son first discovered their value ; who having ex- 
aliened their contents^ told his mother ^ t;hat be had found 
a tri^ure, and was so glad nothing could be like it.' That 
he then removed all these parchments out of theJarge long 
d^ bpx; iq which l^is father used to keep bis clothes, into 
ti^.e square oak box: that he was perpetually ransacking 
ftyery C9n^er of the bouse for more parchments ; and frdnof , 
:(iqpie tq time, carried away those he bad already found by 
jgoci^^a, fulJ. That one day happening to see Clarke's 
!^if^ry of the Bible covered with one of those parchment^^ 
ke swo];e a great oath, and stripping the book, put th^ 
cover into his pocket, and carried it away; at the same 
time stripping a common little ?ible, but finding no wri* 
ling upon the cover, replaced it again very leisurely. Upon 
Jii^og informed pf the manner in which his father had prb- 
9ured the parchments, he went himself to the place, and 
pl^ljLed up four noore/' 

Such IS th^ story of the discovery of the poems attri- 
buibed to Rowley, ivhiph Cbatterton evidently made up 
^oifi the credulity pf his mother and other friends, who 
cfiiujd not read the pstrcbi^nents on which he affected to set 
S9, hig]^ ^ value, and v^bic^ he afterwards endeavoured to 
ffadfnc pf public importance "by producing these wonderful 
|retasu;'e$ of Canynge's cofre. In his attempt already re- 
|ate4s respecting the old bridge, he had not been eminently 
,§|]cc^s^ful, owing (o his prevarication. He now imparted 
sgi^e pf these manuscripts to George Catcot, a'pewterer of 
Bci^^l, ^ho had beaH of the: discovery, and desired to be 
aDtvp4ucg4 ^ Cbatterton. The latter very readily gave 
him ibfi *f Bristow Tragedy,'* Rowley's epitaph on Ca- 
nyng^^a ii^o^oir, and some smaller pieces. ' These Patent 
fOp[\f(iunic;^ted to I^r. Barret, a surgeon, who was writing 
* PifW pf J549tp^, ,and would naturally be glad' to add tp 

• A* 

182 C H A T T E R T O N. 

its honours that of having produced such a poet as Rowley* 
In his conversations with Barret and Catcot, he appears ta 
have been driven to many prevarications, sometimes own- 
ing that be bad destroyed several of these valuable mftnu- 
dcriptSy and at other tinies asserting that he was in posses- 
sion of others which he could not produce. These contra- 
dictions must baVe entirely destroyed his evidence in any 
other case, in the opinion of thinking and impartial judges ; 
but the historian of Bristol could not forego the hopes of 
enriching his book by originals of so great importance; and 
having obtained from Ch»tterton several fragments, some 
of considerable length, actually introduced them as au- 
thentic, in his history, long after the controversy ceased, 
which had convinced the learned world that he had been 
egregiously duped. 

In return for these contributions; Barret and Catcot 
supplied Chatterton occasionally with money, and intro- 
duced him into company. At his request, too, Mr. Barret 
lent our poet some medical authors, and gave him a fewr 
instructions in surgery, but still his favourite studies were 
heraldry and English antiquities, which he pursued with as 
much success as could be expected from one who knew jio 
language but his own. Camden's Britannia appears to 
have been a favourite book ; and he copied the glossaries 
of Chaucer and bthers with indefatigable perseverance,' 
storing his memory with antiquated words. Even Bailey's 
dictionary has been proved to have afforded him many of 
those words which the advocates for Rowley thought could 
be known only to a writer of his pretended age. 

During all these various pursuits, he employed hts pen 
in essays, in prose and verse, chiefly of the satirical kind. 
He appears to have read the party pamphlets of the day, 
and imbibed much of their abusive spirit; In 1769, we 
find him a very considerable contributor to the Town and 
Country Magazine, which began about that time- His 
ambition seems to have been to rise to eminence, entirely 
by the efforts of his genius, either in his own character, or 
that of some of the heroes of the Redcliffe chest, in which 
he was perpetually discovering a most convenient variety 
of treasure, with which to reward his admirers and secure 
their patronage. Mr. Burgum, another pewterer, main- 
tains the authenticity of Rowley's poems. Chatterton re- 
wards him with a pedigree from the time of William the 
Conqueror, allying him to some of the most ancient fami- 

C H A T T E R T O N. 183 

lies io the kingdom, and presents bim with the ^' Romaunt 
of the Cnyghte/' a poem, written by John de Bergbam, 
one of bis own ancestors, about four hundred and fifty 
years before. In order to obtain the good opinion of bis 
relation Mr. Stephens of Salisbury, he informs him that he 
is descended from Fitzstephen, grandson of the venerable 
Od, earl of Blois, and lord of Holderness, who flourished 
about the year 1095. — ^In this manner Cbatterton contrived 
to impose on men who had no means of appreciating the 
value of wl^the communicated, and were willing to believe 
what, in one respect or other, they wished to be true. 

But the most remarkable of his pretended discoveries 
t^ued in an application to one who was not so easily to be 
deceived. This was the celebrated Horace Walpole,' the 
late lord Orford, who had not long before completed his 
f' Anecdoties of Painters." In March 1769, Cbatterton^ 
with his usual attention to the wants or prejudices of the 
persons on whom he wished to impose, sent Mr. Walpole 
a letter, offering to furnish him with accounts of a series of 
great painters who had flourished at Bristol, and remitted 
also a small specimen of poems of the same remote aera. 
Mr. Walpole, although he could not, as he informs us, very 
readily swallow "a series of great painters at Bristol," 
appears to have been in some measure pleased with the 
<;iffer, and discovered beauties in the verses sent. He there- 
fore returned a polite and thankful letter, desiring farther 
information, from this letter Chatterton appears to have 
thought, he had made a conquest, and therefore, in his 
answer, came to the direct purpose of his application. He 
informed his correspondent that he was the son of a poor 
widow, who supported him with great difficulty; that he 
was an apprentice to an attorney, but had a taste for more 
elegant studies ; he affirnied that great treasures of ancient 
poetry had been discovered at Bristol, and were, in the 
hands of a person who had lent him the specimen already 
transmitted, as well as a pastoral (" Elinoure and Juga'*) 
which accompanied this second letter. He hinted also a 
wish that Mr. Walpole would assist him in emerging from 
so dull a prpfession, by procuring some place, in which he 
might pursue the natural bias of his genius. Mr. Walpole 
immediately submitted the poems to Gray and Mason, who 
at first sight pronounced them forgeries, on which he re- 
turned Chatterton an answer, advising him to apply to the 
duties of his profession^ as more certain means of attaining 

tU G H A T t E A T d N.' 

^e iddepehdence dnd- leisure of Which' he Was desirous. 
This produced a peevish letter from- Chatterton^ desiiing' 
tbemannscriptsfback^ as they were the property of another, 
afid after soine d<elay, owing to Mr. Walpole^s taking* ar trip 
^ Paris, the poems' were returned in a blaiik cover. Thfe^ 
affroifiit, as Cl^tterton considered it, be never forgfetVe, atid 
At'this no maii need wonder, who reflects howdiffietik it 
itin^ ey^r be for air impostor to forgive those who hare 
Attempted tb detect him. 

' Thfe only remarkable cohscqtience of this correspondence* 
was the cettsure Mr. Walpole incurred fVom- the admirers 
6f Ch{itterton> who, upon no other authority than the cir« 
evimslasnces' now related, persisted- in accusing him* of bar^ 
b&rous' neglect of an extraordinary genius who solicited 
hiiff protection, and finally of being the cause of his shock-' 
ktg end. Mr. Walpole, when he found this calumny trans-* 
mitted from hand to hand, and probably believed by those 
i^ho did not take the trouble to inquire into the facts, drew 
up a candid narrative of the whole correspondence, which 
Was broken off nearly two years before Chattertoti died^ 
during which two years the latter had resided, with every 
encouragement, in London ; and^ according to his owtt 
account, was within the prospect of eas^and independence, 
without the aid of Mr. Walpolc*s patronage. Of all thi* 
Mr. Walpole's accusers could not be ignorant, if they knew 
dny thing of Chatterton*s history. They must have knownr 
that Chatterton did not apply to Walpole, as a' poet, but 
merely as a young man who was transmitting the property 
of another, and who had no claims of his ow n^ bat that he 
was tired of a dull profession, and wished for a plafce irr 
^hich he might indulge his taste in what was more Kvely. 
A patron must have had many places in his gift and feW 
applicants, if he could spare one to a person who professed 
i)o other merit than an inclination to exchange labour for 
ease. Yet Walpole has been held forth to public indigna- 
tion as the cause of Chatterton's death. 

About this time (1769) we are told that Chatterton be- 
came an infidel ; but whether this was in consequence of 
any course of reading into which he had fallen, or that he 
found it convenient to get rid of the obligations which stood 
in the way of his past or future schemes, H is not very ma* 
terial to inquire. Yet although one of his advocates, thefore- 
itaost to accuse Mr. Walpole of neglecting him, asserts that 
" ^i« nrofHgacy was at ieast as cotxspicuous as bis abilities/* 


C H A TT E lUrO'N; i8S 

it does not appear tbat he was nitiiie'pr#ftgete in the in^ 
dulgence of the grosser paiisiotiiS) than other yottilg' meiv 
who venture on the gaietifes* of life at afi early age.- White 
at Bristol he had not mixed with improper company ; fakr^ 
few associates of the female sex were penson$>of charaetier.' 
In London the case might have been otherwbe ; but' of thila? 
I we have no direct proof ; and he practised at teast one cute 
wbich is no mconsid^fabte presenri^tive, he' was r^morit- 
ably temperate in his diet. In his wr]tin^5 ind^ed^ w^' 
find some passages that are merer licentious than could- 
have been expected frdm a young man u nhaekneyed' in the- 
ways of vice, but not more so than might be eicpeeted in 
one who was premature in every things and had exhausted 
the stock of human folly at an age when it i» usually found 
unbroken* All his deceptiom, his prevaricationsj his poli*. 
ticU tergiversation, &c. were such as we should have looked* 
f(» in men of an advanced age^ hardened by evil a9socia^- 
tions, and soured by disappointed pride or avarice; One 
effect of his infidelity, we are told, was to render the idtea 
of suicide familiar. This he had cherished before he left 
Bristol, and when he could not fliirly complain of the 
world's neglect^ as he bad preferred no higher pretensions 
than those of a man who has by accident discovered a 
treasure which he knows not how to make current. Be- 
sides rfepeatedly intimating to Mr. Lambert's servants that 
he intended to put an end to his life, he left a paper in 
sight of some of the family, specifying the day on which 
he meant to carry this purpose into execution. The rea- 
son assigned for this appointment was the refusal of a gen- 
tleman whom he had occasionally compinnented in his 
poems, to supply him with money. It has since been sup- 
posed to be merely an artifice to get rid of his apprentice- 
ship ; and this certainly was the consequence^ as Mr. Lam- 
bert did not choose that his house should be honoured by 
such an act of heroism. He had now served this gentte- 
man about two years and ten months, during which be 
learned so little of law as to be unable to draw up the 
necessary docmnent respecting the dissolution of bis ap- 
prenticeship. We have seen how differently he was em-- 
ployed ; and there is reason to think that he had fabri- 
cated the whole of his ancient poetry and antique maim- 
scripts during his ^pprfenticeship, and before he left Bristol. 
His object now wa^ to go to London, where he had fuU 
confirdi^te t&at hi& tialents would be duly hono>ured. He 


had tirrittep letters to several booksellers of that city Vho 
encouraged him to reside among them. Some literary ad- 
venturers would have entered on suo^ a plan with difB-r 
dence ; and of many who have become authors by profes- 
sion, the greater part may plead the excuse that they n^i« 
ther foresaw, oor could be made to understand the many 
mortifications and difficulties that are to"" be surmounted. 
Chatterton, on the contrary, set out with the confidence 
pf ^ man who has laid his plans in such deep wisdom, that 
he thinks it impossible they should fail. He boasted to 
bis correspondents of three distinct resources, one at least, 
of which was unfortunately in his own power. He first 
meant to employ his pen ; then to turn methodist preacher , 
and if both should fail, to shoot himself. As ^is friends do 
not appear to have taken any steps to rectify his notions on 
these schemes, it is probable they either did not consider 
him as serious ; or had given him up, as one above all 
advice, and curable only by a little experience, which they 
were not sorry he should acquire in his own way, and at his, 
own expence. 

His first literary attempts by which he was to realize the 
dreams of presumption, were of the political kind, chiefly 
satires against the members.and friends of administration. 
In March 1770, be wrote a poem called " Kew Gardens,'' 
part of which biily has been published, but enough to show 
that he had been supplied by some patriotic preceptor with 
the floating scandal of the day against the princess dowager, 
lord Bute, and other statesmen. It is highly improbable 
tliat a boy who had spent the greater part of his time since 
be left school, in fabricating or decyphering the poetry, 
heraldry, and topography of the fourteenth and fifteenth 
centuries, should on a sudden become well acquainted 
with the intrigues of political men and their families. In 
ail this, his materials must have been supplied by sonie 
persons who lived by propagating the calumnies of personal 
and political history, and who would rejoice in the daunt- 
less spirit of their new associate. Another poem, of the 
same description, was entitled " The Whore of Babylon." 
Of both these there are specimens in his works, but it 
does not appear that the whole of them were printed. 

On his arrival in London,, near the end of April, he 
received, according to his own account, the most flattering 
encouragement, and various employment was recom- 
laeiided. Among other schemes was a History of London^ 

C H A T T E R T O N. 187 

which, if be had Uved to complete it, must have been a 
suitable companion to Mr. Barret's History of Bristol. In 
the mean time he v4*ote for many of the magazines and 
newspapers ; his principal contribntions appeared in the 
Freeholder's Magazine, the Town and Country, the Court 
and City, the Political Register, and the Gospel Maga- 
zine. He wrote songs also for the public gardens, and for 
some time got so much money that he thought himself 
comparatively affluent, and able to provide for his mother 
and sister, whose hearts he gladdened by frequent intima- 
tions of his progress. During this career he became ac- 
quainted with Wilkes, and with Beckford, who was then 
ford mayor. These patriots, however, he soon discovered 
were not so ready with their money as with their praise, 
and as the former appears to have been his only object, he 
had some thoughts of writing for the ministerial party. 
After Beckford's death, which he affected to lament as his 
ruin, he addressed a letter to lord North, signed Mode- 
rator, complimenting administration for rejecting the city 
remonstrance, and one of the same date signed Probus, 
abusing administration for the same measure. While this 
unprincipled young man was thus demonstrating how un- 
safe it would be for any party to trust him, his letters |to 
all his frieftids continued to be full of the brightest prospects 
of honours and wealth. But about the month of J uly some 
revolution appears to have taken place in his mind or' his 
affairs, which speedily put an end to all his hopes. 

Of what nature this was, remains yet a secret. About 
the time mentioned, he removed from a house in Shore- 
ditch, where he had hitherto liveicl, to the house of a Mrs. 
Angel, a sack-maker in Brook-street, Holboni, where he 
beca^ie poor and unhappy, abandoning his literary pur<* 
suits, and projecting to go out to Africa, as a naval sur- 
geon's mate. He had picked up some knowledge of sur- 
gery from Mr. Barret, and now requested that gentleman's 
recommendation, which Mr. Barret, who knew his versa- 
tile turn, and how unfit in other respects he was for the 
situation,' thought proper to refuse. If this was the im- 
mediate cause of his catastrophe, what are we to think of 
hiff lofty spirit ? It is certain, however, that he no longer 
employed his pen, and that the short remainder of his 
days were spent in a conflict between pride and poverty. 
On the day preceding his death, he refused with indig- 
nation, a kind offer from Mrs. Angel to partake of her 

1,«8 C B A T T^ R T a N. 

dinner^: as^rii^g her that he waif not hungry^ although hci 
bad not, eaten any thing for twa.or tbrcie daiySf On the 
%5th of August, 1770, he was found de^d, in consequence^ 
a9: is, supposed, of having swallpwed ar^qic in water, or 
some preparation of opiiim. He wa^ buried in a shell in 
the. buryiog-ground belonging to^ Shoe -lane wor^boii&e« 
Previous to this rash act he appe«,rs to have d^tiroyed all 
fais manuscripts,, as the room when, broken, open wa& found 
covered with little scraps, of paper. 

. It has. been, regretted that we know veiry little of th^ 
life of this extraordinary young, many whose writing;!^ 
have since become an object of so much curiosity ; and. 
great surprize has been expressed, that from the many 
with whom he appears to have been acquainted, such 
scanty inform;9.tion has been obtained. For this, however^ 
various reasons may be assigned^ which will lessen the 
ponder. In tb^; first place, his fame, using that word in 
itsmost: common application,^ was confined principally tp 
his native. city, and. there it appears that his. friends under* 
valued his talents, because they considered him in no 
better light than that of^^an unprincipled young man, who 
had accidentally become possessed of certain an<;ient ma* 
nuscripts, some of which he had given up,^ some he bad 
mutilated, and the rest l^p had destroyed He was with 
them an illiterate charijty-boy, the run-away apprentice ox 
backu^y-* writer of au attorney, atid aft^r be came to 
London, they appear to have ma,de very fev? inquiries zffter 
bim, congratulating themseLy^s tba^ they Ip^d got rid of a 
rash, impetuous, headstifong boy, wi^a would do ^om^ 
mischief,, and disgrace hin^self and bis relations. Again, 
^Jk I/ondon, notwithstancling his bafls^ng letters to .hie 
mother and sifter, he rose to no big^ r^x^ a^i^png the re(T 
putable writers of the day, his productions beiug confiq^ 
to publications of the lower order, all of which are now 
forgotten. But there cannot be a morft flecisive pipoof of 
the little regard he attracted i\i Londqii, tl^?^n the secrecy 
and silence which accpmpanied hi$ de^tb. . This event, 
although so extraordinary, for young suicides are suri^ly 
Dot common, is not even n^entioned in apy 4h;^pe, in tbf 
Gentleman's Magazine, the Ai^nual Register, the St. jame^^f 
pr London Chronicles, nor in any of the respectable pcub? 
iioations of the day. He die^, a cQronex> jury s^t ntpoi) 
the body, and be was buried a^iong paupers, so long be^ 
£ore Ills ^equ^iptf^pce h^itrd of these ciro^jpiftances, thj^t it 


was #iib some difficulty they could be traced with My* de- 
gree of authehticity. And lastly, it does not< appear tbut 
any iniquities were made ittto'his early history for nearly 
seven years after his death, i^hen the Poems * of ilo^idy 
were first pobiiished, and led tbe^way to a T^ry aciBite^lind 
long protracted diseuitsion on their merits. Itinay be 
added, too, that they ^ho contended for the Authenticity 
of the poems, 'were for sintGing every circumstance that 
could prove the genius dfOhiitte^rton, Utitil Mr. Tbdoias 
Wartonand sbme* Others took the ojpposite side of the 
question, brought the poems to the test of mteirnal' evi- 
dence, and discovered that however' eoi'/ftf^rrfm^ry it was 
for Cfaatterton to produce tbem in the ^ghteentb century, 
it was impossible that Rowley cpuld have written them in 
the fifteenth. 

When public attention #as at ^length ^led to €hatt6r- 
ton^s history, his admirers took every step to extite com- 
passi6n in bis favour. It became the ftwhion to i^peiat 'that 
be iras starved by an insensible age, or suffered, by^tiie 
neglect of patrbns, to^ perish in want of the common ne« 
ce»alries of life. But of this'fhere is no satisfactory evi- 
dence. On the contrary, he Appears to have beeu fully 
^ employed by'bis literaty -friends almost up to the day of 
' bis death, and from onebf-them he solicited money a vefy 
little before that cktastrophe, and received it with an as* 
sura-nee that he should* haVe more if he wantied it This 
benefactor was the late 'Mr.' Hamilton senior, the pro- 
prietor of the Critical Review, a man of well^nown li- 
berality, both of ttiind'-and puifse. One who knefw him 
well> when in London, and who wrote under the inspectida 
of Mr. Hamilton in the Critical Bieview, gives itas a f>ro- 
bable conjecture, that ** he wished to seal his seicret with 
'bis- death. He knew that be and Rowley were* suspected 
to be the ^ame ; his^ Londdo 'friends spoke of it with litde 
temple, and he neither confessed nor denied it. He 
might fear somewhat frony' binlself ;- might dread the effeots 
of increasing obligations, a<nd be struck with horror- at the 
thought of a public detection. He sometimes seemed 
'wild, abstracted, tind incoherent; at others he had a 
~ settled gloominess in his countenance, the sure presage of 
his fatal resolution. In short, this was the very 'tempera- 
ment and c6nstitution frbm which -we should, in similar cir« 
cuinstances, e^itpect thesame event. He was one of thO^ef 
irregtrtai^ meteor? which astodtsh the universe fo^ a momeat^ 

190 CHAT T,E R T O N. 

and then disappear for ever/^ This is at least plausible ; 
but the immediate cause of his death, must perhaps yet re- 
main a mystery. He had written so recently to his Bristol 
friends (about a mouth before), without a syllable indi- 
cating discontent or despair, that it was wholly unexpected 
on their part ; but suicide, at one time or other, his bio- 
graphers have proved, was his fixed purpose, and the 
execution of it was probably to depend on his disappoint- 
ment in whatever wild or impracticable scheme he. might 
meditate. He got enough in London by his literary la- 

. bouts, to supply the decent necessaries of life, bat his 
dreams of affluence* were over, and had probably left, that 
frightful void in his mind at which despair and disappointed 
paide entered. 

The person of Chatterton is said to have been like his 
genius, " premature ; he had a manliness and dignity be- 

. yond his years ; and there was a something about him un- 
"Commonly prepossessing. His most remarkable feature 
was his eyes, which, though grey, were uncommonly 

. piercing ; when he warmed in argument, or otherwise, they 

. sparkled with fire, and dne eye, it is said, was still more 
remarkable than the other.^' 

As to his genius, it must ever be the subject of admira* 
tion, whether he was, or was not, the author of the poem^ 
ascribed to Rowley. If we look at the poems avowedly 
his own, together with his productions in prose, where 
shall we find such and so many indubitable proofs of ge- 

. nius at an early age, struggling against many difficulties ? 

: Let us contemplate him as a young man, without classical 
education, and who knew nothing of literary society, but 

. during the few months of his residence in London ; and if to 
this we add what has been most decidedly proved, that he was 
not only the author of the poems attributed to Rowley, but 
consumed his early days in the laborious task of disguising 
them in the garb of antiquity, perpetually harassed by 
suspicion and in dread of discovery ; if likewise we reflect 
that the whole of his career closed before he had completed 
his eighteenth year, we must surely allow that he was one 
of the most extraordinary young men of modern times, and 
deserves to be placed high among those instances of pre- 
mature talents recorded by Kleferus in his *^ Bibliotbeca 

. Eruditorum Praecocium,'* and by Baillet in his " Enfans 
Celebres." Still our admiration should be chastened by 
confining it to the single point of Cbatterton^s extreme 


youth/ If we go farther, and con»der Rowley's poenis as 
the most perfect productions of any age; if, with dean 
Milles, we prefer him to Homer, Virgil, Spenser, and 
Shakspeare, we go far beyond the bounds of sober critir 
cism, or rather we defy its laws. Wonderful as those 
poems are, when considered as the productions of a boy, 
many heavy deductions must be made from them, if we 
consider them as the productions of a man, of one who has 
bestowed labour as well as contributed genius, and who 
has learned to polish and correct, who would not have ad- 
mitted such a number of palpable imitations and plagia- 
risms, and would have altered or expunged a multitude of 
tame, prosaic, and bald lines and metres. 

The general character of his works Ikas been both fairly 
and elegantly appreciated by lord Orford, in the last 
edition of his lordship's works. His life, says this critic, 
should be compared widi ^^ the powers of his mind, the 
perfection of his poetry, his knowledge of the world, which 
though in some respects erroneous, spoke quick intuition ; 
his humour, his vein of satire, and above all, the amazing 
number of books he must have looked into, though chained 
down to a laborious and almost incessant service, and con- 
fined to Bristol, except at most for the last five months of 
his life, the rapidity with which he seized all the topics of 
conversation then in vogue, whether of politics, literature, 
or fashion ; and when added to all this mass of reflection, 
it is remembered that his youthful passions were indulged 
to excess, faith in such a prodigy may well be suspended 
—and we should look for some secret agent behind the 
curtain, if it were not as difScult to believe that any man 
whopossessedsuch a vein of genuine poetry would have sub- 
mitted to lie concealed, while he actuated a puppet ; or 
would have stooped to prostitute his muse to so many un- 
worthy functions. But nothing in Chatterton can be se- 
parated from Chatterton. His noblest flight, his sweetest 
strains, his grossest ribaldry, and his most common-place 
imitations of the productions of magazines, were all the 
effervescences of the same ungovernable impulse, which, 
cameleon-like, imbibed the colours of all it looked on. It 
was Ossian, or a Saxon monk,, or Gray, or Smolktt^ or Ju- 
nius-^and if it failed most in what it most affected to be, a 
poet of the fifteenth century, it was because it could not 
imitate what had not existed.*' 

M2 C'U A -T T E R rrx) N. 

Th&faets^already relafted are .pnnciipally taken from the 
,aecount.dtawn up originally for the Biographia Britannica» 
^land at the dismncie'of eighteen y^ars, prefixed to ^an. edi- 
tion of .^is. iworks, 'witbout >any .addition or alteration. 
^^Samediiog* yet remains to ibe said of his virtues, whii:by . if 
•the .poetical ;eolc^ii|ims: that have appeared deserve any 
.crudity were. many. Except bis teimperance, however^ 
^akestdy noticed, -we 'find ocily that he preserved an .affec- 
tionate attacbmeAt for bis mother and sister, and .even 
eoneerning this, it avonld appear that more has been said 
.than is( consistent. It has been asseited that he sent pre- 
:sent»tothem from London, when in want himself; but it 
is evident from bis letters that these were unnecessary ar- 
ticles for persons in their situation,, and were not sent when 
he was in want*. Six weeks after, when he felt- himself 
in that state, he committed an act which affection for his 
' relations, since he despised all higher considerations, 
-ought to have; retarded. His last letter to his sister or 
mother, dated July 20, is full of high-spirited hopes, and 
contains a promise to visit them before the first of Januarj"^, 
but not a word, that can imply discontent^ far Jess an in- 
tention to put an end to his life. What must have been 
their fedings when the melancholy event reached them! 
. How little these poor women were capable of. ascertaining 
his character appears from the very singular evidietice of 
<his sister, who affirmed that he was ^^ a lover of truth from 
{the. earliest dawn of reason.'' The affectionate prejudices 
: of a fond relation may be pardoned, but it was surely unoe- 
'Cessary to introduce this in a life every part of which proves 
hi» utter contempt for truth at an age when we areitatrght 
> |o espect a disposition open,, ingenuous, and candid. 

With regard to the controversy occasioned by the pab« 

'liaations. attributed to Rowley, it is unnecessary .to enter 

. upon it, . although it has lately been attempted, to bere- 

vived, but without exciting much interest. Whether the 

object of .this controversy was not disproportiohisd: to the 

^warmth it excited,, and the length of time it consumed, 

. the reader may judge from a.perusal of the whole. of Chat- 

iterton^s productions. The principal advocates for the ex- 

.istence of Rowley, and the authenticity of his poera^, were 

Mr. Bryant, Dean Milles, Dr. Glynn^ Mr. (uow Dr.) 

* See a Note in tbe Biog. Britanniea, vol. IV. p. 588, iigned 0: wrU^ia hf . 
Pr, Lort, but omitted ia the Life lately published. 

C H A T T E R T O N. WS 

Henley*, Dr. Langhoiti (in the Monthly Review), and 
Mr. James Harris. Their opponents were Mr. Tyrwhitt, 
Horace Walpole, the two Wartons, Dr. Johnson, Mr* 
Steevens, Dr. Percy (bishop of Dromore), Mr. Gibbon, 
Mr. Jones, Dr. Farmer, Mr. Colman, Mr. Sheridan *, Dr. 
Lort, Mr. Astle, Mr. (sir Herbert) Croft*, Mr. Hayley *> 
lord Camden, Mr. Gough, Mr. Mason, the writer of the 
Critical Review, Mr. Badcock (in the Monthly Review), 
the Reviewers in the Geotleman's Magazine, iand various 
Correspondents in the same Miscellany. To these may be 
added, Mr. Malone, who lived to detect another forgery 
by a very young impostor, in the history of which the 
reader will probably recollect many corresponding circum-* 
stances ; and will be inclined to prefer the shame of Chat- 
terton, fatal as it was, to the unblushing impudence and 
unnatural fraud of one who brought disgrace and ruin on a 

In 1803, an edition of Chatterton's works, far more 
complete than any that had yet appeared, was published 
under the care of Messrs. Southey and Cottle, for the 
benefit of Mrs. Newton, Chafterton's sister (since dead), 
and of her daughter ; but the coldness with which it was 
received by the public is perhaps a proof that it will not be 
possible to perpetuate the fame of an author, who has con- 
cealed his best productions under the garb of a barbarous 
language, which few will be at the trouble of learning. 
The controversy is no longer interesting, and perhaps the 
warmth with which so many great names engaged in it, 
may hereafter be reckoned as surprising as the object 
itself. ^ 

CHAUCER' (Jeffery or Geoffrey), styled the Father 
of English. |)oetry, is one of whose birth and family nothing 
has been decided. It has been contended on the one 
hand, that he was of noble origin ; on the other, that he 
descended from persons in trade. Even the meaning of 
his name in French, Chaucitt\ a shoemaker^ has been 
brought in evidence of a low origin, while the mention of 
the name Chaucer, in several records, from the time of 
•William the conqueror to that of Edward I. has been 
thought sufficient to prove the contrary. Leland says he 
was nohili toc9 natus ; but Speght, one of his early biogra« 

* These gentlemen are the only survivors (1813) of this celebrated dijpvtc. 
1 JobasoD and Cbalmers'ii English Poets, 1810.— Life in Biog. Brit. fcc. 

Vot. IX, ' O 


pbers, informs us,' that *•' in the opinion of some heralcfsy 
he descended not of an)' great house, which they gather" 
by his arms ;" and Mr. Tyrwhitt is inclined to believe the 
heralds rather than Leiand. Speght, however, goes far- 
ther, and makes his father a vintner, who died in 134^, 
and left his property to the church of St. Mary Aldermary, 
where he was buried. This is confirmed by Stowe, who 
says, " Richard Chawcer, vintner, gare to that church his 
tenement and tavern^ with the appurtenance, in the Royal- 
streete the corner of Kerion-lane, and was there buriedjf 
1348." But neither Stowe nor Speght afford any proof 
that this Richard Chawcer was the father of our poet. 

With respect to the place of his birth, we cannot [iro* 
duce better authority than his own. In his " Testament 
of Love," he calls himself a Londoner, and speaks of the 
city of London as the place of his " kindly engendrure." 
In spite of this evidence, however, . Leiand, who is more 
than usually incorrect in his account of Chaucer, reports 
him to have been born in Oxfordshire or Berkshire. The 
time of his birth is, by general consent, fixed in the se- 
cond year of Edward III. 1328, and the foundation of this 
decision seems to have originally been an inscription on 
his tomb, signifying that he died in 1400 at the age of 
seventy-two. Collier fixes his death in 1440, but he is so 
generally accurate, that this may be supposed an error of 
the press. Phillips is more unpardonable ; for, contrary to 
all evidence, he instances the reigns of Henry IV. V. and 
VI. as thosejn which Chaucer flourished. 

His biographers have provided him with education both 
at Oxford and Cambridge, a circumstance which we know 
occurred in the History of other scholars of that period, and. 
is not therefore improbable. But in his " Court of Love," 
which was composed when he was about eighteen, he 
speaks of himself under the name of " Philogenet, of Cam- 
bridge, clei*k." Mr. Tyrwhitt, while he does not think 
this a decisive proof that he was really educated at Cam- 
bridge, is willing to admit it as a strong argument that he 
was not educated at Oxford. Wood, in his AnnaU (vol. L 
book I. 484.) gives a repdrt, or rather tradition, that 
** when Wickliff was guardian or warden of Canterbury 
college, be had to his pupil the famous poet called JefFry 
Chaucer (father of Thomas Chaucer, of Ewelme in Ox- 
fordshire, esq.) who following the steps of his master, re- 
flected mach upon the corruptions of the clergy." This is 


something like evidence if it could be depended on ; at 
least it is preferable to the conjecture of Leiand, who sup- 
poses Chaucer to have been educated at Oxford^ merely 
because he had before supposed that he was born either in 
Oxfordshire or Berkshire^ Those who contend for Cam- 
bridge as the place of his education^ fix upon Solere's 
hall, which he has described in his story of the Miller of 
Trompington ; but Solere^s hall is merely a corruption of 
Soler hall^ i. e. a hall with an open gallery, or soUre win-* 
dow *. The advocates for Oxford are inclined to place 
him in Mertou college, because his contemporaries Strode 
and Occleve were of that college. It is equally a matter 
of conjecture that be was first educated at Cambridge, and 
afterwards at Oxford. Wherever he studied, we have 
suiEcient proofs of bis capacity and proficiency. He ap- 
pears to have acquired a very great proportion of the 
learning of his age, and became a master of its philosophy^ 
poetry, and such languages as formed the intercourse 
between men of learning. Leiand says he was ^^ acuttcs 
Dialecticus^ dulcis Rhetor ^ kpidus Poeta^ gravis Philosophus, 
ingeniosus Matheinaticus^ dcnique sanctus Theologus^'* It is 
equally probable that he courted the muses in those early 
days, in which he is said to have been encouraged by 
Cower, although there are some grounds for supposing 
that his acquaintance with Gower was of a later date. 

After leaving the university, we are told that he travelled 
through France and the Netherlands, but the commence- 
ment and conclusion of these travels are not specified. On 
his return, he is said to have entered himself of the Middle 
Temple, with,a view to study the municipal law, but even 
this fact depends chiefly on a record*, without a date, whicfa^ 
Speght informs us, a Mr. Buckley had seen, where Jeffery 
Chaucer was fined ^' two shillings for beating a Franciscans 
frier in Fleet-street." Leiand speaks of his frequenting 
the law colleges after his travels in France, and perhaps 
before. Mr. Tyrwhitt doubts these travels in France, and 
has indeed satisfactorily proved that Leland*s account of 
Chaucer is full of inconsistencies — Leiand is certainly in- 
consistent as tQ dates, but froqi the evidence Chaucer gave 
in a case of chivalry, we have full proof of one journey in 
France, although the precise period cannot be fixed. 

^ Mr. Warton thinks that ^lere- circumstaiice to distingaish and deno- 
hall wai Aula Solarii, the hall with the minat^ one of the academical hospitia, 
upper story, at that time a sufficient Hitt. of Poetryi toI. I. p. 432^ note |k 

02 ^ 


Whatever time these supposed employments might h^re 
occupied, we discover, at length, with tolerable certainty, 
that Chaucer betook himself to the life of a courtier, and 
probably with all the accomplishments suited to his ad- 
vancement in the court of a monarch who was magnificent 
ID his establishment, and munificent in his patronage of 
learning and gallantry. At what period of life he obtained 
a situation here, is uncertain. The writer of the life 
prefixed to Urry's edition supposes he was not more than 
thirty, because his first employment was in quality of the 
Icing's page j but the first authentic memorial, respecting 
Chaucer at court, is the patent in Rymer, 41 Edward III. 
by which that king grants him an annuity of twenty marks, 
about 200/. of our money, by the title of Falettus noster *^ 
'< our yeoman," and this occurred when Chaucer was in 
bis thirty-ninth year. Several mistakes have arisen re-» 
specting these grants, from his biographers not under- 
standing the meaning of the titles given to our poet. 
Speght mentions a grant from king Edward four years 
later than the above, in which Chaucer is styled valcttus 
hospitii^ which he translates grome of the pallacey sinking 
our author, Mr. Tyrwhitt observes, as much too low, as 
his biographer in Urry's edition had raised him too high, 
by translating the same words gentleman of the king^s privy 
chamber. Valet or yeoman was, according to the same 
acute scholiast, the intermediate rank between squier and 

It would be of more consequence to be able to deter- 
mine what particular merits were rewarded by this royal 
bounty. Mr. Tyrwhitt can find no proof, »;id no ground 
for supposing that it wafbestowed on Chaucer for his poe- 
tical talents, although it is. almost certain that he had 
distinguished himself, as a poet, before this time. The 
** Assemblee of Foules,'* the " Complaint of the Blacke 
Knight,'* and the translation of the " Roman de la Rose,*' 
were all composed before 1367, the sera which we are now 
considering. What strengthens Mr. Tyrwhitt's opinion of 
the king's indifference to Chaucer's poetry, is his appoint- 
ing him, a few years after, to the office of comptroller of 

* Mr. Ellis observes that this office, of iihich was acquired, together with 

" by whatever name we translate it, the habits of chivalry, by passing ia 

might be held even by persons of the gradation through the several menial 

hrghest rank, because the only science oi&ces about the court." Eilis't Spe- 

then in request among the nobility cimeni, T6l. I. p. 802. 
was that of etiquette, the knowledge 

C H A U C E E. 197 

the custom of wool, with an injunction that ^ the said 
Geffrey write with his own hand his rolls touching the said 
office in his own proper person, and not by his substitute." 
The inferences, however, which Mr. Tyrwbitt draws from 
this fact, viz. " that his majesty was either jbotally insen- 
sible of our author^s poetical talents, or at Iea$t had no 
mind to encourage him in the cultivation or exercise of 
them,"' savours rather too much of tbe conjectural spirit 
which he professes to avoid. He allows that, notwith- 
standing what be calls ^* the petrifying quality, with which 
these Custom-house accounts might be expected to operate 
upon Chaucer's genius,^' he probably wrote bis " House 
of Fame*' while he was in that office. Still less candid to the 
memory of Edward will these inferences appear, if we 
apply modern notions of patronage to the subject ; for in 
what manner could tbe king more honourably encourage 
the genius of a poet, than by a civil employment which 
rendered him easy in bis circumstances, and free from the 
suspicious obligations of a pension or sinecure ? 

Chaucer's biographers bave given some particulars of his 
life, befor&the office just mentioned was conferred upon 
him. He is said to bave been in constant attendance on 
his majesty, and when tbe court was at Woodstock, re- 
sided at a square stone house near tbe park gate, which 
long retained the name of Chaucer's house ; and many of 
the rural descriptions in his works, have been traced to 
Woodstock park, the favourite scene of his walks and 
studies. But besides his immediate office near the royal 
person, he very early attached himself to the service of the 
celebrated John of Gaunt, duke;, of Lancaster, and from 
this connection his public life is to be dated. Tbe author 
of tbe fife prefixed to Urry's edition observes, that the 
duke's '^ ambition requiring all the assistance of learned 
men to give it a plausibly appearance, induced him to do 
Chaucer many good offices, in order to engage him in his 
interest." But altlioucrb the assistance of learned men to 
an ambitious state^lnan is very well understood in moderm 
times, it is somewhat difficult to conceive' what advantage 
could be derived from such assistance before the invention 
of printing. It is more probable that tbe duke had a relish 
for the talents and tast^ of Chaucer, and became his patroA 
upon the most liberal grounds, altiuHigh Chaucer might 
afterwards repay his favours by ejsposipg the conduct, of 


When Richard II. succeeded hU grand fatbery he was 
but eleven years of age, and his upcle the duke of Lan» 
caster was consequently entrusted with the chief share in 
the administration of public affairs. One of his 6rst plea- 
sures was to solemnize the young king*s coronation with 
great pomp, previously to which a court of claims was 
e^stablished to settle the demands of those who pretended 
to have a right to assist at the ceremony. Among these^ 
Chaucer claimed in right of his ward, who was possessed 
of the manor of Billington in Kent; and this was held of 
the crown, by the service of presenting to the king three 
maple cups on the day of his coronation ; but this claim 
was contested, and if it had not, is remote enough from the 
kind of information which it would be desirable to obtain 
respecting Chaucer. All we knov\ certainly of this period, 
is, that the duke of Lancaster still preserved his friendship 
for our poet, and probably was the means of the grants 
just noticed having been renewed on the accession of the 
young king. 

Soon after this, however, Chaucer's biographers concur 
in the fact that be experienced a very serious reverse in 
bis affairs, which in the second year of liicbard II. were in ' 
mich disorder, that he was bbliged to have recourse to the 
kmg's protection, in order to screen him from the impor«t 
tuuities of his creditors. But as to the cause of this em- 
)>arrassment, we find no agreement among those who have 
attempted a narrative of his life. Some think his distresses 
were temporary, and some that they were artificial* Among 
the latter, the writer of his life in the Biographia Britan- 
nica hazards a supposition which is at least ingenious. He 
is of opinion that Chaucer about this time found out a rich 
match for his son Thomas, namely, Maud, the second 
daughter of sir John Burghershe ; and in order to obtain 
this match, he was obliged to bring bis son somewhat upon 
a level with her, by settling all his landed estates upon 
him : and that this duty might occasion those demanda 
which put him under the necessity of obtaining the king's 
protection. The conclusion of the matter, according to . 
ihis conjecture, must be, that Chaucer entailed his estates 
vpoif his son, and found means to put off his creditors, a 
measure not very honourable. But we are still in the daxk 
as to the nature of those debts, or the existence of his 
landed property, and it is even, doubtful whether this Tbo* 



mft8 Chaueer was his son^. We know certainly of no 9on 
but' Lewis^ who was born in 1381, twenty-one years %itm 
his marriage, if the date of his marriage before giren b^ 

It appears from the historians of Richard JI. that the 

duke of Lancaster, about the third or fourth year of that 

monarches reign, began to decline in political influence, if 

not in popularity, owing to the encouragement be had given 

to the oelebi*ated reformer Wickiiffe, whom be supported 

against the clergy, to whose power in state a&irs he had 

long looked with a jealous eye. Chaucer^s works show 

evidently that he concurred with the duke in his opinion of 

the clergy, and have procured him to be ranked among 

the few wbo paved the way for the reformation. Yel whea 

the insurrection of Wat Tyler was imputed to the princi^ 

pies of the Wicklevites, the duke, it is said, withdrew bii 

countenance from them, and disclaimed their tenets 

Chaucer is likewise reported to have altered his sentiment!^ 

hut the fact, in neither case, is satisfactorily confirmed. 

The duke of Lancaster condemned the doctrines of those 

followers of Wickliff only, who had excited public disturb^- 

ances ; and Chaucer was so far from abandoning his forf- 

mer notions t, that in 1384, he exerted bis utmost intereot 

in favour of John Combertpn, commonly called John of 

Northampton, when about to be re*chosen mayor of Lonckm. 

Comberton was a reformer on WicklifTs principles, and so 

obnoxious on that account to the clergy, that they stirriod 

up a commotion on his re-election, which the king was 

* '< After reading, in the circum- sister to Catherine Rouet, who married 

stantial accounts* of Chaucer's bio- a sir John Swynford, and was thefa*' 

graph^re, that lie was married in 1360 Tourite mistress, and ultimatdy tiie 

to Philippe Rouet, by whom he had wife, of the duke of X«anca«ter; aod 

issue Thomas Chaucer and other chiU that Chaucer himself mentions no son 

dren, we are surprised to learn that it but Lewis, whom he states to have 

js dovtbtful whether Thomas Chancer been bom in 1^31, » date^ which seems 

was his son; that the earliest Hnown to agree with tiie record above Q»en- 

eridence of his marriage is a record of tioned, and to place the da|e of his 

1381, in #hich he receives a haiC- marriage in 1380. '^ EUis't Specimeinsy 

year's payment of an annuity of ten voL F. p, 20(^. 

marks, granted by Edward III. to his f His biographers say he died a 

wife as one of the maids of honour niember of the church of Rome. Fox 

X'lofmalla'') lately in the servtee of claims him as a reformer. Aets arid 

. qneen Philippa; that the name of Monuments, vol* II. p. 42, edit. 168^. 

^ Fhilippa Rouet does not occur in the Dr. Warton (Essay on Pope) observes 

litt of these maids of honour, but that tb«t Chaucer, as well as Oante* ai- 

Chaucer's wife mAy possibly havie be^n serted Uiat the cliiircli of Rome was 

Philippa Pykard \ that notwithstand- Antichrist, a notion Bossuet has taken 

log this, his said wife was certainty much pains to refute. 


obliged to quell by force. The consequence was, that 
some lives were lost, Comberton was imprisoned, and strict 
search tvas made after Chaucer, who contrived to escape 
first to Hainault, then to France, and finally to Zealand. 
The date of his flight has not been ascertained, but it was 
no doubt upon this occasion that he lost his place in the 

While in Zealand, he maintained some of his country- 
men who had fled thither upon the same account, by 
sharing the money he brought with him, an act of liberality 
which soon exhausted his stock. In the mean time, the 
partizans of his cause, whom he left at home, contrived to 
make their peace, not only without endeavouring to pro-- 
cure a pardon for him, but without aiding him in his exile, 
where he became greatly distressed for want of pecuniary 
mipplies. Such ingratitude, we may suppose, gave him 
more uneasiness than the consequences of it ; but it did 
not lessen his courage, as he soon ventured to return to 
England. On this he was discovered, and committed to 
the Tower, where, after being treated with great rigour, 
he was promised his pardon, if he would disclose all he 
knew, and put it in the. power of government to restore tb^ 
peace of the city. His former resolution appears now to 
have forsaken him, or, perhaps, indignation at the ungrate^ 
fat coi>duct of his associates induced him to think disclo- 


sure a matter of indiflerence. It is certain that he complied 
with the terms ofiered ; but we are not told what was thi^, 
amount of his confession, or what the consequences of it 
were to others, or who they were whom he informed against. 
We know only that he obtained bis liberty, and that a|i 
oppressive share of blame and obloquy followed. To alle- 
viate his regret for this treatment, and partly to vindicate 
his conduct, he now wrote the " Testament of Love ;'* 
and although this piece, from want of dates, and obscurity 
of style, is not sufficient to form a very satisfactory bio- 
graphical document, it at least furnishes the preceding 
account of his exile and return. 

The decline of the duke of Lancaster's interest contri- 
buted not a little to aggravate the distresses of our author, 
and determined him to take leave of the court and its in- 
trigues, and retire in pursuit of that happiness which his 
years and habits of reflection demanded. With this view 
it was necessary to dispose of those pensions which had 
been bestowed upon him in the former reign. ; and whicb^ 


t)otwithstanding his espousing a cause not very acceptable 
to the sovereign, had been continued to him in the present. 
Accordingly in May 1388, he obtained his majesty's licence 
to surrender his two grants of twenty marks each, in favour 
of one John Sealby. After this he retired to his favourite 
Woodstock; and, according to Speght, employed a part of 
his time in revising and correcting his writings, and enjoy* 
ing the calm pleasures of rural contemplation. It is thought 
that the composition of_his " Canterbury Tales" was be- 
gun about this time, 1389, when he was in the sixty-first 
year of his age, and when, contrary to the usual progress 
of mind, his powers seem to have been in their fullest 

It was not long after this period that the duke of Lan« 
caster resumed his influence at court; but whether Chaucer 
was enabled to profit by this reverse, or whether he. had- 
seen too much of political revolutions to induce him to 
quit his retreat, his biographers are doubtful. It appear^ 
however, probable that the duke of Lancaster had it still 
as much in his will as in his power to befriend him ; and it 
might be owing to his grace's influence, that in 1389 we 
find. him iclerk of the works at Westminster; and in the 
following year at Windsor and other palaces: but Mr. 
Tyrwhitt doubts whether these offices were sufficient to 
indemnify him for the loss of his place in the customs^ 
In the " Testament of Love," he complains of ** being 
berafte out of dignitie of office, in which he made a 
gatheringe of worldly godes;" and in another place he 
speaks of himself as '^once glorious in worldly welefulnesse, 
and having such godes in welthe as maken men ricbe.^f 
All this implies a very considerable reverse of fortune; 
although Speght's tradition of his having been possessed of 
*' lands and revenues to the yearly value almost of a thou* 
sand pounds," remains utterly incredible. 

But the king's favour did not end with the offices just 
mentioned. In the seventeenth year of his reign,. 1394^ 
he granted to Chaucer a new annuity of twenty pounds; 
in 1398, his protection for two years ; and in 1399, a. pipe 
of wine annually. From the succeeding sovereign Henry 
IV. he obtained, in the year last mentioned, a confirmation 

* Chaucer'f fame rests chiefly on venty, and Chaucer before he finished 

kis Canterbury Tales, and Dryden's what we hare of hU Tales was pro- 

OQ his Fables, both written towards bably not much less. 
fikB decline of life. I>ryden was se« 

so* . C H A U C E R. 

f»f bis two grants c^ 20/. and of the pipe of wine^ ^mi 9* 
iiie same time an additional )grant of an annuity of fortj 
narks. Notwithstanding this dependent state of his affairs, 
some of his biographers represent him a? possessed of Dua«- 
nington castle in Berkshire, which he must have purchased 
At the time he received the above annuity of twenty pounds; 
£ot up to that date (1394) it Was in the possession of Mt 
Richard Abberbury. Mr. Tyrwhitt remarks that the tra- 
ditioii which Evelyn notices in his Sylva^ of an oak in 
DunningtoD park called Chaucer's oak, may be sufficiently 
siecounted for, without supposing that it was plaoted by 
Chaucer himself, as the castle was undoubtedly in the hands 
of Thomas Chaucer for many years. During his retire- 
ment in 1391, he wrote his learned treatise on the Astro- 
labe, for the use of his son Lewis, wbo was then te^ years 
old ; and thi^ is the only circumstance respecting bis family 
ivhich we have on his own or any authority that deserves 
credit. Leland, Bale, and Wood place this soti under the 
tuition of his father's friend Nicholas Strode (whom^ how^- 
«ver, they call Ralph) of Merton college, Oxford ; bat if 
Wood could trace Strode no farther than the year 1370, it 
18 impossible he could have been the tutor of Ciiaiicer's sob 
in 1391. 

The accounts we have of Chaucer's latter days are ex- 
tremely inconsistent. His biographers bring bim from 
Woodstock to Dunnington castle, and from that to LQQdon 
to solicit a continuation of his annuities, in which he foun4 
such difficulties as probably hastened his end. Wood, in 
)iis Annals, informs us that although he did not repent at 
the last of his reflections on the cler^, ^^ yet of that be 
wrote of love and baudery, it grieved him much on his 
death'^bed : £or one that lived shortly after his time, maketb 
report^, that when he saw death approaching, be<iid often 
cry out, ' Woe is me, woe is me, that I cannot recall and 
anuuU those things which I have written of the base and 
iilthy love of men towards women : but al^s ! they are now 
icontinued from man to man, and I cannot do what I de<- 
Mre\'' To this may be added, that the affecting lines 
** Code Counsaile of Chaucer,'' are said to have been made 
by him when on his death-bed, and in great aoguisb. 

* Tb. Qagoai^e in 2 parte Die- s^ri Armig^eri, qm Thomas tepult i|k 
tionar. Theolog. p. 377. MS. <* Fuit Nuhelm juxta OxoKki^m." 
Idem Ckawserui pater Thorns Cfaaw- 


It seems generally agreed that he died Oct 25^ 1400^ 
and was* buried in Westminster-abbey, in the great soath 
cross-aile. The monument to his memory was erected 
above a century and a half after his decease, by Nicholas 
Brigham, a gentleman of Oxford, a poet, and warm ad« 
mirer of our author. It stands at the north end of a mag- 
nificent recess, formed by four obtuse foliaged arches, and 
is a plain altar, with three quatrefoils, and the same num-^ 
her of shields. The inscription, and figures on the baek^ 
are almost obliterated. 

Although Chftucer has been geneJrally hailed as the 
founder of English poetry and literature, the extent of the 
obligations which English poetry and literature owe to him 
has not been decidedly ascertained. The improvement be 
introduced in language and versification has been called in 
question, not only by modern but by ancient critics* Th# 
chief faults attributed to him, are the mixture of French in 
all his works, and his ignorance of the laws of versifioa^ 
tion. With respect to the mixture of French words and 
phrases in Chaucef s writings, it must be observed that the 
French language was prevalent in this country several ceti-^ 
turies befofe his time. Even previously to the conquest, 
the Normans had made it a fashion to speak French in the 
English court, and from thence it would naturally be 
adopted by the people ; but after the conquest this became 
the case in a much greater proportion. It was a matter of 
policy in the conqueror to introduce his own language, and 
it would soon become a matter of interest in the people to 
acquire it. We uniformly find that where new settleih» 
appear, even without the superiority of conquerors, the 
aborigines find it convenient to learn their language. The 
history of king William's conquest and policy shows that 
his language must soon extend over a kingdom which he 
had parcelled out among his chiefs as the reward of their 
valour and attachment. One step which he took, must 
above all others have contributed to naturalize the French 
language. He supplied all vacancies in the ecclesiastieal 
establishnient with Norman clergy ; and if, with all this 
influence, the French language did not universally prevail, 
it must at least have interfered in a very considerable degree 
with the use of the native tongue. At schools, French and 
Latin were taught together in the reign of Edward III. aftd 
it was usual to make the scholars construe their Latiti 
lessons into French, a practice which must have greatly 


retarded the progress of the native tongue towards reifine«« 
ment. Some check, indeed, appears to have been giveni 
to this in the reign of the same sovereign ; but the pro- 
<;eedings in parliament and the statutes continued to be 
promulgated in French for a far longer period. 
. These circumstances have been advanced to prove that 
Chaucer ought not to be blamed for introducing words and 
phrases with which his countrymen were familiar long be-> 
fore his time, and which they probably considered as ele- 
gancies. If Chaucer was taught at school, as other youths 
were, it is plain that he must have learned French while 
he was learning his mother tongue, and was taught to give 
a preference to the former by making it the vehicle of 

The language, therefore, in use in Chaucer's dajs^ 
among the npper classes, and by all that would be thought, 
learned, was a Norman-Saxon dialect, introduced by the, 
influx and influence &f a court of foreigners, and spread 
wherever that influence extended. Jourpej^s to France; 
were also common, for thp purposes of improvement iii; 
&ucb accomplishments as were then fashionable, and this, 
kind of intercourse, which is always in favour of the country, 
visited, would perhaps tend to introduce a still greater 
proportion of French phraseology* But still the founda- 
tion was laid at home, in the prevailing modes of edu-, 
cation. With respect to the progress of this mixture, and ^ 
tb^ effects of the accessions which in the course of nearly 
three centuries, the English language received from Nor- 
mandy, the reader is referred to Mr. Tyrwhitt's very, 
elaborate ^^ Essay on the Language and Versification of 
Chaucer," prefixed to his edition of the ^^ Canterbury 
Tales.'' It appears, upon the whole, that ^^ the language 
of our ancestors was complete in all its parts, and had^ 
served them for the purposes of discourse, and even of 
composition in various kinds, long before they had any in- 
timate acquaintance with their French neighbours." They 
had therefore " no call from necessity, and consequently no 
sufficient inducement, to alter its original and radical con- 
stitutions, or even its customary forms." ^ And accordingly^ 
notwithstanding the prevalence of the French from the 
causes already assigned, it is proved by Mr. Tyrwhitt that 
** in all the essential parts of speech, the characteristical 
features of the Saxon idiom were always preserved ; and 
the crowds of French words which from time to time were 


impol'ted, were themselves made subject, either imme- 
diately, or by degrees, to the laws of that same idiom.^* 

As to what English poetry owes to Chaucer, Dr. John- 
son has pronounced him ^' the first of our versifiers who 
wrote poetically," and Mr. Warton has proved " that ia 
elevation and elegance, in harmony and perspicuity of 
versification, he surpasses his predecessors in an infinite 
proportion; that bis genius was universal, and adapted to 
themes of unbounded variety ; that his merit was not less 
in painting familiar manners with humour and propriety, 
than in moving the passions, and in representing the beau* 
tiful or the grand objects of nature with grace and sub- 
limity. In a word, that he appeared with all the lustre 
and dignity of a true poet, in an age which compelled him 
to struggle with a barbarous language, and a national want 
of taste ; and when to write verses at all, was regarded 2a 
a singular qualification." 

The Saxons had a species of writing which they called 
poetry, but it did not consist of regular verses, nor was it 
embelUshed by rhime. The Normans, it is generally 
ttjiought, were the 6rst who introduced rhime or metr^ 
copied from the Latin rythmical verses, a bastard species, 
•which belongs to the declining period of the Latin language. 
To deduce the history of versification from the earliest 
periods is impossible, for want of specimens. Two very 
trifling ones only are extant before the time of Henry II. 
namely, a few lines in the Saxon Chronicle upon the death 
of William the Conqueror, and a short canticle, which, 
according to Matthew Paris, the blessed virgin was pleased 
to dictate to Godric, an hermit near Durham. In the time 
of Henry II. Layamon, a priest, translated chiefly from 
the French of Wace, a fabulous history of the Britons, en* 
titled Le Brut, which Wace himself, about 1155, had 
translated from the Latin of Geffry of Monmouth. In this 
there are a number of short verses, of unequal lengths, 
but exhibiting something like rhime. But so common w^n 
it to write whatever was written, in French or Latin, that 
another century must be passed over before we come to 
another specimen of English poetry, if we except the Or- 
mulum^, and a moral piece upon old age, &c. f noticed 

* A paraphrase on the Gospel histories, written by one Orme or Ormin. 
f A specimen of this is given in Dr. Johnson's latroduciion to bis Pic- 

203 C H A U e E R. 

by Mr. Tyrwbitt, and which hie conjectures to have beea 
written earlier than the reign of Henry II. 

Between the latter end of the reign of Henry HI. and 
the time of Chaucer, the names of many English rhimer» 
bave been recovered, and many more anonymous writers, 
or rather translators of romances, flourished about this 
period ; but they neither invented nor imported any im- 
provements in the art of versification. Their labours, bow* 
ever, are not to be under\'alued. Mr. Warton has very 
justly remarked, that " the revival of learning in most 
countries appears to have first owed its rise to translation. 
At rude periods the modes of original thinking are un- 
ktiown, and the arts of original composition bave not yet 
been studied. The writers, therefore, of such periQds 
aire chiefly and very usefully employed in importing the 
ideas of other languages into their own." But, ad many 
of these metrical romances were to be accompanied by 
iDusic, they were less calculated for reading than reci- 

These authors, whatever their merit, were the only 
English poets, if the name may be used, when Chaucer 
appeared, and the only circumstances under which he 
found the poetry of his native tongue, were, that rbime 
was established very generally ; that the metres in use were 
principally the long Iambic, consisting of not more than 
fifteen, nor less than fourteen syllables, and broken by a 
caesura at the eighth syllable ; the Alexandrine metre, con- 
sisting of not more than thirteen syllables, nor less thati 
twelve, with & csesura at the sixth ; the octosyllable metre; 
and the stanza of six verses, of which the first, second, 
fourth and fifth were in complete octosyllable metre, and the 
third and last catalectic, i, e. wanting a syllable, or even two. 

Such were the precedents which a new poet might be 
expected to follow. But Chaucer composed nothiiig in the 
first or second of these four metres. In the fourth he wrote 
only the Rhime of sir Thopas, which being intended to 
ridicule the vulgar romances, seems to bave been pur- 
posely written in their favourite metre. In the third, or octo- 
syllable metre *, he wrote several of his compositions, par- 
ticularly an imperfect translation of the Roman de la Rose^ 

* So oalled by Mr. TyrwhiU, (whoie althouc^ it &kaa oonsiits of nine, attd 

opinioos aie chiefly followed oo this sometiimrs of ten vyilables, feheeigbUi 

subject) from what he apprehends to is always the last accented syllable. 
bave been its original form,' in wbicb. 


the Hoijse of Fame, the Detbe of the Duchesse Blanche^ 
and his Dreine, all wrhich are so superior to the versi6ca« 
tioo of his cootemporaries and predecessors, as to establish 
bis preeminence, and prove that the reformer of English 
poetry had at length appeared. 

But, the liiost considerable part of his works entitle him 
to the honour of an inventor. They are written in the he^ 
roic metre, and there is no evidence of any English poet 
having used it before him. He is not indeed to be cod<» 
sidered as the inventor in the most extensive sense, as the 
heroic metre had been cultivated by Dante, Petrarch, and 
Boccace, bot he was the first to introduce it into his na** 
tive language, in which it has been employed by every poet 
of eminence) to the present day. 

The age of Chaucer had little of what we now under-^ 
stand by refinement. The public shows and amusements 
were splendid and sumptuous. They had all somewhat of 
a dramatic air; at their tournaments and carousals the 
principal pentonages acted parts, with some connection of 
story, borrowed from the events, and conducted according 
to the events and manners of chivalry. But the national 
manners and habits were barbarous, unless where the re- 
straints of religion repres^d public licentiousness ; and, 
with respect to taste, the spectacles in which the hi^er 
orders indulged^ were such as would not now be tolerated 
perhaps even at a fair. What influence they had on pubhc 
decency, it is difEcult to ascertain. la Chaucer's time 
there was indeed no public^ because there was little or no-* 
thing of that coipmunication of sentiment and feeling which 
we owe to the invention of printing. 

In such an age, it is the highest praise of Chaucer, that 
he stood alone, the first poet who improved the art by 
melody, fancy, ai>d sentiment, and the first writer, whe* 
ther we consider, the quantity, quality, or variety of his 
productions. It is supposed that many of his writings are 
lost. What remain, however, and have been authenti- 
cated with tolerable certainty, must have formed the oc« 
cupatiou of a consiiterable part of his life, and been the 
result of copious reading and reflection. Even his transla-^ 
tions are mixed with so great a portion of original mact^ 
auy it may be presumed, required time and study, and 
ikio§/^ baf^ hours^ of inspiration, which are not always 
within command. The principal, obstruction to the plea« 
^ure we should otherwise derive fimn Chaiicer^a works, is 

Vol. IX. P 



that profusion of allegory which pervades tbem^ particd* 
larly the " Romaunt of the Rose," the " Court of Love,*' 
** Flower and Leaf," and the " House of |*ame." Pope, 
in the first edition of hid Temple of Fame, prefixed a note 
in defence of allegorical poetry, the propriety of which 
cannot be questioned,' but which is qualified with an ex- 
ception which applies directly to Chaucer. ** The inci- 
dents by which allegory is conveyed, should never be spun 
too long, or too much clogged with trivial circumstances, 
or little particularities." But this is exactly the case with 
Chaucer, whose allegories are spun beyond all bounds, 
and clogged with many trivial and unappropriate circum- 

^ For upwards of seventy years after the death of Chau- 
cer, his works remained in manuscript. Mr. Tyrwhitt 
enumerates twenty-six manuscripts which he had an op* 
portunity of consulting in the various public and private 
libraries of London, Oxford, Cambridge, &c. but of all 
these he is inclined to give credit to only five. Caxton, 
the first English printer, selected Chaucer's " Canterbury 
Tales," as one of the earliest productions of his press, but 
happened to copy a very incorrect manuscript This first 
edition is supposed by Mr. Ames to have been printed 
in 1475 or 1476. There are only two complete copies 
extant, one in his majesty's library, and another in that of 
Merton-college, both without preface or advertisement. 
About six years after, Caxton printed a second edition, 
and in his preface apologized for the errors of the for- 
mer. No perfect copy of this edition is known. Aoies 
mentions an edtfion '^ collected by William Caxton, and 
printed by Wynken de Worde, 1495, folio," but the 
existence of this is doubtful. Pynson printed two edi«' 
tions ; the first, it is conjectured, in 1491, and the 
second in 1526, which was the first in which a collec- 
tion of some other pieces of Chaucer was added to the. 
Canterbury Tales. Ames notices editions in 1520 and 
1522, but bad not seen them, nor are they now known. 
In 1532 an edition was printed by Thomas Godfrey, and 
edited by Mr. Thynne, which Mr. Tyrwhitt informs -us, 
was considered, notwithstanding its nlany imperfections^ as 
the standard edition, and was copied, not only by the 
booksellers, in their several editions of 1542, 1546, 1555^ 
and 1561, but also by Mr. Speght, in 1597 and 1^0^. 
Speght's edition was reprinted in 1687, and in 1721 ap* 


peftred Mr. Urry's, who, while he professed to compare a 
great many manuscripts, took such liberties with bis au-» 
thorns text as to render this by far the worst edition ever 

There is an interleaved copy of Urry^s edition in the 
British Museum, presented by Mr. William Thomas, a 
brother of Dr. T. Thomas, who. furnished the preface and 
glossary, and upon whom the charge of publishing devolved 
after Mn Urry^s death. This copy has many manuscript 
notes and corrections. From one of them we learn that the 
life of Chaucer was very incorrectly drawn up by Mn Dart, 
and corrected and enlarged by Mr. William Thomas ; and 
from another, that bishop Atterbury prompted Urry to 
this undertaking, but ^^ did by no means judge rightly of 
Mr. Urry^s talents in this case, who though in many re- 
spects a most worthy person, was not qualified for a work 
of this nature.'^ Dr. Thomas undertook to publish it,, at 
the rj^qoest of bishop Smalridge. In the Harleian collec* 
tiop^is a copy of an agreement between William Brome> 
executor to Urry, the dean and chapterjof Christ Churchy 
and Bernard Lintot the bookseller. By this it appears 
that it was Urry's intention to apply part of the. profits to« 
waurds building Peckwater quadrangle. Lintot was to print 
a thousand copies on small paper at iL lOs. and two hundred 
and fifty on large paper at 2/. lOs, It does not appear 
that this speculation succeeded. Yet the edition, from its 
having been printed in the Roman letter, the copiousness 
of the glossary, and the ornaments, &c. continued to be 
the only one consulted, until the publication of the '* Can- 
terbury Tales" by Mr. Tyrwhitt, in 1775. This very acute 
critic was the first who endeavoured to riestore a pure text 
by the collation of MSS. a labour of vast extent, but which 
must be undertaken even to greater extent, before the 
other works of Chaucer can be published in a manner 
worthy of their author. Mr. Warton laments that Chaucer 
has been so frequently considered as an old, rather than a 
good poet ; and recommends the study of his works. Mr. 
Tyrwhitt, since this advice was given, has undoubtedly 
introduced Chaucer to a nearer intimacy with the learned 
public, but it is not probable that he can ever be restojred 
to popularity^. His language will still remain an insur- 
laountable obstacle with that numerous class of readers to 
whom poets must look for universal reputation. Poetry i^ 

p 2 


the art of pleasing ; but pleasure, as generally understoodi 
admits of very little that deserves the name of study. ' 

CHAUFEPIE (JaMRs G£OR<i}E D£), author of a very 
useful Biographical Dictionary^ was descended from the 
ancient and noble family of the Calfopedi of Floreace, 
which removed into France under Francis I. At the revo- 
cation of the edict of Nantz^ Samuel de Chaufepi^, the! 
representative of the family, and protestant minister at 
Couh6 in Poitou, was obliged to take refuge in Frieslaiid| 
where he died pastor of the church of Leuwarden in 1704« 
He had ten children by hia wife Maria Marboeuf de la 
tlimbaudiere, of whom the subject of the present articles 
Was the youngest, and born at Leuwarden, Nov. d, i702« 
He was educated partly at Franeket, under professor An- 
dala, as appears by his maintaining ati academical thesis 
before that professor, in 1718, on ^Mnnate Ideas,*' and 
probably about the same time, a second on ^' The punish^ 
ment of the Cross,^' >which was afterwards published in a 
collection by Oerdes^ iti 1734. After being admitted int<» 
the ministry, he preached for so^me time at Flushing, theft 
at Delft, and lastly at Amsterdam, where he was pastor of 
the Walloon churchy and where he died, highly respected 
for piety and learning, and much lamented, July 3, i7a-6. 
He was not more diligent in the discharge of his profes*" 
sional functions^ than attached to studious researches, which 
he pursued throughout the whole of his long life* In 1736 
be published^ ^' Lettres sur divers sujets important de la 
Religion/* 12aio$ and in 1746 prefixed a life or histo-^ 
Tical eulogium to the sermons of John Brutel de la Ri-^ 
viere. In 1756 he published three sermons, intended td 
prove the truth of the Christian religion from the present 
atate of the Jews ; and wrote an account of the life and 
writings of our cielebrated poet Pope, which was prefixed 
to a French translation of his works^ printed at Amsterdam 
in 1758. He also translated from the Dutch an abridge- 
ment, in question and answer, of the history of bis country; 
and from the English, part of Shuckford*s works, with 
additions, and several volumes of the '' Universal His-* 
tory,'* which he improved very consideiubly, particularljr 
in the history of Venice* This labour^ however, he discon** 
tiqued in 1771, and does not appear after that to have 

1 JohnsMi and Chalmers'i EnsHih Poets, ISlO.-^Biof. Brit — ^TjFrwkiti'f Cm- 
terbary Talet.-*£UU't Speciment.— Wartoa's Hist, of Enslifh Pfletry; see 


published any thing of consequence, confining himself to 
fais pastoral duties, if we except bis *^ Life of Servetus," 
which in 1771 was translated into English, by James Yair, 
minister of the Scots church at Campvere, and published 
Sit London, 8vo. The chief object of it seems to be to 
vindicate Calvin from the reproaches usually thrown upon 
him for the share he had in the prosecution of Servetus ; 
but some will probably think that he has at I^ast been 
equally successful in throwing new and not very favourable 
light on the conduct and principles of Servetus. 

A selection of Chaufepie's ^* Sermons'' was published 
after his death by his nephew and colleague in the church 
at Amsterdam, Samuel de Chaufepi^. But the work which 
gives him the best title to a place here, is his ^^ Nouveau 
Dictionaire Historique et Critique pour servir de Supple-^ 
ment, ou de Continuation au Dictionaire de M. Pierre 
Baylfe," Amsterdam, 1750 — 1756, 4 vols. fol. Theeditorg 
of the French Diet. Historique, of 1804, messieurs Chau-» 
don and Delandine, speak of this as an ill-digested work, 
and say that the author, in continuing Bayle, has imitated, 
him neither in his good nor his bad qualities, and that he 
does >not interest his readers like the philosopher of Rot^ 
terdam, his style being inferior and incorrect. They 
allow, however, that he respects religion, although hm 
declaims sometimes against the Roman Catholics; and 
they give due praise to his researches respecting the lite^ 
raiure of France, England, and Holland. That he de* 
platms against the Roman catholics sometimes, is an ob«>. 
jection very natural to the editors of the French dictionary^ 
but frequent recourse to Chaufepie^s work convinces us 
that he speaks with impartiality, and engages as little as 
possible with points of controversy. The work was origi* 
nally intended as a supplement to Bayle, but various cir- 
pumstances stated by the author in his preface, prevented 
the booksellers from prosecuting this plan, and it may 
father be considered as a new work, founded partly oft 
Bayle, and partly on the English ^^ General Dictionary,** 
)0 vols. fol. The new articles from the pen of Chaufepi6 
jire in general accurate, and this work ought to be better 
Itnown in this country, because, owing to the author's re- 
ligious principles, less use has been made of it abroad than 
it deserves. The English articles, although this circum- 
stance is not perhaps of much importance here, are 
more full than in any other work published on the Con- 

214 C H A U F £ P I E. 

tinent, and the additions the author has made not only to 
them, but to Bayle's series, afford a very favourable idea of 
the labour and research he must have employed. He ap- 
pears to have been first applied to by the booksellers of 
Amsterdam in 1739, and to have spent several years in 
.preparing it for the press. With respect to the charge that 
it is less interesting to readers than Bayle, we can only re- 
mark that in proportion as any biographer follows Bayle, 
he will render his work a tissue of interrupting impertinent 
cies and crude sentiments. ^ 

CHAULIEU (William Anfreye de), was born at Fon- 
tenay in Normaiid)f<' in 1639. His father, counsellor of 
state at Rouen, placed him in the college de Navarre at 
Paris, where he acquired a profound knowledge of the an- 
cient authors, and contracted an intimacy with the duke de 
Rochefoucault and the abb6 Marsillac, whose patronage he 
acquired by his lively conversation and his various talents ; 
and while he was countenanced by them, he formed an 
acquaintance that had a great influence on his poetical 
efforts. The duchess of Bouillon, a niece of cardinal Ma-< 
zarin, was about to lay out a large garden, and for that pur- 
pose thought it necessary to obtain a piece of ground be- 
longing to the estate of the family of Chaulieu. The pofet, 
mth much address, brought the treaty to effect agreeably 
to the desires of the duchess, and thus acquired the favour 
of a lady, who afterwards became the inspirer of his son- 
nets. Her house was a temple of the muses ; she encou- 
raged, rewarded, and inspired all such as shewed marks of 
poetic genius ; and evinced a particular regard for Chau- 
lieu. Through her he became known to the duke 'de 
Yendome, a great friend of the muses, who, as grand prior 
of France, presented him with a priorate on the isle of 
OleroUj with an annual revenue of 28,000 livres. To this 
were afterwards added the abbacies of Pouliers, Renes, 
Aumale, and St. Stephen, the profits of which enabled him 
to pass his life in ease ^nd affluence. ' The first thing by 
which Chaulieu became known as a poet was a rondeau on 
Benserade's translation of Ovid^s Metamorphoses. He 
soon, found opportunities for appearing frequently before 
the public ; and hi^ acquaintance with Chapelle determined 
bim entirely for jovial poetry. Chaulieu was no poet by 
profession ; he sung with the flask in his hand, and we ar^ 

\ Pict. Hist—- Chaiife^ie'9 preface.»-Sa]ui Qnomut 

C H A U L I E U. 215 

told that in the circle of genial friends he acquired those 
delicate sentiments which render his poetry at once so na- 
tural and so charming. The muses were the best comforts 
of his age, as they had frequently been in his younger 
years, when he was visited by the gout, the pains of which 
he contrived to alleviate, by conversations with his friends 
and the muses, and prolonged his life to a very advanced 
age, dying in 1726, in his 81st year. He was extremely 
desirous of becoming a member of the acadeipy of fine 
arts ; and, on seeing another preferred to him, he took his 
revenge by satirical attacks on the management of the in* 
stitution. It was the perfect consonance of his life with 
bis poems, that gave them the natural air for which they 
have ever been so greatly admired. The philosophy of th^ 
graces, that animates his works, was also the rule of bis 
life. But few of his poems were published during his life- 
time, and those occasionally and detached ; the trouble of 
collecting them he left to his friends after his death. The 
first eaitions were very imperfect, till Camusac and St. 
Marc took the pains to publish them in a completer coUec* 
tion, 1750, 2 vols. 12mo. They consist of epistles in 
verse, and letters in prose intermingled ^ith verses. Both 
are characterised by an easy gaiety, agreeable pictures^ 
lively strokes, genuine wit, pleasing fictions, Epicurean 
morality, or ^^ sagesse commode,'* as Saint Marc used to 
call it, and a style varied as the subject requires. They 
are not, however, without flat, incorrect, and puerile pas- 
sages. His versification is flowing and harmonious, but 
frequently faulty and contrary to the rules of speech, and 
sometimes designedly negligent, in imitation of the simple 
style of Marot. Some find great harmony in the continual 
recurrence of the same rhymes, in which he followed Cba- 
pelle, and is praised by Dubos; and Camusac thinks that 
such verses are eminently adapted to music. Saint Marc, 
on the other handj and the younger Racine, complain of 
their monotony, and conceive that the beauty of them 
consists solely in the conquest of greater difliculties, and 
that the French language is not so poor in sonorous phrase- 
ology as to stand in need of such a practice. Though the 
letters of Chaulieu were all actually written, and mostly 
directed to Bouillon, yet they are frequently interspersed 
with ingenious fictions. Excepting that to the chevalier 
3ouillon, the most remarkable letter is that addressed to 
Di. UFarei aatbepoet> with great frankness, gives usiu 


216 C H A U L N E a 


it hi9 own portrait. — Chaalieu's odes arc not of the higher 
species. * 

CHAULNES (Albert duke de), a peer of France, 
but more remarkable as an astronomer and mathematician, 
w^s born at Paris Dec. 30, 1714. He soon discot^ered a 
singular taste and genius for the sciences ; and in the tu- 
mults of armies and camps, he cultivated mathematics, 
^tronomy, mechanics, &c. He was named honorary-acade- 
mician the 27th of February 1743, and few members were 
more punctual in attending the meetings of that body, where 
be often brought different constructions and corrections of in-!- 
dtruments of astronomy, of dioptrics, and achromatic tele- 
scopes. These researches were followed with a new paral- 
lactic machine, more solid and convenient than those that 
were in use ; as also with many reflections on the manner 
of applying the micrometer to those telescopes, and of 
measuring exactly the value of the pans of that instrument. 
The duke of Chaulnes proposed many other works of the 
same kind, which were interrupted by his death Sept. 23, 
1769. ^ 

Several of his papers are published in the volumes of 
Memoirs of the Academy of Sciences; particularly, !• Ob- 
servations on some Experiments in the 4th part of the 24 
book of Newton's Optics, an. 1755. 2. Observations ott 
the Platform for dividing mathematical instruments, 1765; 
3. Determination of the distance of Arcturus from the 
Sun's limb, at the summer solstice, 1765. 4. On some 
means of perfecting astronomical instruments, 1765. 
5. Of some experiments relative to dioptrics, 1767. 6. The 
art of dividing mathematical instruments, 1768. 7* Obser- 
vations of the Transit of Venus, June 3, 1769; 1769. 
8. New method of dividing mathematical and astronomical 

CHAUNCY (Charles), an eminent nonconformist, 
2|.nd great uncle to the historian of Hertfordshire, was the 
fifth and youngest son of George Chauncy, esq. of Yard- 
ley-bury and New-place in Hertfordshire, by Agnes, the 
slaughter of Edward Welch, and widow of Edward Hum- 
berstone^ and was born in 1592. He was educated at 
Westminster school, from which he went to Trinity college, 
Cambridge, where he was admitted to his several degrees, 

1 Chattfepi^._Moreri.-*NiceroD.--01ivet'8 Hist, de )'AoBd<aii«.-^I>M!t Kifft^ 
* HuUoa's OicUonary. 

C H A U N O Y. 217 

(tUl he became bachelor of dmnity. His reputation for 
learning was such as gained him the esteem and friendship 
of the celebrated Dr. Usher^ archbishop of Armagh. In 
consequence of his distinguished skill in Oriental litera- 
ture, he was chosen, by the heads of bouses, Hebrew^ pro- 
fessor; bat Dr. Williams, the vice-chancellop, preferring 
a relation of his own, Mr. Chauncy resigned his preten* 
Mens, and was appointed to the Greek professorship. He 
was the author of the hriuficiq which is prefixed to Leigh*a 
'* Critica Sacra'^ upon the New Testament. When Mr. 
Chauncy quitted the university, he became vicar of Wai^ 
ilk Hertfordshire. Being of puritanical principles, he was 
much offended with the <^ Book of Sports ;'' and opposed^ 
although with less reason, the railing in of the Communion 
table. Besides this, he had the indiscretion to say in a 
sermon, that idolatry was admitted into the church ; that 
much Atheism, Popery, Arminianism, and Heresy had 
crept into it ; and that the preaching of the gospel would 
be suppresi>ed. Having by these things excited the indigo 
nation of the ruling powers, he was questioned in the high 
commission ; and the cause being referred, by order of 
that court, to the determination of bis ordinary, he wafi 
imprisoned, condemned in costs of suit, and obliged to 
make a recantation ; which, as it had been extorted from* 
him through, fear, lay heavy on his mind. He continued, 
indeed, some years in his native country, and officiated at 
Marston Lawrence, in the diocese of Peterborough ; but 
at length retired to New England, where he made an 
open acknowledgment of his crime in signing a recanta- 
tion contrary to the dictates of his conscience. For some 
conaiderable time succeeding his arrival at New England 
in 1637, he assisted Mr. Reyner, the minister of that 
place; after which he removed to a town at a^ little dis*- 
tance, called ^ Scituate,'* where he continued twelve 
years in the discharge of his pastoral office. When the 
republican party became predominant in England, Mr* 
Chauncy was invited, by his old parishioners at Ware, to 
return back to his native country, and had thoughts of 
complying, but was so earnestly pressed by the trustees of 
Harvard college, in Cambridge, which then wanted a pre- 
sident, to accept of the government of that society, that 
be could not resist their solicitations. This event took 
place in 1654^ and from that time to his death, which 
happened on the 19th of February, 1671-2,. in the dOth 

a^lS C H A U N C Y. 

year of his age, Mr. Cbauncy continued with great repiita* 
lion at the head of the college, discharging the duties of 
his station with distinguished attention, diligence, and 
ability. So high was the esteem in which he was held, 
that when be bad resided about two years in Cambridge^ 
the cburch of that town, to whom he was united, and 
among whom he preached, kept a whole day of thanksgiv- 
ing to God, for the mercy they enjoyed in their connection 
with him. Mr. Cbauncy, by his wife Catherine, whose 
life was published, had six sons, all of whom were brought 
up for the ministry. Isaac the eldest of them, became 
pastor of a nonconformist society in London, and wrote 
several treatises *. Mr. Charles Cbauncy had a number of 
descendants, who long flourished both in Old and New 
England. One of them was the late Dr. Cbauncy the phy* 
sician, who died in 1777, well known for his skill and 
taste in pictures, and for his choice collection of themi^ 
afterwards in the possession of his brother, Nathani^ 
Cbauncy, esq. of Castle*street, Leicester- fields, who died 
in 1790.^ 

CHAUNCY (Maurice), whose name we find some- 
times spelt Chamney, Chancy, and Channy, was a monk of 
the Charter-house, London, and with many others of the 
same order, was imprisoned in the reign of Henry VIIL 
for refusing to own his supremacy. When the monastery 
was dissolved, and several of his brethren executed in 
1535, Cbauncy and a few others contrived to remain 
unmolested partly in England and partly in Flanders, until 
the accession of queen Mary, when they were replaced at 
Shene near Richmond, a monastery formerly belonging to 
the. Carthusians. On the queen's death, they were per- 
mitted to go to Flanders, under Cbauncy, who was now 
their prior. The unsettled state of the reformatiop there 
obliged them to remove from Bruges to Doway, and from 

* Hiis Isaac ChauDcy, attberesto- Ternment, that they left him, and he 

-ration, was in poraestion of the rectory Itrft off preaching, and was succeeded 

9i Wo«dborough in Wiltshire, and by the celebrated Dr. Watts, who knew 

came afterwards to London, with a the business of the pulpit, and recalled 

▼iew to practise physic, but was in- the congregation. Cbauncy was after- 

dnced to accept a call from a dissent- wards appointed tutor of a dissenting 

ing meeting, in which he preached for academy, which was afterwards oon- 

fourteeu years, but being a bigotted ducted by Dr. Ridgley. He died Feb. 

independent, be so tormented his hear- 28,1712. Calamy. 
en with declamations on church go- 

^ Biog. Brit. art. Henry Cbauncy .-—Qent. Mag. Tol. LX.—- NeaPs Biitory Of 
Kew England, and of the Puritans. 

' - J 


. C H A U N C Y- • 219 

> I.oiivain, where they remained until a bouse was 
'•»^*=*<i for them at Nieuport, and there at length they 
■' '^nf^d a settlement under the crown of Spain. Chaun* 
However, died at Bruges July 15, 1581, highly re- 
■ *vaed by those of his own order. Of his works one only 
»- wurUi mentioning, entitled " Historia aliquot nostri 
*-stM uii Martyrum, cum pia, tum lectu jucunda, nunquam 
.iiiLc»iu.c typis excusa,** printed at Mentz, 1550, 4to, 
*.»c.i curious copper-plates. This work, which is very 
contains the epitaph of sir Thomas More, writtea 
imself; the captivity and martyrdom of Fisher, bishop 
Rochester; and the same of sir Thodnas More ; and of 
r eminent persons, who were executed in Henry VIlI/s 
::n. Wood mentions a second edition at Cologne in 
' ^08, which we think we have seen. '• 

CHAUNCY (Sir Henry), knt. author of the « Histori- 
*^v\ -Antiquities of Hertfordshire,*' which bears a higher 
price than any other topographical volume, was descended 
from a family which came into England with William the 
conqueror. He was bom in 1632, and had his grammati-* 
cai education at Bishop's Stortford school, under Mr. 
Thomas Leigh; and in 1647, was admitted in Gonvil and 
Caius college in Cambridge. He removed, in 164^, to 
the Middle-Temple; and in 1656, was called to the bar*. 
In 1661, he was constituted a justice of peace for the 
county of Hertford ; made one of the benchers of the Mid- 
dle-Temple in 1675, and steward of the Burgh-court ia 
Hertford; and likewise, in 1680^ appointed by charter, 
recorder of that place. In 1681, he was elected reader of 
the Middle-Temple ; and on the 4th of June, the same 
year, received the honour of knighthood at Windsor^castle, 
from king Charles IL He was chosen treasurer of the 
Middle-Temple in 1685. On the 1 1th of June, 1688, be 
was called to the degree of a serjeant at law, and the same 
year advanced to be a Welsh judge, or one of his majesty's 
justices for the counties of Glamorgan, Brecknock, and 
Kadnor, in the principality of Wales. He married three 
wives; 1. Jane, youngest daughter of Francis Flyer, of 
Brent«Petham, in Hertfordshire, esq. by whom he bad 
seven children. She died December 3 1 , 1672. S.Eliza- 
-beth, the relict of John Goulsmith, of Stredset, in Norfolk, 
esq one of the coheirs of Gregory Wood, of Risby, in 
fSuffolk^ gent. By her he had no issue. She died Au* 

I Ath. Ox, Tolrl.— Dodd'g Church History.— ^Tan'- 

MO C H A U N C Y* 

n4, 1677. 3. His third wife was Elissaibetb, the seeond 
jbter of Nathaniel Thruston, of Hoxny, in Suffolk^ esq^ 
by whom he had two children. He died April 17199 and 
May 1, was buried at Yardley-Bury. He published '^ The 
llistotricat Antiquities of Hertfordshire," i700, fol. Tq 
this work he left some additionsi which afterwards came 
into the hands of Salmon, and were the foundation of hia 
History of Hertfordshire. The first essay towards a deline* 
ation of Hertfordshire was attempted by John Norden, i|i 
bis *< Speculum Britannise/* published in 1593; but it ia 
not to be compared, in point of compleatness and perfect 
tion, with sir Henry Chauncy*s historical description. Sip 
Henry^s digressions, however, are pedantic, and the work 
would have admitted of greater care with respect to the 
execution of the engravings. Mr. Forester, of Bradfield in 
this county, father of Dr. Puher Forester, chancellor of 
Lincoln, and a liear relation of sir Henry Cbauncy, had 
made large additions to sir Henry^s book. The copy was 
in the hands of the late William Forester, esq. who died 
about 1767. Mr. Cole was possessed of another copy, witb 
great manuscript additions by the late Browne Willis. A 
third copy, with large additions, by Peter Le Neve,' is in 
the library of the Society of Antiquaries. Two copies, with 
copious additions in MS. were given by Mr. Gough to the 
Bodleian Library. The rev. Dr. Paul Wright, vicar of 
Oakley in Essex, and who formerly resided, as curate and 
lecturer^ in the town of Hertford, having received some 
manuscript papers relative to sir Henry Chuancy's work, 
proposed to publish an accurate edition of it with continua** 
tions to the present time, but this was never executed. A 
new edition has lately been announced by Mr. Clutterbuck 
of Watford, who has purchased the MS Collections of Mr. 

CHAUSSE (Michael Akgelo pb la), a learned anti- 
quary of Paris in the last century, went early in life to 
Rome for the sake of studying antiquities ; and the same 
taste that had led him to that famous city induced him to 
mmain tfiere. His << Musasum Romanum,*' Rome, 1690, 
firi. and augmented to 2 vols. foL in 1746, evinced the 
anccess of his application. This valuable collection com* 
prises a numerous succession of antique gems, which had 
ttever befoM been given by impressioxi to the public, en- 

1 Biog. Brit. — Cough's Topogrephy.-*-MS communication by Henry Ellia, 
esq. respectii^ the 4st9 of bis 4estb, wkiok is grossly emu»«eu8 ia |be Biog. Brit^ 

C H A U S S E. ^t 

graved on two hundred and eighteen plates. It has gone 
through several editions. Craevius inserted part of it ia 
his '^ Thesaurus Antiq. Romanorum." The same author 
published at Rome a collection of engraved gems, entitled 
' " Gemme aiiiiche figurate," Rome, 1700, 4to; and " Au** 

reus Constanttni nummus, &c. explicatus,*' Rome, 170?^ 
4to. His last publication was *^ Le Pitture antit^he d^le 
Grotte di Roma e del Sepolcro di Nasoui, &c/' the plat^ 
by Pietro Santo and Bartoli, Rome, 1706^ fql. ThesQ 
different works present a great stock of erudition and sa*« 
gacity, and are much consulted by the curious; we have 
no account of the author*s death. * 

CHAUVEAU (Francis), a painter, engraver, and de- 
signer of great talents and industry, was born at Paris ia 
1613, and died there in 1676. His first performances 
were some engravings from the pictures of Laurence de la 
Hire, who was his master ; but the liveliness of his ima? 
gi nation not comporting with the tardiness of the gravhig 
tool, he began to delineate his own thought in aquafortis* 
If his works have not the delicacy and mellowness that dis-> 
tingttish the engravings of some other artists, yet he threw 
into them all the fire, all. the force and sentiment of which 
his art is susceptible. He worked with surprising facility. 
Bis children used to read to him after supper the passages 
of history he intended to draw* He instantly seized the 
most striking part of the subject, traced the design of it 
on the plate of copper, with the point of his graver ; and, 
before he went to bed, fitted it for being corroded by the 
aquafortis the nes^t day, while he employed himself in 
engraving or drawing something else. He supplied not 
only painters and sculptors with designs, but also carvers 
and goldsmiths, jewellers and embroiderers, and even joinr 
ers and smiths. Besides 4000 pieces engraved by his 
hand, and 1400 executed from his designs, he painted 
several small pictures, which were much admired, and 
many of them were purchased hy Le Brun. The multitude 
of works on which he was ei^loyed brought their author^ 
to hia faoaae^ and their frequient meetings and conversa** 
dons there terminated ita ibe establishment of the Frencii 
academy. He was adtnit^d .into the royal academy of 
painting and sculpture in.l663» and obtained a p^n^ion foe 

22fl C H A U V E A U. 

engraving the plates of the Carousal. His stnall platen^ 
Mr. Strutt says, are executed in a style much resembling 
that of Le Clerc, founded upon -that of Callot. In his 
large prints he approaches near to that coarse, dark style^ 
which was adopted by bis tutor, La Hire. Among the sets 
of prints executed from his own compositions, are those 
for the ** Bible History ;" the " History of Greece ;" the 
"^Metamorphosis of Benserade ;" the " Jerusalem of Ta«— 
so ;" the /* Fables of La Fontaine ;" " Alaric," or « Rome 
conquered ;^' and several romances. Among the prints en* 
graved from other masters are, ** Christ with the Aisciples 
at Emmaus," from Titian ; a " Concert," from Dominichino 5 
the " Life of St Bruno," from Le Sueur; "Apollo and 
Daphne," from N. Poussin ; " A Virgin and Child, with 
St. John and Kttle Angels," finely etched, and finished 
with much taste; and " Meleager presenting the Head of 
the Boar to Atalanta." With all his talents and bme^ 
Perrault assures us thatiie was a man of great modesty. ' 

CHAUVEAU (Rene), son of the foregdng, was bom 
in 1663, and followed the footsteps of his father. Like 
him, he had an admirable facility in inventing subjects and 
in embellishing them,' and a variety and ingenious turn ia 
the disposition of his figures ; but he particularly distin* 
guished himself as a sculptor. He worked for Louis XI V« 
and for several foreign princes. The marquis de Torci was 
the last that employed him, at his chateau de Sabl& This 
nobleman hkving asked him what wages he would have by 
the day ? Chauveau, provoked at the question, which he 
thought degrading, abruptly quitted both his .work and 
employer, and came to Paris, where he died in 1722, at 
the age of fifty-nine, from the fatigue of the journey, in 
addition to the vexation he suffered from having changed 
his money into bank notes. * 

CHAUVIN (Stephen)^ a protestant clergyman, was 
bprn at Nismes in 1640, and being obliged to leave his 
country upon the revocation of the^edict of Nantes, went 
to Rotterdam, and afterwards to Berlin, where he became 
professor of philosophy. He died in 1725 at the age of 
eighty-five. He published, 1. A ^^ Lexicon philosophiciim,** 
Rotterdam, 1692, fol. and at Leuwarden, nvSj wid^ platen ' 
2. A new '* Journal des S^avans,'' begun in 1694 at Rot- 
terdam, and continued at Berlin, but less estieemed tl|a« 

t Moreri.— Diet. HiBt.«.P«nattlt les ttOMUl lllMSlrw* 
■ Moien«^Dict. Hwt. 

C fl A U V 1 N, 2«S 

t^e '^ Histoire des Ouvrages des S^avans'* by Basnage, who 
on the continent was considered as a better writer, and a 
man of more taste. ^ 

CHAZELLES (John Matthew de), a French matbe* 

tician and engineer, was born at Lyons July 24, 1657, 

and educated there in the college of Jesuits, from whence 

he removed to Paris in 1675. He first made an acquaint^ 

ance with du Hamel, secretary to the academy of sciences ; 

who, observing his genius to lie strongly towards astronomy, 

presented him to Cassini. Cassini took him with him to 

the observatory, and employed him under him, where he 

made a very rapid progress in the science. In 1683, the 

academy carried on the great work of the meridian to the 

north and south, begun in 1670, and Cassini having the 

southern quarter assigned him, took in the assistance of 

Chazelles. In 1684, the duke of Montemart engaged 

Chazelles to teach him mathematics, and the year after 

procured him the preferment of hydrography-professor for 

the gallies of Marseilles, where he set up a school for 

young pilots designed to serve on board the gallies. la 

1686, the gallies made four little campaigns, or rather four 

courses, for exercise, during which Chazelles always went 

on board, kept his school on the sea, and shewed the 

practice of what he taught He likewists made a great 

many geometrical and astronomical observations, which 

enabled him to draw a new map of the coast of Provence. 

In 1687 and 1688 he made two other sea campaigns, and 

drew a great many plans* of ports, roads, towns, and forts, 

which were so much prized as to be lodged with the 

ministers of state. At the beginning of the war which 

ended, with the peace of Ryswick, Chazelles and some 

mari]\e o;fficers fancied the gallies might be so contrived as 

to live upon the ocean, and might serve to tow the men of 

war when the wind failed, or proved contrary ; and also 

help to secure the coast of France upon the ocean. He 

was sent to the western coasts in July 1689 to prove this 

scheme; and in 1690 fifteen' Rallies, new-built, set sail 

from Rochefort, cruised as far as Torbay in England, 

and proved serviceable at the descent upon Tinmouth. 

Here he perfonned the functions of an engineer, and 

shewed the courage of a soldier. The general officers he 

served under declaimed that when they sent him to take a 

S2« C H A Z E L jL- E S- 

Yieir of any post of the enemy, tbey could rely entirely 
upop his inteliigenoe. The gallies, after their expeditiqn^ 
came to the mouth of the Seine into the ba^sonfi of Havro 
de Grace and Honfleur; but could not winter because it 
was necessary to empty the»e basK>ni several tim^s, to pre-* 
vent the stagnation and stench of the water. He proposed, 
to carry them to Rohan ; aod though all the pilots were 
against him, objecting insuperable difficultie99 b^ sue* 
ceeded in the undertaking* While he was at Rob^n he 
digested into order the observations which he had made oa 
the coasts, and drew distinct mapis, with a portulan t9 
them, viz. a large description of every haven, of the 
depth, the tides, the dangers and advantages discovered^ 
&c. which were inserted in the *^ Neptune Fran9ois," pubr 
lished in 1692, in which year he was engineer at the 
descent at Oneille. In i^93 M. de Pontchartrain, theft 
secretary of state for the marine, and afterwards chanceL* 
lor of France, resolved to get the ^^ Neptune Frau^oia^* 
carried on to a second volume, which was also to include 
.the Mediterraneaa. Cbazelles desired that be might have 
a yearns voyage in this sea, for making astronomical ob* 
servations ; and, the request being granted, be passed by 
Greece, Egypt, aud the other parts of Turkey, with bis 
quadrant an4 telescope in his hand. When he was ia 
£g¥pt he measured the pyramids, and found that the four 
aides of the largest lay precisely againat the four quarters 
of the world. Now as it is highly probable that this eicact 
position to east, west, north, and south, was designed 
3000 years ago by those that raised this vast atru^ture, it 
follows, that, during so long an interval, there h^ been 
DO alteration in thefiituation of the heavens ; or, that the. 
poles of the earth and the meridians have all along coor 
tiaued the sanoe. He likewiae made a. report of his voyage 
in the Levant, and gave tlie academy all the satisfaction 
they wanted concerning the position of Alexandria : upoo 
whieh he was made a member of the academy in 1695. 
Cbazelles died Jan. 16, 1710, of a malignant fever. He 
was a very extraordinajy and uaeful man ; and, betides hia 
great geniua and attainments, was also remarkable for hia 
moral and religioiis endowments. ^ 

CHEFFONTAINES (Ghiustopher}, in Latin, a Capite 
FaQtiuaiy . a learned divine, fifty-fifth general of the oor- 

> Eloge by f oatcneUe.^'-^ortri.^-^ultoii't Diet 

C H E F f *» t A I N E S. fi* 

ahd mti^ht tmiiyj 9thd born in 16r32V H« ^^ HtiJilair 
ad^clfbis&ojp Of CsAskredi to ei^et'ci^e ^ efibtopal offid^ iil 
tbe dfb^ese of S^^risy ifi the ^hi^iit^ of OArdlbftI dd Pdev& 
if^cli^nta^ £6, 1595, 1^ Rod«f, leatifig ikev^iral tfa^o«^ 
^effl li^rks; aM6tig tb^m, << D^ ifece^&rii The6t6gi2d 
SciioUitlcit ttjfh^tiicnie/* Parts, 15^6,' 8y5. Of^hicbbib- 
^i^gr^ph^ri iritis iHi tor b^ careful ihat tbd Kaf itiAtktd E 
be jHyi WtftMihg, 6f is iv6t ffom ^nofk^f b66Ic^ it being fre- 
^ti^ntl^ Wktititi^. rie iVrot^ ^1^ a tdlnik^ Against ditels^ 
^tftitlfea •* Cdfrftffatibn itf Potrft iTHortneilr/' 1579, 8V0, 
d«<f " I>^ Vit-ginitafe Mariite et Josepbi," 1578, 8Va,- &c. 
JDttpt^ hm a v^ Ibtlg artitle on <7beffontaines. Re ap- 
p6uti Wirne b^en 'H iMLh of great leatniiig, And tinddr- 
^d6d A± htngdig^s besides his natite Bi& Breton. > 

CHE'KE fSfii J6ftK), a Jeai^fied Writer of the ^Hietiiih 
6€miiff^ Ai^heii&ei irotH ^ti itticmi fdriiily in the Isie o^ 
Wiglft, w^ bd^h Hi CMnbrld^, Jmi« 16, 15^4, being th6 
9dti 6f P6teY Cbeke, gi^ht. and AgnM, daughter of Mr. 
Itiiftciti of CaiViMidgedhird. Aft^ rdctif itig bis ^ramnra^ 
t^fi e&haitidn (ihd«r Mr. Jdhn Mbrgan, he was adrtiitt^d 
ifib S9t. 5dhti'i tane^ii, mtthriA^Hi itt lidf, where he 
hecim^ fery ^lAeM fbt hM kn6itiedg^ in the learned 
"KWgtfage^, ptfrtieutetly the Greek tongiley whifch wafti then 
sCf j^ost unfliWttidtJr Aegleet^. 6eib^ fi^cdnolc^e^ded as sttcb, 
BV Dt nitHiy to Kirfg Hehfj VlII. he ^trAs soOn »fiet made 
lfni<**s scbohli-, *nd ^uppifed by his tfitogesty i^ montjr 
f^f ''Ms ediicittioh,' l^nd fof bisr ch&rges in trarellj^g inttif 
folYstgn 6tmArriei WhiK he cblfitihu^d in coltg^6' h6 ifr*^ 
fn^dCid^dt it more ^ttb'sta^fi&l khd t^^'ful Kind of IdLrningf 
A^ti wb^i hkd Efe^n re<^«iVed f^ sorfi6 y^xth ; imd ^hcew«' 
A^dd ^dciflH tfae Md'dy of thdi Oi*^^ And LAtin tin's 
^Mig^, arMf df dS^Ihity. After having' tak^n bis degree! 
ill arts be was chosen Greek lecturer of the university. 
Tber^ was no salary .belonging no that place: but king 
. Miiffy HAvthl fternnd^d^ ibotit the year 1540, a pfof^stlor* 
smp of tbe bxeek bhgue in the university of Cambridge^ 
¥m i t/dpitid bf forty potinds ayear^ Mr. Cheke, fhougb 
^ut MUntf-^k f^rf at ag^, wis choifen thfe:first jirofessoi 
ThiA place he heli long after he ieit the university, namelyj 

tilt pfiitMt 1^51, Arid t^Aisr highly im^triA^ntAl in btin^nf 

tbe GreeK language into repu*ie. fite endieavouredi parti* 
Vot. IX. Q 


C H E K E. 

cularly to reform and restore the original pronunciation of 
it) but met with great opposition from Stephen Gardiner, 
bishop of Wincht^ster, chancellor of the university^ and 
their correspondence, on the subject was published. Cheke» 
bpweyer, in the course of his lectures, went through all 
Homer, all Euripides, part of Herodotus, and through 
Sophocles twice, to. the advantage of his hearers and bis 
own credit He was also at the same time university- 
orator. About the year 1 543 he was incorporated ipastet 
of arts at Oxford, where he had studied some time. Oq 
the 10th of July 1544 he was sent for to court, in order to 
be school- master, or tutor, for the Latin tongue, jointly 
with sir Anthony Cooke, to prince Edward : and, about 
the same time, as an encouragemeiikt, the king granted 
him, being then, as it is supposed, in orders, one of the 
canonries in his new-founded college at Oxford, now Christ 
Church ; but that college being dissolved in the beginning 
of 1545, a pension was allowed him- in the room of bis 
canon^ry. While he was entrusted with the prince's edu- 
cation, he made use of all the interest he had in promoting 
men of learning and probity. He seems also to have, 
sometimes had the lady Elizabeth under his care. In 
1547, he married Mary, daughter of Richard Hill, Ser- 
jeant of the wine-cellar to king Henry VIII. When his 
royal pupil* king Edward VI. came to the crown, he re- 
warded him for his care and pains with an annuity of one^ 
hundred marks; and also made him a grant of several 
lands and manors *, He likewise caused liim, by a man- 
damus, to be elected provost of King^s college, Cambridge, , 
vacant by the deprivation of George Day, bishop of Chi-. 
Chester. In May 1 549, he retired to Cambridge, upon 
some disgust he had taken at the court, but was the same, 
summer appointed one of the king^s commissioners for vi«. 

■ * Id 1548 be granted to him and 
Walter Moyle^ iht very advanta^reou* 
purcttaM of the cckllege of St. John 
Baptist of Stoke, near Clare, in Suffolk, 
and likewise all the messuageg, tene- 
ments, &c. with the appurtenances 
belonging to the college of Corpus 
Cbristi, in the paritih of St. Laurence 
Poultney; London, lately dissolved ; 
together with divers other lands and 
tenements in 'the counties of Suffolk^ 
Devon, Kent, and in London ; for the 
f um of 958/. 3s. 5d, ob, a good penny- 
wortii, undoubtedly, as Mr. Strype ob- 

serves. The next year he obtained the 
house and site of the late priory oT 
Spalding in the county of Lincoln, the 
manor of Hunden in the same county. * 
and divers other lands and tenenlelks' 
in the counties of Lincoln and Suffalk^ 
to the yearly value of 118/. lid*, q. and 
no rent reserved. As we bear no more 
of church preferments given to him, it 
seems doubtful whether he ever was in 
orders, and it is certain that the ca« 
nonrj of Christ Cburch> mentioned ia 
the text, might have been held by a 
layman at that time. 

G H fi K Ei 327 

Siting that university. The October following, he was one 
of the thirty-two .commissioners appointed to examine then 
old ecclesiastical law-books^ and to compile from thence a 
body of ecclesiastical laws for the government of thb 
church ; and again, three years after, he was put in a new 
commission issued out for the same purpose. He returned 
to. court in. the winter of 1 549, but met there with great 
uneasiness on . account of some offence given by his wife 
to Anne, duchess of- Somerset, whose dependent she was. 
Mr. Cheke himself was not exempt from trouble, being o^ 
the number of those who were charged with having sug- 
gested bad counsels to the duke of Somerset, and after- 
wards betrayed him. But having recovered from these 
imputations, his interest and authority daily increased, and 
he. became the liberal patron of religious and learned men, 
both English and foreigners. In 1550 he was made chie£ 
gentleman of the king's privy -chamber, whose tutor hm 
still continued to be, and who made sv wonderful progress 
through, his instructions. Mr. Cheke, to ground him well 
in niorality, read to him Cicero's philosophical works, and 
Aristotle's Ethics ; but what was of greater importance, in- 
structed him in the general history, the state and interest, 
the laws and customs of England. He likewise directed 
him to keep a diary of all the remarkable occurrences that 
happened, to which, probably, we are indebted for the 
king's Journal (printed from the original in the Cottoniaa 
Lbrary) in Burnett's History of the reformation. In Octo- 
ber, 1551, his majesty conferred on him the honour of 
knighthood ; and to enable hiuh the better to support that 
rank, made him a grant, or gift in fee simple (upon 
consideration of his surrender of the hundred marks above^ 
mentioned), of the. whole manor of Stoke, near Clare, ex- 
clusively of the college before granted him, and the ap- 
purtenauces in Suffolk and Essex, with divers other lands^ 
tenements, &c. all to the yearly value of 145/. \9s. 3d. 
And a pasture,, with other premises, in Spalding; and the 
rectory, and odier premises, in Sandon. The same year 
he held two private conferences with some other learned 
persons upon the subject of the sacrament, or transubstan- 
tiation. The first on November the 25th, in secretary 
Cecil's hbuse, and the second December sd the same year, 
at sir Richard Morison's. The auditors were, the lord 
Rwssel, sir Thomas Wroth of the bed-chamber, sir An- 
thony Cooke, one of the king's tutors, Throgmorton, 

a 2 



d^^ C H E K fi. 

atttriV^rfeih df ttit tecli^^c]^, Mr..Kn6!te^, rfnd MA m*^ 
flngrtoii, \^hh Whcnh ^6ife ^omed tfefe l»ar^(5tftS tf Ndrthafcm^^^ 
ttorf, afirrf <he^ eari of Hntlknd, ift^ the >ec(^(f ^oii'^^jrto^. 
The pbnish disputantjr f6r the ferf p^6s*h6fe #6^^, F^cKm- 
fiaiW, aftert^ards dctfn of St. PatA'i, and T6flg ; and at the? 
rf6doridf dispfdtation, WatsCiW. The ditsp'uta^Wtt 6ri th6 dtHtnt 
tftrfe w^re, Sr John Chefc6, sff WHlftam GecIFy H^rtf, dfea^ 
«^ Ddtiatn', Whitehead, atfef GrJndAf. Sbtn^ actoufnt 6P 
tfr^^e dfeputatt<rt» is irtilT ext^irt W La<fft, iW tlic li»M^ rf 
]if SS. Belonging id B6n6*t 66flege,- GitnbrMg^ ; irtS from 
tli^rt'c^ ^uljfeherf iit Eti'gliA by Mr; Stry^^ in hi* riYt€W4ti% 
Life of ^if Joh'rf Ctr€ke. Sh- Jdbn aflsey pi»6etfr^ B\i'(ft^"'af 
SfSS. ^d the flfdstifityus* LtefKto Js valrfAte coIfe6'ti6rtf fcf 
ifhe' king*^ ftb'^ai^y j but! dthtif <y«rtrig fa rfi* Jobtf^i ttrliW¥- 
toUi^iy di tlhfdirgk ^ottte othei' accidertt; *ey iieieit ttXi^&3^ 
rfteiT desT!inati6n'. Four volume?s df thi^ 66Wectionsr wei^ 
gi^en' hy h% ^tin I*ehVy €hete, to ftuutj^hvey Pui'efoy, es^- 
<yn6 of queen EH2fdbfeth*s c56unc?l 'M the nbr th,- whos* sohy- 
TB6ttas^ Piirefoy, 6f Barwdl m LeicestWiMrt, ga*%£hett 
t?6' the fatiibu^ intiqtrity, WHKadfi Hoftotf^ ifnf »« 1^ ; ihd' htf 
mide' itstd of ihent i* biff deictipthti 6t LeiiesfeWMflE?.- 
Many yejtfS after, fie pnresenrterf tWife ft) <hd Bo^leSfth' B- 
braiy srt Ox:f6rd, wftete the?y nov* j^ie, SoflAe^otfrtr ^ thi^ 
c6ft6(itiot\^, acftif C^e^rf d^a*,^ e*me iWto- th* hands 6# 
William tefff Paget; ^nd sir Wffliath CecfJ; The (Wi^tttf! 
df tfi^' " It?rt6rkry,^^ M fi'^e yMxh^ 4io^ 19 fti tbte Bod^ 
letdti^ UbVaryr dutf t^<y volnmes of eollfectiotii', xeMifng^y 
Afitairi, s^e in the 6ott6niatf. 

Mr; Chefre fcein^ it CanWWid^' « tBe ^^aimtfehc*«eii# 
in 15^^ 2, disptttedr thii*e agAihsl Je^tis Cfiriilfrf lofcrf descfeii* 
ihW heir. 0\i rbfe 2ith'6f Atign^tj th^ ^i«n<i y^^y he ^te» 
made cfratnb^rlain' of the' ekcheqir^r fdr Bfe ; aAtf ?n I i 55^ 
cotistittited clerk o^ tSife' coiiiitil j atttf, ^bori aftidr; 6m of 
th6 ^cr6td/ies' of sta!tie; afnd a prtVy-'cburi^ribf. I* JHWjr 
the sa'Tii^ yedr, the MiVg granted to him, aftd Mjh«i's»ABllW,' 
the hdtioMT 6t ^I'are in Suffoffi, wfeh diver* oft?ey hen*,- tA 
tfre ^eiri;^ va1Vi6 of ott^= h^indred pCmrtdb. EHs 2ieal fdf HWf- 
protesta'nti refigM^ imfdeed Mm' to at^pfove Af tW4 slrtilei 
riient 6f the croMrn upon* the ludfy Jdtte Grey? a^d- 1«« 
acted, but for a very short tinie, as stecretary to h^f atttf 
hfer council ^fVer kin^ Edwalrd^s defeeas^, for *««*/ hpdti 
queen Mary'3 afccessibn t!6 the thtonfe, hi Wa* ^bUim1fte# 
to the Tovirer*, and edi indictitterit drivftt i4^ igalifist 1M% 
the 12th ok* r3^h of August. Tht^ yeAr ftHfewi'Aif, afteY fitf 

.^f {^di^f Md rft*4 M e^pl^n^d ^o %w sojipp Gij^ik 

:^^it t^p ^^vipg p/jGqqded the pgpi^J) ;z;eplftJUJ w^ Cng\afl,d, Ijtfs 
yrbp^jP f^ist^t^ was jcqnfi^oQJied ,to the jQueen's usej, upd^r 

,V^*y4- 8W« Wy fie^oced ii) circufl^Uqc^^^ h^ was fpxfi^ 
49 J;^d ft Pfift^k-l^ftture fit Sti^^rg^ |br>is^ub^i?t^^9. 
Ig.Jtl^ Jl^eg^ipiug 9f .the y^efir J 55^^ J^ wife bemg .c^^e 
cjfl firj^^s^?, fejp reswjly.ed, Jpfeifefty WQ^i * trefcAefpws ;\nyji^. 
.^^p b^ jT^cj^A^jBd J5«^^i?fi^ ioi:^ P^j^t and ^ jQbi)# Ji^sj^ip, 
•«> fi9 M^kS^f S^ M^ 'b^ cQ^mnUpd ^XxflXogy, in Avbj^di ' 

¥ffde»^ftl«i^ *#t j^j^^^y^ .^n^ b^ug JpQdYj?^ by %; ^^Jfj. 
w,«fiB. Fgr, fey^r4«r pf Jmas Pbjbp ^' W^ yf^Y'M^ .^Sfe 

^ May, jxnbflrsp^, l^^j^dfoWed, |?flW, apd^fivp jintO(a 
H^SBW^ fiWtV^#4 Jtj? tbe aftaf^tbarbpj^^,j^v^t on .l^qjr^.a 

#^«P b^ iW«s pppiw.tted closj? pr^oyer. % ^0Q^ fopod 

}JI»t ^)W ?»^9§ P». ?fiP9W^ ^ W Jtl^ilk^,; # .^9. W .t}je 
iflij^eo^ c^^np vHif^re /jent tp tbe f 9wer |o /^de|i^TOwr.Jp 
;;fqQl^qUe bi^^ vV> tfee pW^^ ^f .I^W^> tbonjg^ .yitbout #gf- 
cess. But tbe desire of gaining so great a man, induced 
the queen to send to him Dr. Fecbenham, d«an oi 8t Ptttfrs, 
^ pijan pf ^ mi9djer9.te tejp»per, ^^n^ with wbp|p !?=e ^ad b^^nt 
Aoqiifiiji^ed in 4he late reiga. This maA's arj^i^meiite being . 
infoi;c^d by the dreadful alternative, " either copiply, or 
JftMfiR*" sir J^obp's fr;»iUy w»s uo% able to ji^ijbbsitand Ui^epi. 
He was, therefore, at his pwn desire, carried before cardi- 
nal Pole, who grayrfy advised bim to return tp thp .uoity 
ct fehe«httvch : and in this dilemma of £ear and perplexity, 
he endeavoured to escape .by drawing up ^ pstper^ ep^^iift- 
ing of quotation; ^HJ^ pi the fathers tbatt »&^0^d W .(LPmM* 


^50 CHE K E. 

nance transubstantiation, representing thetn as his-owti 
opinion, and hoping th&t would suffice to jMrocure bim his 
liberty, without any other public declarations of bis change. 
This paper be sent to cardinal Pole, with a letter dated 
July 15, in which he desired him to spare him from making 
an open recantation ; but that being refused, he wrote a 
letter to the queen the same day,^ in which he declared bis 

' readiness to obey her laws, and other orders of religion. 
After this, he made his solemn submission before the car- 
dinal, suing to be absolved, and received into the bosond 
of the Roman catholic church ; which was granted faim ks 
H great favour. But still he was forced to make a public 
recantation before the queen, on the 4th of October, and 
another long one before the whole court ; and submitted to 

. whatever penances should be enjoined him by the pope^ 
legate, i. e. the cardinal. After all these mortificatiohs, 
his lands were restored to him, but upon condition of ah 
exchange with the queen for others*. The papists, by 
way of triumph over him and the protestants, obliged iiim 
to keep company generally with cathofitis- and even to be 

'present at the examinations and convictions of tbose^tbey 
called heretics. But his remorse, and iextreme vexation 
for what he had done, sat so heavy upon hrs mind, that 
pining away with shame and regret, he drW September 13, 
1557 y aged forty- three, at his friend Mr. Peter Osb<Mttd's 
house, in Wood-street, London^ and wasburied vA ^t, AJ- 
ban's chlirch there, irr the north chapel of the ch6ir, the 
16th of 'September. A stone was set afterwards over bis 
grave, with an inscrrprionf. He left three; sons; Johniand 
Ed^td, the two youngest, died without issfue; Henry, 
the eldest, was secretary to the council iti the north, uiid 

' knighted by queen Elizabeth : he died about the year 
1586. Thomas, his eldest son' and heir, was knighted by 

• ,- . ■ • . ' • • 

* upon hiB sarrenderioK tbe lands ** Docstripae Icimen Cbecus, vitseqjie 

laentioned, t|ie queen granted. hinii magister, 

April 13, 1556, the reversion of the Anriefa tfaturse fabrica, tnorte jaeet! 

'jpsanor of Brampton-Abbot in Devdn- Non erat d multis nous, sed praeetitit 
• ffbiref and the annual rents ni 3^L Qs. unus 

6d, ohf and the reversion of customary Omnibus, et pai'trise flos erat ille suae. 

landa of Freshford, and Wood wick, in Geinma Britanna fuit, tnm Bapintn 
- Somenetsbire jibe capital messuage pf . nulla tulerunt 

Batokysb^roiigh ; the manor of Ays- Tempora thesaurum, tempora nulla 

cote; and the manor of Nortblode, in ferent^ 

the same county; tKe manor of More - tangbaine and ^ood f^ve-tlie ftnk 

in Devonshire; and some oUier things, verse somewhat differently : 

^ It was composed by bis learned '* JDocirinsB Cbecus linguseque utrlus- 

IN^Dd Dr. Walter Haddon^ que toagisten'' 

C H £ K E. 231 

<J$ines I. H^' ptir€;iia8ed tbe seat' of Pyrgo near Romford 
in Essex/ where he and his posterity were settled several 
year^. He was buried March 25, 1659) in St Alban^s, 
Wood-street, ue^tr his grandfather. Sii* Thomases second 
son, Thomas, commonly known by the name of colonel 
Cheke, inherked the estate, and was lieutenant of the 
Tower in. the reigns of Charles 11. and James II. This 
Thomas had two sons, Henry, who died young, and Ed- 
ward, who sQcceeded him in his estates. Edward dying in 
1707, left two sons; but they died both under age; and 
the estate devoWed to Edward's younger sister Atine, wife 
of sir Thomas Tipjring of Oxfordshire, bart. who left only 
two daughters, whereof Catherine, the youngest, was mar- 
ri^ to Thomas Archer of Underslalde in Warwickshire, 
«sq. the late possessor of tbe Essex estate of the Chekes. ^ 
Aft to bis character, he was justly accounted one of the 
best and most learned men of his age^ and a singular orn?^ 
ment to his country. He was one of the revivers of polite 
literature in England^ and a great loVer and encourager of. 
ihe Greek language in particular. The authors h^ chiefly 
admiredand reeommended were Demosthenes, Xenophon, 
Plato, Anslptle, isocrates, and Cicero. He was very haJ3py 
in imitating' tbe ancient and best writers, and discovered 
-great judgment ia translating -them. In the orthography 
and pconuskeiation of the Latin and Greek knguages, he 
was Tery critical, and exact; and also took great pawns' to 
correct, regulate, and improve the English tongue; but his 
notions on ^his subject were rather capfictods, and nev^r 
Jbiave been adopted. He was a steady adherent to the re- 
formed religion, and extremely beneiceirt, charitable, and 
<ommanicative. His unhappy fall is indeed a great ble- 
mish to his memory, and a memorable -Example of htiman 
frailty. With regard to bis {lenson, he had a full comely 
couotehance, somewhat red, with a yellow large beard ; 
and, as far as can be judged by his picture, he was tall 
and well made. 

His works are: 1. A Latin translation of two of St. 
Cbrysostom's Homilies, never before published, *' Contra 
^bservatores novilunii;" and ** De dormientibus in Chris-^ 
to,'' London, 1543, 4to. 2. A Latin translation oF si± 
homilies of tbe same father, ^* De Fato," and ** Providentja 
Dei/' Lond. 1547, 3. " The hart of Sedition, how ^riev- 
4nis it is .to . a commonwealth/' The running title is, 
^' The true subject to tbe rebel." It was pubKi^ed in 

lH9fan oc^^/op of ^Iif^ |9siiiTep«igMi ibf BfTonfltine and, 
Norfolk; wd ^^si^^ b^iag ioscu'ted ia HotinthodVOhrb- 
picle, under th^ yteftr 15499 .Wft$ r^rittted in 1576^ as ^ 
^gLSQuahle di^P^^Sle i^pon .9pprel^eoaiQii«of.tiiiiiiiltb from 
malcontents ^ iiooie, or roq^g^does aiifQad. fiv. Gerard 
)L^ng^aine of Q^e^i^'^ ^Ql).eg4^, Oxod^ cauaed it.toi>e re* 
printed figain about I64I9 fojr the jnse ^ad. consideratiefi of 
ttiQsp i^ho took frmg 9gainaA iCliarl^ I. in the ume 4if tke 
c^vi) warf , ^jad pr^£;(ed ito it a short )^ of tha z^it/dust. 
4f, A La^n tra^fil^iM^ jof th^ Knglish <^43ioniniiimQii-hook )*'. 
doji^e ^or Jii^ vm^ pf M* 9w&^, mi pt ioted amoBg Bacerls 
<^ Op^pi^ AipgiAca^n^.'^ iS. >^ iXe ^idu doGUuia^ «t isano*- 
ti$|^i Th^plpgi xli9fiii9i Mur^iui Buceri, /&c. EpistcAss 
dw^/VLpftd. 154^1, «ta, pmi^ in Bttceft's f/SeiijptaAaglU 
caoi.^ jd^ ^1^ Piy?t$ jMt ^pififidiaiB aq tbe dcaEh b€ phat 
l^rp^d xoan. ^« ^< G«i^^n keroicntOf or Epiiapbkn, in 
4Atonj^]ia Jiev^i^m fs^mmnm wum/^ Loud. 410. Tlus 
4)r Api^Qify Oepi^y .wi(# pi9^J9aUy of j^t. Jofain'^a college in 
Cambridge) ^ad # )$«r9Qd 0K|lo : aftefiwan^ he beceme 4Miie 
f^ ^ gn^!^m§n iPf Ibe pjf JFy cb^fubear, and ffrooBi c^f 4^ 
9tpli? to Kei^igr y>m. ^d imfi of tbe^^XMsuarti of bia wiH. 

iipp^V iJc^. poM^iog i^ di$f mba 00 tiM ^}act with 
P^ii4Ui€yr, 6a§it, If; 5 5, «9;9. ». *> ^^ Bupmtid^ ad m^ 
gpm {{aaricwn*'^ Tbif di^OQiMne an sUpaiatitiiMi twaa 4q)iiMm 
19 ior >i^g He^ry^s iM^a, ia oijder io aaoiate tbat pnnoe^aa 
)^p^^ tisfyf9i$itm of MVgiajn. tt is «n;itten ia T^evy aiew 
1^^ La^iPf 9Qd .wifs pr«fii;<eid by tba JM^tbo^) ^^ dadica^ 
p.on jtp ^ ^tift ^r^siatiAa ol bis, ctf Plutarcdti^s iiock hi ^^ 
{i^stition. A <r<i|>y fol tbia dtfcojifse, in m|i>uifttopt, is ftttU 
j^^^irirad An tfo/^ libirary pi pnimersiiy college, Oxcmi^ ««h. 
TJipiM^ly Mnrit|t^ff> «q4 bound ;up in cjatb of s^etj aibicfa 
w4^s i^ jprobublf } th^ ii; was tbe vety book 4hat wa§ f>re^ 
^f 9jted tp |;be Hng. An Eng^ifh kramliutioo (sf it, doaa by 
'i(^^ Vj^n^.^d W' S<lf tQb, ^meriy fi^lbiiv ctf >th»t college, waa 
pubiisfaed by Mr. Strype, at the end of bis Life of .iii J<dm 
Cbej^. 9. Seviar^d ^^ JUetters^' of his are pubfisfaad in the 
Life jpst npi^r oj^Q^a^, aiid^^tia Hanlngtao^s ^^^^fai^ 
a^^lia^V 'upd p^rtops in Other places. 18. A latiii Mroa- 
l^ioQ of 4^p))hbi9bop Cjeanftier's book on the LordW ^Supper, 
^as also done by ^ir 4obl» £lbek^,'aiid panted in 1 SS3; 4 !• 
pe ii^^wif^ ^MAlalied i*i.eo de apparatu belliao,^' 9aaii, 
V^Sjf, Svo. StirypQ giyes also a long cal;alo^e of hts unpab- 
U^l^ ^f iti|^% jjirbi^ are^^ndiaU^l^^ "* ' '^ ^^^-^-^^ 

iC H E K £L ' tn 

torn <^ber lefyrned men jof liU tkne^ pjart^csafeiiy Smitib, 
£iv^l, and Aftobani) vrcote a yery bit and beanifciCul band, f 

£;H£l-8iiM <iAii£3), D. D. a laarned divine «if ithe 
duii^xif £ii§^d, jiras honn ahoul 1740 in WesttrnxM^, 
nod edttotfed atWestmiiister school, oq bishop Wiiik^tasfA 
found^ation. FjBotaliiatsGfafiipliifivafitloiSit. John's i^oUc^ . 
.Catshriilge, but did notcQBtinue long Abene ; as Dr. f reiiul» 
one of ibe.caopnfiof Ghciat church, gaare bio; a jiUidootship 
in thafc celabraied eoilege. iiere be jreaided for many 
y^esu^ taking his master's degree ^n 1762, thiMt of fa^cbdbr 
tf)f ib^ 11772, and that of D. Dv in 1793, it has been 
§Bfid he wa^lbr some time udber at Westminater sobooU 
h^ this is doubtful. At OKfeord be ester^ into ocden ifi 
U65r, and wauy {irefented to Ifae college .curacy of Latbbiiry 
fiear I^etvpoct Pc^n^l, and to the benefice of Badger in 
fihrfipsfaine,. i^ Isaac iiaw|ans Pioin^e, esq. His oliher 
and chief preferment, was the rectory of Dcoxford in 
HaaipRhftfe, given hioi by Dr. North, bislpp of Winchester, 
jfhose xhaplain he ^^. His leanning vKas eacteiisiye ; and 
bii manoei's, ith/q|igh somewbal^ aansfiec^, onere jretamMibie. 
Badibealth, hoiMeyer, erected an UAoqual Aoair «f spirits, 
iidiiol)>inj^iised the powovs of jbirauiid towards the cibse gf 
bis liJfe. He died ' in 1 iO 1 , and was b&9^d at fimkfond. 
Besides soiQe f ogilsve pieees twathout his oame, and a Sw 
aocaaifieai sesmons, he «nr«te one of the ai>l^t seiti^ tof 
.^-jleiViacks 4HI Cibboa^s. Soman History/^ 1992, 8 vo, .i^hioli 
jCihboo having noticed' iaa; ooMleaiytaoMs jmanner, Br. 
^helsum ftosw^sed himini a '^ilepiyto ]|4^. Gifabonfs VJodic 
^catioo,^ 1 7«5,4Mro. Tlie best edkioo of bis ^ Remarks'*' was 
the second, puUlisfaed in mn^y inuoh enlarged. Dr. Chel« 
iHim |B also supposed tp have had a share in the coUeotiooi ^ 
■^ fOifen puhmhed at O&lbed under the tkAe of ^ QUa 
fiodnda," and' to have pufaliAed^an ^ Essay on the ijUstorjr 
of Mae7^tinto.-^ As an amatenii''of the >fiae ^rts^ he made h. 
attlnajiie •coUeolaon of pripts and gems^ .especiaily TassieVi 
imitations, to ^whom be was an eaiiy and zealous patKoq/^ • 

^CHSAlililAIA <TiM0w.8O«[), ^ a odebvated Fvendi 
preacher, 47V(as bom at Pans Jati.-S, 16)52, and entered tfa^ 
fooiety of Jei^ihs in 1667, wbei'e he n^ade a consideraUe 
^u«e, and afitenjwards -taught classical literatore and rhe- 
toric at Orleans: but his talents being psculiarly oalei»- 

< . . ' * * 

> Life by Strype, 1705, 8ro.— Biog. Brit.— Ath. Ox. vol. I.— Wood's Aonalf 
hf Gutcb. — Strype>i Life of Qrffi^XAj^mx.-^^ryftt'M Parker, p. S3, 
• GeaL Mag* ^ot LXXI. p. 1 176, thd LXtll. 9.. 100. 293. 

M4 C H E M I N A I S. 

iaied for the pulpit, he became one of the most popnlat 
preachers of his time in the churches of Paris. It became 
the fashion to say that Bourdaioue was the Corneille, and 
Cbemii>ais the Racine of preachers ; but his fame was 
eclipsed by the superior merit of Massillon. When on ac« 
xoant of his bealUi^ he was obliged to desbt from his public 
.senricets he went every Sunday, as long as he was able, 
to die country to instruct and exhort the poor. Hie (tied 
in the flower of bis age Sept. 15, 168r9. Bretonneau, an^^ 
•Aier preacher of note, published his ^^ Sermons'* in 1690, 
•^vols. 12mo, which were often reprinted, and Bretonneau 
J added a third volume, but the fourth and fifth, whieh ap** 
Speared in 1729, 'were neither written by Cheminais, nor 
edited by Bretonneau. The only other production of Che*- 
minaiswas his/< Sentimens de Piet^," 1691, 12mo, but it 
is; said be had a turn for poetry, and wrote some verses of 
the Hghter kind. ^ 

. CHEMNITZ (Mautin), an eminent LutiieraTt divine, 
and ooe of the reformers in Germany, was born at Britzenr, 
a town in the marquis£M:e of Brandenburg, in 1522. His 
father was a> poor wool*Gomber, who found it difficult to 
.give him much educatioi)^ but his son's industry, supplied 
the want in a great measure.. After having learned the 
, mdinients of literature in a school neat home,, he went to 
Magdeburg,^ where he made some progress in arts and lan»- 
goages. Then he removed to^ Francfort upon the Oder, 
to cultivate philosophy iunder hia relation George Sabinus'; 
•and to Wittenburg, whete he ^adied under Philip Melanc- 
tbon. Afterwards he became .a^ schooUmaster in Prussia; 
and, in 1552, was made librarian tortbe prince. He now 
:devoted himself wholly to the study of divinity, though he 
was a considerable mathematician, and skilled particularly 
in astronormy. Aften he bad continued in the court of 
.Prussia three years, he returned to the university of Wit* 
temberg, and lived in friendship with Melaactbon, who 
employed him in reading the common-plaoes.< From thence 
be removed to Brunswick, where he spent, the last thirty 
years of his life as pastor, and commenced D« D. at Ros^ 
iock. He died April 8, 1586. His principal works are^ 
I. '^Haurmonia Evaugeliorum," Francfort, 1583 and 1622i, 
Geneva^ .1628, 4to. 2. ^^ Examen Cpncilii Tridentini.^' 
3. ^^ A treatise against the Jesuits," wherein he explained 

1 Moreii.— Picf. Hist. 

C H E M N I T Z. 23S 

to the Germans the doctrines and policy of those crafty 
devisers, &c. His •* Examination of the Council of Trent*' 
has always been reckoned a very masterly performance, 
and was translated and published in English, 1582, 4to. 

Chemnitz, according to Thuanus and many others, was 
a man of great parts, learning, judgment, and of equal 
modesty ; and was very much esteemed by the princes of 
bis own communion, who often made use of him in the 
public affairs of the, church. Some protestant writers have 
not scrupled to rank him next to even Luther himself, xor 
the services he did in promoting the reformation, and ex« 
posing the errors of the church of Rome. Blount has an' 
ample collection of these encomiums. His son of the same 
names, who was born at Brunswick Oct 15, 1561, studied 
at Leipsic and Francfort, and became successively syndic 
of the council of Brunswick, professor of law at Rostock, 
' chancellor and counsellor at Stettin, and lastly chancellor 
>t Sleswick, where he died Aug. 26, 1627. He wrote 
several works, and among them *^ Historia Navigationis 
Indiae Orientalis.*' ^ 

CHEMNITZ (BoGESLAUs Philip), grandson of the 
preceding Chemnitz, the reformer, was born at Stettia 
May 9, 1605, and after completing his education, served 
in the army, first in Holland, and afterwards in Sweden, 
where his merit raised him from the rank of captain to that 
of counsellor of state, and historiographer of Sweden. 
Queen Christina also granted him letters of nobility, with 
the estate of Holstsedt in that country, where he died in 
1678. He wrote, in six books, an account of the wai: 
carried on by the Swedes in Germany, which was published 
in 2 vols, folio, the first at Stettin in 164S, and the second 
at Holme in 1653; the whole in the German language: 
the second volume is most highly esteemed, owing to the 
assistance the author received from count Oxenstiern. 
The abb^ Lenglet mentions a Latin edition, at least of the 
first volume, entitled '< Bellum Germanicum ab ejus ortii 
anno 1612, ad mortem Gustavi Adoiphi anno 1632.** 
Chemnit:^ is also said to be the author of ** De ratione Sta* 
tus Imperii Romaoo-Germanici/' which was published at 
Stettin in 1640, under the sissumed name of Hyppolitus a 
Lapide. Its object is to impugn the claims of the house 

1 Melchior Adam id vitis Theolog.— Freheri TheatruoL— Fuller's Abel R^di- 
«ifui»<— Saxii OiMauit.—$louiit's Ctntunu— Morari. ' 


C^EfAfil J ^. 

ui^er.Uie fi4e.Qf ?* I)^? Jjj^pt^ 4^ PWRe? d'AJte'p^ve," 
Jsite ^' J17^?^ .uu(Je^r rk^ tit^ ^9^ A'X^s y^^? i^^^ffif^ RP 

CJt^e^QH)^ ^ p^Mitex ii? iftofiwej^ Mf tWe \owff of Me^^ i^fts 
)t>.prj^|it V^v^ in J,6^J|, ?^ti;dfs4 VRflpr Ji^ ^#^/> fin4 ftt 

l^^ Brpn in f 67$ pj;^^eju.^ ^^ pofh^.^o^iy o/ppiutiifg 

P0i?.t;ry^ find ipu^ic. §he di^w ,Qn ,a l^g^ ^^^e 9 gr^ ^ujpg- 
*Pjr 9/ g^j^s, .^ ^oxY in ,ja^i^l^ she pfi:t^cuj^}y.e^{f;^5^. 
These pictures were no less admirable for f Sfiff^ ^t^ )n 
^drawing, ^ smgji^lar ^go^of apd qf l^P^i, ^ :fy^ ?^lf of 
;PSi#mgj W»9^ a sup^^ior j^dgjpf nt jjj ^t^^ cJ^Wi^^jcxi^. 
T^.^ ^B,rfpm WiWH^erp ip p»i«tmg y^W? ?U favvilj^r Jp ^. 
$|a^ ,e;^:i:eUpd iij Jiit^ory, ?# pajr^^^lc^pi^, m faipi^ijr^ ii^ 
fl[V^s, ipjpftrtraj^ JPW"?tiPS, ^^ fi^^c^llf v;^ ^9^ ^9* jl^" 
flialgsi. It ^s ^^id ittg^t sh^ ire<|!ji^tLy jBj^ecHte;^ fll^e poir^r^ifs 
,pf ftbsi^nt pepqt^s, we;;^ry fr cw ^^e^wcu-y, tp w]^\di ,sbe 
^^ ptr^ng ^ i^^pss ,^ if ij^ip per?pc|^ ii^^ ^t ffi |i^r. 
^CiSLd.ejwy qf ^ic^^yrati fit P^(^iyi ^9P^wei^ fi^ m\if thg^p 
i^^^e of fl^o^ aM9 p^fC her ;a jpl^q^ in tb,^if ^qj^ty, ^ 
j^i^dat }?aria, ^e^. ?, jL7i,i/^jttb(5 a^g^ of (53, jvypy^^ 
^Jft^er i^hie h^h^ep iod|i9eid i9 WW ¥• ?^?^ R^y> r^i^JgV^^r 
IP t^e i^mg, , whj9 j^is^ ^sp *4v^i;ip^d Vf y^^^- S^ru^t ^m 

jjh^ ,de^ig^ed; tl?j;ee ^pr^ ftp^^ by bpi;?^^ yjz. :p?iQfi^ips 

j)9ppi|es. Sbe ^ft ^^gr^^d ^ ".fte^q^t from tb^ Cyp^,** 
iM^4 * ,*^ Drawipg-iipqV con^J^tipg pf 36 pript^ i^ fqlio,^ . 

jir9^l¥>W .?* l??ria ip jl§,6p; jjiwj bf YNM bfi?^ . t^VSftJ J*P 
jrttdiqae^^tjs ff{ t^p^rjt in bis ,Q,^n fcyjnjry^ Jje trav^HspJiP 
Italy, wbere his sister supplied him with a competency, to 

1 MorerU*-Dtct Hut 

.9 P4lkui9feOD.^]yAiieAvim, vol. IV ^ ftwrt t^ 

£^ing hi^ cominiMi^iin IMy, fa<f made tlie W6rkii of Ite- 
ptaaef! am) Jul!6^ R^yiA^tfo the |>rificipaf object of Iri^ sitdteiS, 
bjr iirhicll Ms :l^utufe coMp^ittoHis had alwaj^ ar 0«i^tain tfhf 
dfttfe alnfti^qt^, th(yi!i^h fife hatf dcf grdat ]^o^iol^ 6f gfraee^ 
and hii^ fl^cfrefe iv*?re fre^qdenffy to^6 mfustufUr. Ti^6 6f hiif 
pk%6rea( are in ifa^ chof eh 6f Notice Dlnk^, M P^}§ ; tb^ 
6t^y of n6r6dt^ holffiryg th^ cUatg«f^ li^idk tb« he&d of St. 
Jo^n tb^ Baptwi! ; the other,> of Agabtis foY^^lHrfg tte per- 
^eatioti. of St. ^stdl. Or/ seccouRt of hii feUgioiii' b^iiig a^ 
CiOVihfsir, hie wa^ dotnpelfed t6^ cfilit his i!i^«h^^ e^fifry, 
and i^iYed ih London, tMe hap/py tetreale of tf» disnr^ssed 
.dfiHTi^ ; and iXi^k he foMd vtiMy pa^roifs. tfnybiig the to-- 
8iH^ iM gerVtf/y, plttticuKrfy tfte diA« of MAntagcw, for 
#I]f6o(k' ]f>6 fiMd^ih^ eavttttWof (tie GddBj tii^ J^dgmiant 
cKVifis, and b^ iVas also employed ^ Btif'teigh ^f»d Cfaats;^ 
^'crftfi ;• but ffmJiiTg fiini^etf *cBf>s*d by Bitwise, RO«ife««tf,' 
^nSrd La Fo^s^, Vi tbttHmtcid paitttiirg ^iMi iri^rleat 
fiiieH. fii^ mM prdR)ciV[^ erhphyHimty Iftywet^, was 
ddsij^htiir^ fdt pimir^ and ei^Mve^, lifid M^ dV^Mritlg^ 
Wire 6y loc^ pif^ifeif fed to bb pdinttn^. R^ e1l$c)y(fed peroral 
6f hft ow^n desigH attrf in particnfer, a ier^dt ^nty-twd 
*fiaH prints for the Kfe of Dtfrid, Wtb Which Oiffatt^ if 
IfcokseHer af Pirf is, ornamehte'd ^ Frt'rfdi edHlioVi irf «fce' 
Pfeilrtis' ptiblistifed in 11 n^. fStfHtt A6li6es' iflsb t^6 ^if- 
f f atiil]^^ ^h^cb: he exe6nted frditi Mi' o^n dedl^Asv of ^ea^ 
ta*te, **'Thtf Deatft of Anantas' and Saf^Mr^" AAd « 8t. 
rm ba'pti8i%' ih6 Etoncfc" Hirf ^rf^tfe etiav^ftter Wft^ 
ei^eeltenrt. He died in tilJy of in dpoplexy^ kt bis Kftl^ 
ifi^ fh the fti^za,' GoVeAt-gai^dehv and f^is' fcWried irt the? 
ADrcfb of ll^t. I^aifl'^ cl^r6& in tb^t parifsh. He h^d f^owe 
tlAe heidife sold hi^ drdMii^ frotn Rd^ely Md hh aoa^ 
ddray figAresi to &i^' ^art of D^rby^ M a bfrge iutA Of 
money. * 

CttE-SELBTEW ^WiiLl^aM), Ati feni?A*ttt Wii^oh aJnd 
Aattomist, an^d ^etflebrafed Writer, #as hditi Oci. 19) ftMy ' 
af BtrrroW-6tf-tbi6-HilL neaf SOrtrOifby irf Leicest^tshire. 
Aftfer haf^i% tcfcei^ed a classic^ edO^Aiony aiiti been 
ftistriii'cted iii t^e tudith^nts of his pi^6fession at Ldfoe^- 
<er, bt WaSs placed about 1709, mVder th^ itttttiodiate 
tnitSofr of tfefe ti^fattA afnatohiist C6w^p*ry atid resided 
firfib&ouijd^ an^datf the same tibali^tddi^^uVgery tindeii' 

138 C H.E S E L D B N. 

Mr. Feme, the head surgeon of St Thomas's hospitat 
Such was the proficiency he made under these able mas^ 
ters, that he himself began, at the age of twenty-two, to. 
read lectures in anatomy, a syllabus of which, in 4to, was^. 
first printed in 1711. Lectures of this kind were then, 
somewhat new in this country, having been introduced,, 
not many years before, by M. Bussiere, a French refugee, 
and a surgeon of high note in the reign of queen Aime., Till, 
then, the popular prejudices had run so high against the, 
practice of dissection, that the civil power found it difficult 
to accommodate the lecturers with proper subjects ; and 
pupils were obliged to attend the uuiversitieis, or other publio. 
seminaHes, where, likewise, the procuring of bodies was bo.^ 
easy task. It is an extraordinary proof of Mr. Cheseldeu's 
early reputation, that he had the honour of being chosen a- 
member of the royal society in 1 7 1 1, when he could be little, 
more than twenty-three years of age ; but he soon justified 
their choice, by a variety of curious and useful communica-. 
tions. Nor were his contributions limited to the royal society, 
but are to be found in the u^moirs of the royal academy of, 
surgeons at Paris, and in other valuable repositories. In 
1713 Mr. Cheselden published in Svo, his ^^ Anatomy of 
the Human Body," reprinted in 1722, 1726, 1732; iiv 
folio in 1734, and in Svo, 1740, and an eleventh edition as late 
as 1778.. During the course of twenty years, in which Mr. 
Cheselden carried on his anatomical lectures, he wascon^, 
tinually rinsing in reputation and practice, and upon Mr^ 
Feme's retiring from business, he was elected head surgeoiv 
of St. Thomas's hospital. At two other hospitals, St. 
George's, and the Westminster Infirmary, he was choseii 
consulting surgeon; and at length had the honour of^ 
being appointed principal surgeon to queen Caroline, by^ 
whom he was highly esteemed ; and was indeed generally 
regarded as the first man in his profession. 

In 1723 he published in Svo, his *^ Treatise on the high 
operation for the Stone." This work was soon attacked 
in an anonymous pamphlet, called *^ Lithotomus castratus, 
or an Examination of the Treatise of Mr. Cheselden,'' and 
in which he was charged with plagiarism. How unjust this 
accusation was, appears from . his preface, in which he had 
acknowledged his obligations to Dr. James Douglas and 
Mr. John Douglas, from one of whom the attack is sup-' 
posed to have come. Mr. Cheselden^s solicitude to da 
justice to other eminent practitioners is futher manifest^ 

C H E S EX DEN. 23d 

from his having annexed to hi» book a translation of what 
Had been written on the subject by Franco, who published 
"Trwte vdes Hernies," &c. at Lyons, ih 1561, and by 
Roaset, in his ^^ CsBsarei Partus Assertio Historiologica,^* 
Paris, 1390. The whole affair was more candidly explained 
in 1724, by a writer who had no other object than the 
public good, in a little work entitled ^^ Methode de la Taille 
aa baut appareile recuillie des ouvrages du fameuK Tri« 
umvirat." This triumvirate consisted of Rosset, to whom 
the hopour of the invention was due ; Douglas, who had 
revived it after long disuse ; and Cheselden, who had 
practised the operation with the most eminent skill and 
luccess. Indeed Mr. Cheselden was so celebrated on this 
atcouDt, that, as a lithotomist, he monopolized the prin* 
cipal business of the kingdom* The author of his eloge, 
in i^he *^ Memoires de UAcademie Royale de Chirurgerie,^' 
who was present at many of his operations, testifies, that 
one of them was performed in so small a time as fifty-four 
seconds. In n28, Mr. Cheselden added greatly to his* 
reputation in another view, by couching a lad of nearly 
founeea years of age, who was either born blind, or had 
lost his sight so early, that he had no remembrance of his 
having ever seen. The observations made by the young 
gentleman, after obtaining the blessing of sight, are sin* 
gularly ci^rious, and have been much attended to, and 
reasoned upon by several writers on vision. They may be* 
found in the later editions of the " Anatomy.", In 1729, 
our author was elected a corresponding member of the 
royal academy of sciences at Paris; and in 1732, soon 
after the institution of the royal academy of surgery in that 
city, he had the honour of being the first foreigner asso- 
ciated with their learned body. Mr. Oheselden's " Osteo- 
gr^ph^:, x)r Anatomy of the Bones," inscribed to queen 
Carolincj and published by subscription, came out in 1733, 
a splendid folio,' in the figures of which' all the bones are 
Represented in their natural size. Our author lost a great 
suiia of money by this publication, which in 1735 wjw at- 
tacked with .much severity by Dr. Douglas,, whose criticism 
appeared undqr the title of ^^ Remarks on that pompous 
book^ thp Osteography, of Mr, Cheselden." The work 
received a more judicious censure from the celebrated 
Haller, who, whilst he candidly pointed out its errors, paid 
the writer that tribute of applause which he so justly de- 
served. Heister, likewise, in bis *' Compendium of Ana* 

2W G K E S E L D B N, 

mx\%^ did jfti^tic^ fo bi^ ih^rit. Mf. Ch^^Ntdh bof}0^ 

^bed^ bis desires witb re^pe^t ta fanr^ atid fyttt^dj V^gavi 

at\etigth to' wish fenr tt Iffe of gretffer trAnq^iflit^ add fe-i 

^ lliremetit ,*^ dnd iit 1737 be oBtairfed Art htkfonri^fe sHiMi^ 

i\oh 6f ibid kind^ i>f bein^ dp^oi¥it«d hi^a^ ^ur^toi* Hf 

CheUeti libspH^; which place Ut h^ld,* #i«h ibe bigb«i« 

. reptitsrtion, till hi^ d^^tR H^ did! iiot, hoi^t^r, #boIiy 

ifmit iAi eh'deiv6urs to' ddtslffcd th^ kito^IeJdg^ of UK i^8^ 

ifes^dh ; fo^ ^'jbfd^n th^ ^iMitiY^dh of Mf . Glt^aft«Pj iAm- 

lat?e)n bf M6ns. Ife l>raB*fr " OpfertttiOtfrf of Ste-^fery/* Kg 

tomrW^ted t#e»ty-6fi^ tif^^ut frl^^« Cd^l^db it; and fl 

f ^i^teijr of t^Iuiabfe /eiiiflrk^, sdme of wbkb h6 had liKlUH; 

^o el^iy ks ^mi^ iWW^it pi^il {^ ifit. ¥€n^i TU^ Unb 

Ifte mt iiieiirf #cift ifi whicB he ^^dgtfd. In' 175^^, Mf/ 

^be^gld^n, a^ a g6Vei'oor M ffce FomdTlir^ hos^t^l, s^^ « 

Bgn^faietioii ef fifty pounds^ io thaCt cKaHty, ^rncfosS^ M « 

^' 'tis what thfe h^rt^y <& t!lit'6rfiappy 6wfe 5 
Foi* #hift iMn ^«sy ffaie g^^ % hto bestdi^.*' 

In ffae lifter etiR of th« i^/be y^ar^ be ti^a^ istiiei ¥H0H it 
Aitfatytic ^tMt^,, frofai ti^hfitB in ai(t/eahiW<J^ hd io6iS pfe^. 
tiftctly rSto^^ed. Thfe flditering j/rospfefet,- fidwfevir, of 
bfd co)iiinxidHtk ih life, ^6aM v&iri^bM ; ttity on W^ ^6tfr 
of Aprrl, iISi; he W^ ^AJeMy carried off by « fit 6f Art 

Srbjfifexy, ^t Etfth, ib tb* rixty-fbtfrtb yea* of bk ^ge. 
e hfartfed VfkibbMl Kiiigitt; k cHi^ert'af dittgWer, arid, it 
m oiHtM hot, si^^ 6f tfag faiiii<yu^ Rdb^^t Urii^t; ^bi^^ 
lb' ihe Sooth-sei toki^y In i7ii&. fiy tfiriil ikdy Mt; 
Chfefeld^h hdd emty 6hf!6 datf^bter,^ Wiftelmiirt Webordi,- 
. who ivrfs married td thiirtei Cdteft, M. U. of Wtfddcbtej Ifr 
Shropshire, abd ttfenibit of ijatliafnent fbr T'driH^«rcK, Ifi 
iJt^tfhWshire. Dr. Cotfes difcd wlthdui t^m; ori tb^ ift^ 
0^ Mirch, 119^ ; a^d Mtk. Cbtes, #ho ifurVlviia hiih,' dm 
^tbe y^afs ^ncd at O^^ebbtihe', in thd paVish ifi S^iths^ 
Cdtfibe; irf the t6b«ty d( keni Mrs. CH*seWtdb died ib 1 7*4. 
Mf. (Db^seld^b'd ir^ptitatiom w^s gre^t Ib ilMtcirihy, hut 
^'e a^^rfebfend tbdt it vfras itill ^^feat^,' ^S ritor^ jil«t»^ 
fbanded, itt ^ij^krf. Thfe emrncfrtt strf^ebb M^. I^r^; 
ib a d^dibatiod' £b 6itt abtbor, cei^bHii^^ HtOEt as ifa^ 
dhidMHi bf fals ^rofe^iob ; aclttio^ledges Ms bvH slflff J 
ih ^ijf^fety tb bavfe bfeeb drieflydfeflved froiri iflrai ««(! 
ref^fesehts, ihit pdiittiif <*rill be ever indM^fed for &t6 
Bigtiil ^Hrcis he bas don^ id thk bhibdi of thtsS ]iie(fi6^ 


GfiESKLt)Elff. 241 

^H^ In surgery he was undoubtedly a great improver, 
having introduced simplicity into the practice of it^ and 
iaid aside the operose and hurtful French instruments 
which had been formerly in use. Guided by consummate 
skill, perfectly master of his hand, fruitful in resources, 
he was prepared for all events, and performed every ope- 
ration with remarkable dexterity and coolness. Being 
fully competent to each possible case, he was successful 
ip^lL. He was at the same time emin^ently distinguished 
By bis tenderness to his patients. Whenever he entered 
the hospital on his morning visits, the -reflection of what 
h^ was unavoidably to perform, impressed him with un- 
easy sensations ; and it is even said that be was generally 

' sick with anxiety before he began an operation, though 
during the performance of it he was, as hath already been 
observed, remarkably cool and self-collected. Our author's 
eulogist relates. a striking contrast between him and a 
French surgeon * of eminence. The latter gentleman, 
having had his feelings rendered callous by a course of sur-* 
gical practice, was astonished at the sensibility shewn by 
Mr* Cheselden previously to his operations, and considered 
it as a .great mark of weakness in his behaviour. Yet the 
same gentleman, being persuaded to accompany Mr. Che- 
selden to the fencing*-scbool, who frequently amused him- 
self with it as a spectator, could not bear the sight, atid 
was( taken ilL The adventure was the subject of conver- 
sation at court, and both were equally praised for goodness 
ci heart; but the principle of humanity appears to ha vis 
been stronger in Mr. Cheselden, because the feeling of it 
was not weakened by his long practice. 

The connections gf our eminent surgeon and anatomist 

: were not ccHifmed to persons whose studies and pursuits 
were congenial to those of his own profession^ He was 
fond of the polite arts, and cultivated an acquaintance with 
men of genius and taste. < He was honoured^ in particular, 
with the friendship of Pope, who frequently speaks of 
dining with htm, but once bad an interview rather of an 

V anpleasing kind. In 174>2, Mr. Cheselden, in a conver- 
sation with Mr. Pope at Mr. Dodsley's, expressed his sur- 
prisBe at the folly of those who could imagine that the fourth 
book oS the Dunciad bad the least resemblance in .style^ 

* wit, ^humour, or fancy, to the ^hree preceding booklet 
Though he was not, perhaps, altogether singular in t|iis 

\ opinion, which is indeed a very just one, i£ was no small 
Vol. IX. R v 



.242 C H £ S £ L D E N. 

, mortification to him to be informed by Pope, tbut be binf- 
self was the author of it, and was sorry that Mr. Cheselden 
did not hke the poem. Mr. Cheselden is understood to 
•have too highly valued himself upon bis taste in poetry 
.and architecture, considering the different nature of bis 
real accomplishments and pursuits. His skill in the latter 
art is said not to have been displayed to the best advantage 
in Surgeons' -hall, in the Old Bailey, which was principally 
built under his direction. These, however, are triHing 
. shades in eminent characters. ' 

CH£SN£ (Andrew du), an eminent historian, and 
justly considered as the father of French history, was born 
in the Isle of Bouchard, in Torraine, May 1564. He was 
the youngest of the four sons of Tanneguy Du Chesne, 
lord of Sausoniere. His name has been Latinized in dif<* 
ferent forms. He has at different times called himself 
QuernoBus, Quercetanus, Duchenius ; and by others he 
has been called Querceus, a Quercu, Chesneus, and Cbes- 
nius* In his historical works he assumed no other title 
than that af geographer to the king, except in his history 
of the house of fietbune, printed in 1639, where be calhs . 
•himself historiographer to the king. His family produced 
many men of talents in the army and at the bar^ He was " 
first educated at Loudun, and after a course of grammar 
and rhetoric, came to Paris^ where he studied pbUosophy, 
.in the college of Boncours, under Julius Caesar Boulanger, 
.an eminent philosopher^ and one of the best historians of 
that period. 

. . Du Chesne's first attempt as an author, was a duodecioiQ 
volume, printed in 1602, and dedicated to Beulanger, 
entitled '^ Egregiarum seu Electarum Lectionum et Anti- 
quitatum liber.'' The same year he dedicated another to 
M. de Cerisy, archbishop of Tours, entitled ^^ Januarise 
.Kalendae, seu de solemnitate anni tarn Ethnica quam , 
Christiana brevis tractatus^" with a Latin poem, ^^ Gryphus 
de Ternario numero." In 1605 he composed for. a young 
lady whom he married in 1608^ ^^ Les figures mystiques 
du riche et precieux Cabinet des Dames," apparently a 
moral work. In his twenty-third year he began a transla^ 
tion of Juvenal^ which he published with notes, in 1607. 
This is a work of very rare occurrence. In 1609 be pub- 
lished ^' Antiquitez et Recherches de la gi*andeQr et ma« 

t Biog. BriU-^Nichols's Bowyer, in which are some additional particulars. 

C H E S N E. ' ' 2*3-' 

jesti cks Rois de France/^ dedicated to Louis XIII. tlren 
dauphin. In 1610 he wrote a poem, ^^ Chandelier de 
Justice,^' and also a panegyrical discourse on the cere- 
BBonies of the coronation ot' queen Mary of Medicisj with 
a treatise on the ampulla and ileur-de-lys, &c. but owing 
to the assassination of the king, which happened after this, 
cerenaony, these productions were lost. The same year 
he published a funeral discourse on king Henry IV. and 
the first edition of his *^ Antiquitez et Recherches des 
Villes et Chateaux de France," which has been often re- 
printed. In 1611, appeared his translation and abridge* 
ineut of the controversies and macrical researches of Delrio, 
the Jesuit, -Svo. In 1612 and 1613, he was employed on 
his " Histoire d' Angleterre," the first edition of which was 
published in 1614 ; and the same year, in conjunction with 
father Marrier, he published in folio, a collection of the 
works of the religious of Cluny, under the title " Biblio* 
theca Cluniacensis.^' This was followed in 1615, liy his 
^^ Histoire des Papes,'' fol. reprinted in 1645, but as this 
last edition was very incorrect, his son Francis Du Chesne 
published anew one in 1653,. enlarged and illustrated with 
portraits. In 1616 he published the " Works of Abelard,'* 
with a preface and notes, which are rarely found to* 

In 1617 he undertook an edition of the " Histoire de 
k Maison de Luxembourg,'* written in 1574, by Nicholas 
Viguier, and continued it to the year 1557. He was also 
editor this year of the works of Alain Chartier, and of Al- 
cuinus, aud at the same time projected two great works; 
the one, " A Geographical Description of France," which 
was to extend to many volumes. This work, of which he 
published a specimen, was begun to be printed in Hol- 
land, but was not continued ; the other was that on whioh 
his fame chiefly rests, his collection of French his« 
torians, under the title ^^ Historia Brancorum Seriptores 
cosetanei ab ipsius gentis origine ad nostra usque tempora.'* 
In the preface to his eoUection of the historians of Nor- 
mandy, he gives some account of the plan, which may be 
jseen in the life of Bouquet, in this Dictionary, (vol. Vi.) 
Peter Pithou and Marquard Freher had given him the idea 
of it, and he undertook it by order of Louis XIII. who 
encouraged him, by a pension of 2400 livres, which he 
£ujoyed till his death, with the title of royal geographer 
find historiographer in ordinary. As a preparation for this 

R 2 

244 C H IE S N E. 

work, he published in 1618, his ^^ Bibliotheque des Au-* 
teurs qui ont ecrit Histoire et Topographic de la France,'' 
8vo, which is now superseded by the more extensive work' 
of Le Long. It appears that in forming his collections for 
the French historians, he was assisted by Peiresc, who^ ex- 
amined the church and monastic libraries for him. 

in 1619, be published his ^^ Histoire des Rois, Dues, 
et Comtes de Burgogne," a new edition of the " Letters* 
of Stephen Pasquier,'* and his */ Histories Normannorum 
Scriptores antiqui,'* which forms the first volume of his 
collection of French historians. The following year ap- 
peared his ^^ Histoire genealogique de la Maison de Cbas- 
tillon-sur-Marne, &c.'' As his intended publication of 
the geographical history of France was interrupted in Hol- 
land, he published an abridgment of it at Paris, under the 
title of ^' Antiquitez et Recherches des villes, chateaux, et 
places remarkables de la France selon Pordre et les ressort 
des parlemens," which passed through several editions, as 
already noticed ; that of 1647 was edited "and improved by 
his son. In 1621 was printed his " Histoire genealogique 
de la Maison de Montmorency,'* folio, which Le Long 
thinks a capital work of the kind ; it was followed in 1626 
by a similar history of the house of De Vergy. In 162* 
he published a second volume of the history of Burgundy, 
under the title of ** Histoire genealogique des Dues de- 
Bourgogne," and in 1631, two other genealogieal histories 
of the houses of Guines, Ardres, Dreux, &c. The accu- 
racy of these family histories has been very generally 
acknowledged, but it is unnecessary to specify the- dates of 
each publication. 

With respect to his collection of French historians, he 
published the first two volumes in 1636, fol. after having 
two years before issued a prospectus of the whole, and the 
third and fourth volumes were in the press, when on May 
30, 1640, he MTSLS crushed to death by a cart, as he was 
going to his country-house at Verrieres. He was at this 
time in full health, and bade fair for long life and useful- 
ness. The two Volumes, then in the press, were completed 
by his son, and .published in 1641, to which he added a 
fifth volume in 1649, without any assistance from go- 
vernment, as the pension granted to his father, and con* 
tinned to him on his death, was taken from him about 
three years after that event. Some particulars of the con- 
tinuation of the work to the present time may be seeo in 



C H E S N E. 245 

our life of Bouquet. In Du-Chesne's " Historiae Nor- 
mannorum,'' is the '^Emmae Anglorum reginae encomium,'* 
of which an edition, with William of Poictier's history of 
William the Conqueror, and other historical documents, 
was -published, or rather printed for private distribution^ 
in 1783, 4to, by the learned Francis Maseres, esq. F. R. S. 
cursitor-baron of the court of exchequer. 
* Extensive as Du Chesne's published labours were, they 
give but a faint idea of his immense industry in collecting 
historical materials, and of the works which might have 
been expected from him. He had intended to confine his 
collection of French historians to 24 folio volumes; but 
according to Le Long, forty would not be sufficient to 
contain the manuscripts worthy of publication, and which 
were discovered after his death ; and he had himself 
written with his own hand above an hundred folio volumes 
of extracts, transcripts, observations, genealogies, &c. most 
of which were deposited, for the use of his successors, in the 
king's library. Du Fresuoy speaks with less respect of Da 
Chesne's labours than they deserve. In collecting so 
many original authorities, and producing so many tran- 
scripts from valuable and perishing MSS. he has surely 
proved himslelf a great benefactor to general history ; and 
it is much to his honour that he always was ready to com- 
municate his discoveries to persons engaged in the same 
study, but .who did not always acknowledge their obli« 
gations. ' ' 

CHESNE (Joseph du), called also Qusrcetanus, lord 
of La Violette, and physician to the French king, was born 
at Armagnac, about the middle of the sixteenth century. 
After having passed a considerable ^ime in Germany, and 
being admitted to the decree of M. D. at Basle, 1573, 
he practised his art in Paris, and was made physician to 
Henry IV. He had made great progress in the study of 
chemistry, to which he was particularly devoted. The 
success that attended his practice in this. science, excited 
the spleen of the rest of the physicians, and especially 
that of Guy Patin, who was continualjy venting sarcasms 
and satires against him, but experieoce has since shewn 
that Du Chesne was better acquainted with the properties 
of antimony than Patin and his cdleagues. This learned 
ehemist, who is called Du Quesne by Moreri, died at Paris, 

1 Le Long Bibl. Hitt'^-NiceroD, ▼o).ViI,-.*^imOnoiaatt« 

JH4S C H E S N E. 

at a very advanced age, in 160^. He wrote in Frehch 
verse, «* The Folly of the World," 1583, 4to. 2. «^ The 
great Mirror of the World,"' 1593, Svo. He also com- 
posed several books of chemistry, which had great repu- 
tation once, although they are now forgotten. Haller has 
given the titles of them, and analyses of the principal of 
their contents. The most celebrated among them, which 
passed through the greatest number of editions, is his 
** Pharmacopoeia Dogmaticorum restituta, pretiosis, selec- 
tisque Hermeticorum Floribus illustrata," Giesse Hess. 
1607. This is said to have been recommended by Boer* 
haav£ to his pupils. ^ 

CHETWOOD (Knightly), D. D. was born in 1652. 
fie was educated at Eton, and thence removed to Cam- 
bridge, where he was fellow of King's-coUege in 1683, 
'when he contributed the life of Lycurgus to the transla-^ 
tion of Plutarch's Lives, published in that year. He was 
intimately connected with Wentworth, earl of Roscom^ 
mon, whose life, written by him, is preserved in the 
public library of Cambridge, among Baker's MS Col- 
lections, (vol. XXXVI.) and furnished Fenton with some 
of the anecdotes concerning that nobleman, which are found 
among his notes on Waller's poems. The life of Virgil, 
and the preface to the Pastorals, prefixed to Dryden'$ 
Virgil, were written by Dr. Chetwood, for whom Dryden 
had a great regard, a circumstance very necessary, to be 
mentioned, as that life has always been ascribed to I)rydei\ 
himself. ' 

. Jacob mentions that Dr. Chetwood had a claim to an 
ancient English barony, which was fruitlessly prosecuted 
by his son, and which accounts for his being styled ^^ a 
person of honour," in a translation which he published of 
some of St. Evremont's pieces. By the favour probably 
of the earl of Dartmouth, he was nominated to.tlie see of 
Bristol by king James H. but soon after his nomination, 
the king's abdication took place. In April 1707, he waa 
installed deau of Gloucester, which preferment he enjoyed 
till his death, which happened AprU tl, 1720, at Temps-* 
ford, in Bedfordshire, where be h^d an estate, and where 
he was buried. He married a daughter of the celebrated 
Samuel Shute, esq. sheriff of London in the time. o§ 

Pharles IL by whom. he left a son, John, who wa^ feltow 


). M^rerl«*»I>ict« Hist.— >Haller ^nd MangeU— -Gen, PioK, 



of Trinity-ball, Cambridge^ and died in 17S5. Tyiro co- 
pies of verses by Dr. Chetwood, one in English, and the 
other in La^in^ are prefixed to lord Roscommon's ^^ Essay, 
on translated Verse," 1685, 4to. He was author also of 
several poems, some of which are preserved iu*Dryden's* 
Miscellany, and in Mr. Nichols's Collection. He likewise 
published three single sermons, and ^^ A Speech to tha 
Lower House pf Convocation, May 20, 1715, against the 
hte riots." 

The following particulars concerning Dr. Chetwood 
are found in one of Baker's MSS. in the British Museum^' 
(MS. Harl. 7038), *^ Knightley Chetwode, extraordinarie 
electus, born at Coventry, came into the place of Tho. 
Brinley [as fellow of King's-coUege] ; chaplain to the lord 
Dartmouth, to the princess of Denmark, and to king 
Jaines II.; prebend of Wells; rector of Broad Rissington^ 
Gloucestershire; archdeacon of York; nominated bishop 
of Bristol by king James, just before his abdication ; went 
afterwards chaplain to all the, English fojrces [sent] intO' 
Holland under the earl of Marlborough 1689 ; commenced 
P,D. 1691; dean of Gloucester." * 

CHETWOOD (WiLUAM Rufus), was once a bookseller 
in Covent-g?irden, and many years after prompter at Drury- 
lane Theatre, g.nd an instructor of young actors. After 
passing tl^rough the miserable vicissitudes of inferior drav 
^atic rank, he died poor, March 1766. He wrote some' 
pieces, long since forgotten, for the stages^ and in 1749, 
published *i A General History of the Stage," which al- 
though undervalued by the editors pf the Biographia Dra-. 
matica, is amusing, and contains much of the information, 
^ansferred since into compilations of that kind. ^ 

CHETWYND (Jo^JJ), was the son of Dr. Edward Chet^^ 
wynd, dean of Bristol, \yho published some single sermons, 
^numerated by Wood, and died in 1639. His n^other was 
Helena, daughter of the celebrated sir Joh^ Harrington, 
author of the "Nugae Antiquce.'* He was born in 1623, 
Qt Banwell in Somersetshire, and admitted commoner of 
" Exeter college, Oxford, in 1638, where he took one degree 
iji^arts; but iii 1642 left the college. Having espoused 
the c^qse of the presbyterians, he returned to Oxford, 
when the parliamentary visitors had possession of tl^e u|u*) 

I H>cbQU*s Poemt, iroh. I. andlll.— Atterbur^'ftCarrefpfBdence, vol* I. |^ 
P, 430.~.Malon«'s DrydcD, ?ol. IV. p. 547. * Biog. Dramatica. 

&4S C H E T W Y N D. 

Tersity, And in 1648 took his master's degree. He was 
afterwards one of the joint«pastors of St. Cuthbert in Wells, 
and printed some occasional sermons preached there, or in 
tiie neighbourhood : but on the restoration he conformed, 
and became vicar of Temple in Bristol, and one of the city- 
lecturers, and a prebendary of the cathedral. He was much 
admired as a preacher, and esteemed a man of great piety. 
He died Dec. 30, 1692, and was buried in the chancel of 
the Temple church. Besides the " Sermons" already no- 
licedy he published a curious and sc£Lrce bookj entitled 
** Anthologia Historica ; containing fourteen centuries of 
memorable passages, and remarkable occurrences, &c." 
Lond. 1674, 8vo, republished in 1691, with the title of 
** Collections Historical, Political, Theological, &c.'* He 
was also editor of his grandfather sir John Harringtou^s 
** Briefe View of the State of the Church of England, &c. 
being a character and history of the Bishops,'' l6dS, 12mo.^^ 
CHEVALIER (Antony Ralph le), a protestant divine, 
was born at Montchamps near Vire in Normandy, in 1507. 
He learned Hebrew under Vatablus at Pa.ris, and having 
gone to England, became of the household of the princess, 
afterwards queen Elizabeth, whom he taught French. He 
then went to Germany, where he married the daughter of 
Tremellius, and this alliance procured him the assistance* 
of Tremellius in his Hebrew studies, in which he made' 
▼ery distinguished progress, and became one of the first 
Hebrew scholars and critics of his age. In 1559- he was 
invited to Strasburgb, and thence went to Geneva, where 
he taught Hebrew, and published an improved edition of 
)?agninus's Dictionary of that language. His love, however, 
for his native country induced him to return to Caen, which 
the civil wars soon obliged him to leave, and take refuge in 
England : he again returned on the peace, but the mas- 
sacre of St. Bartholomew's day obliged him to escape to 
the island of Guernsey, where he died in 1572. He 
translated from the Syriac into Latin the *^ Targum Hiero- 
solymitanum j'* and two years after his death, his " Rudi- 
menta Hebraicae linguae,'* a very accurate work, was pub- 
lished at Wittemberg, 4to. He had designed to publish 
an edition of the Bible in four languages, but did not livQ 
to accomplish it. ^ 

% >ii(h. Ox. TOlt. I. and 11. * Mor«ri.-i»S8illet Jugemeni. 

C H E V I L L I E R. 249 

CHEVILLIER (Andrew), a doctor and librarian of the 
Sorbonne, was born at Pontoise in the isle of France in 
1636, of poor parents. One of his uncles, a clergyman of 
Veaux in the diocese of Rouen, undertook his education, 
and afterwards sent him to Paris, where he took his degrees 
in divinity, and he was received uito the house and society 
of the Sorbonne in 1658, where he was equally admired 
for learning, piety, and charity, often stripping himself to 
clothe the poor, and even selling his books to relieve them, 
which, all book-collectors will agree, was no small stretch of 
benevolence. Having been appointed librarian to the Sor* 
bonne, his studies in that collection produced a valuable 
work, well known to bibliographers, entitled >^ Origine de 
rimprimerie de Paris, dissertation historique et critique,** 
Paris, 1694, 4to. Maittaire frequently quotes from this 
dissertation. 2. A translation, or rather paraphrase of the 
" Grand Canon de I'Eglise Grecque," written by Andrew of 
Jerusalem, archbishop of Candy, Paris, 1699, !2mo. He 
also published in 1664, a Latin dissertation on the council 
of Cbalcedon, on formularies of faith, and had some hand 
in the catalogue of prohibited books which appeared in 
1685. Chevillier died Sept. 8, 1700. * 

CHEVREAU (Urban), was born at Loudun, a town of 
Poitou in France, May 12, 1613. His inclination led him 
to the study of the belles lettres, in which he made so con- 
siderable progress, that he obtained a distinguished rank 
among the learned. His application to letters, however, 
did not unqualify him for business ; for he was a man of 
great address and knowledge of the world, and on that 
account advanced to be secretary to Christina queen of 
Sweden. The king of Denmark engaged him also at his 
court. Several German princes entertained him, and 
among the rest the elector palatine Charles Lewis, father 
to the duchess of Orleans. He continued for some time at 
this court, sat at the council-board, and helped to bring 
over the princess just mentioned to the Romish commu« 
nion. At bis return to Paris, he was made preceptor and 
afterwards secretary to the duke of Maine. Then he re- 
tired to Loudun, where he had built an elegant habitation, 
for the repose of his old age ; and, after spending there 
the last twenty years of his life in study and retirement, he 
died Feb. 15, 1701, almost 88 years of age. 

1 Tloreri. 

250 C HE V R E A U. 

He left a very noble library bebind him, and was hiih« 
self the author of some works : 1. *^ Le Tableau de la For<« 
tune,'' 1651, 8vo, in which he relates all the considerable 
revolutions that haye happened in the world. It was re-r 
printed, with alterations, under the title of ^^ Effets de la 
Fortune," a romance, 16S6, 8vo. 2. " L'Histoire du 
Mortde," 1686, frequently repriuted ; the best edition is 
that of Paris, 1717, $ vols, l^mo, with additions by Bour« 
geois de Chastenet : but although the author had recourse 
Xq original information, his quotations are not always to 
be depended on^ He often mistakes in matters of fact, 
and the style is harsh and unpolished. In 1697 were 
printed at the Hague, 2 volumes of his ^^ Oeuvres melees,'* 
consisting of miscellaneous letters 9nd pieces in prose and 
Terse. He wrote also notes on Petroniusi and Malherbe^ 
and was esteemed a good critic. Much of his turn of mind 
and sentiments may be seen in the " Chevraeana," Paris^ 
1697 and 1700, 2 vols, » 

CHEYNE (George), a physician of considerable emi-i 
nence and singular character, was descended from a good 
fi^ily in Scotland, where he was born in 1671. He 
received a regular and liberal education, and was at first 
intended by bis parents for the church, though that design 
was afterwards laid aside. . He passed his youth, as he him-^ 
self informs us, in close study, and in almost continual ap-p 
plication to the ab.stracted sciences ; and in these pursuits. 
bis chief pleasure consisted. The general course of his. 
life, therefore, at this time, was extremely temperatp and 
sedentary ; though he did occasionally admit of some relax- 
ation, diverting himself with work^ of imagination, and 
^* roi)sing nature by agreeable comp$tny and good cheer.'* 
But upon the slightest excesses he found such disagree-^ 
able effects, as led him tp conclude, that his glands were 
naturally lax, and his solids feeble: in which opinion he 
wa& confirmed, by an e^rly shaking of his hands, and adisn 
position to be easily ruffled on a surprize. He studied 
phytic at Edinburgh under the celebrated Qn Pitcairne, to. 
whom he was much attached, and whom be styles ^^ his 
gre^t master and generous friend." Having taken the 
degree of doctor of physic, he repaired to London to prac-* 
tise as a physjqian, when b^ was about thirty years of age. 
On his arrival in the metropolis, he soon quitted the regulac. 

1 Moreri.— Baillet Jagemens des Sa?ai|S.v-GeUt Diet.— Niceroui vol. XX^ 

C H E Y N E. 6St 

tnd temperate matiDer of life to which he had been chiefly 
accustomed, and partly from inclination, and partly from 
a view to promote his practice, he passed much of his time 
in company, and in taverns. Being of a cheerful temper, 
and having a lively imagination, with much acquired 
knowledge, he soon rendered himself very agreeable to 
those who lived and conversed freely. He was, as he says, 
much caressed by them, ** and grew daily in bulk, and in 
friendship with these gay gentlemen, and their acquaint- 
ances." But, in a few years, he found this mode of living 
very injurious to his health : he grew excessively fat, short- 
breathed, listless, and lethargic. 

But before his health was in this unfavourable state, he 
had published a medical treatise, in 8vo, under the follow- 
ing title : ** A new Theory of acute and slow-continued 
Fevers : wherein, besides the appearances of such, and 
the manner of their cure, occasionally the structure of the 
Glands, and the manner and laws of Secretion, the opera- 
lion of purgative, vomitive, and mercurial medicines are 
JBecfaanicaily explained.'' To this he prefixed .^*An essay 
concerning the Improvements of the Theory of Medicine.*' 
This treatise on fevers was drawn up by Dr. Cbeyne, at the 
(jesire of Dr. Pitcairne ; but it was a hasty performance ; 
^nd therefore, though it seems to have been favourably 
recieived, our author never chose to prefi;^ his name to it. 
His next publication was a piece on abstracted geometry 
and algebra, entitled " Fluxionum Methodus inversa; sive 
quantitatum fluentium leges generaliores." He afterwards 
puhlished a defence of this performance, although he never 
had a very good opinion of it, against Mr. De Moivre, 
VRder the following title : ^^ Rudimeiitorum Method! 
fluxionum inversae Specimina, adversus Abr. De Moivre.'^ 
In 1705, when he was about thirty- four years of age, at 
which time he was a fellow of the royal society, he pub- 
lished, in 8vo, " Philosophical Principles of Natural Reli- 
gion : containing the Elements of Natural Philosophy, and 
the proofs for Natural Religion arising from them." This 
pi^ce be dedicated to the earl of Roxburgh, at whose de« 
sire, and for whose instruction, it appears to have been 
priginally written. 

In consequence of the free mode of living in which our 
author had for some time indulged himself, besides the ill 
consequiences that have been already mentioned, be at 
length brought on himself, as be ini]C)rms \xsj an autumnal 

tSS C H E Y N E. 

intermittent fever ; but this he removed in a few weeks by 
taking the bark. He afterwards went on tolerably well for 
about a year, though neither so clear in his faculties, nor 
so gay in his temper, as he had formerly been. But the 
following autumn, he was suddenly seized with a verti- 
ginous paroxysm, so alarming in its nature, as to approach 
nearly to a fit of an apoplexy. By degrees, his disorder 
turned to a constant violent head-ach, giddiness, and low« 
ness of spirits : upon which he entirely left off suppersg^ 
which he never resumed, and also confined himself at din- 
ner to a small quantity of animal food, drinking but very 
little fermented liquors." The decline of his health and 
spirits occasioned him^to be deserted by many of his more 
airy and jovial companions ; and this circumstance contri- 
buted to the increase of his melancholy. He soon after 
retired into the country, into a fine air, and lived very low ; 
and at this time he employed himself in the perusal of some 
of the most valuable theological writers. He bad never, 
even in hiis freer moments, deserted the great principles of 
natural religion and morality ; but in his present retire-* 
ment he made divine revelation the more immediate ob- 
ject of his attention. The books that he read were recom- 
mended to him by a worthy and learned clergyman of the 
church of England, whom he does not name, but whom he 
represents to be.the man, that of all his numerous acquaint- 
ance, he the most wished to resemble. 
.. Dr. Cheyne's retirement into the country, and low regi- 
men, having not entirely removed his complaints, he was 
persuaded by his medical and other friends, to try the 
Bath waters. He accordingly went to Bath, and for some 
time found considerable relief from drinking the waters. 
But he afterwards returned to London for the winter season, 
and had recourse to a milk diet, from which he derived the 
most salutary consequences^ He now followed the busi- 
ness of his profession, with great diligefnce and attention, 
in summer at Bath, and in the winter at London, applying 
himself more particularly to chronical, and especially to 
l6w and nervous cases : and at this period of his life, he 
generally rode on horseback ten or fifteen miles every day, 
both sufnmer and winter : in summer on the Downs at 
Bath, and in winter on the Oxford road from London. 

After our author had found his health to be tborbughly 
established, be again made a change in his regimen, gra- 
dually lessening the quantity of his milk and vegetableS| 

C H E Y N E. 2SS 

mad by slow diegress, and in moderate quantitiesy living on 
the lightest and tenderest animal food. This he did for 
some time, and at last gradually went into the common 
mode of living, and drinking wine, though within the 
bounds of temperance ; and appears to have enjoyed good 
health for several years. But his mode of living, though 
he indulged in no great irregularities, was still more free 
dian his constitution would admit ; and at length produced 
very ill effects. In the course of ten or twelve years he 
continued to increase in size, and at length weighed more 
than thirty-two stone. His breath became so short, that 
upon stepping into his chariot quickly, and with some 
effort, he was ready to faint away, and his face would turn 
black. He was not able to walk up above one pair of stairs 
at a time, without extreme difficulty ; he was forced to 
ride from door to door in a chariot even at Bath ; and if 
he had but a hundred paces to walk, he was obliged, as he 
informs us himself, to have a servant following him with a 
stool to rest upon. He had also some other complaints; 
and grew extremely lethargic; and at Midsummcf in 1723, 
i ^ he was seized with a severe isymptomatic fever, which ter-* 
I minated in a most violent erisipelas. He continued to be 
in a very bad state of hea Ja for about a year and a half, 
having now resided for a considerable time almost entirely 
at Bath. But in December 1725,* he went to London, 
where be had the advice of his friend Dr. Arbuthnot, Dr. 
Mead, Dr. Freind, and some other physicians. From no- 
thing, however, did he 6nd so much relief as from a milk 
and vegetable. diet ^ by a strict adherence to which, in 
somewhat more than two years, his health was at length 
thoroughly established; and he almost entirely confined 
himself to this regimen during the remainder of his life. 

Its the mean time, our author continued to publish some 
other medical works ; particularly ^^ An essay of the true 
nature and due method of treating the Gout, together with 
an account of the nature and quality of Bath Waters, the 
manner of using them, and the diseases in which they are 
proper : as also of the nature and cure of most Chronical 
distempers.*' This passed through at least five editions ; 
and was followed by " An essay on Health and Long Life ;'* 
which was well received by the public, but occasioned 
sundry reflections to be thrown out against him by some 
persons of the medical profession. In 1726, he published 
the same work in Latin, enlarged, under the following title : 

«54 (5 H E Y N.£? 

** Georgii Cheynsei Tractatus de Infirmortim Sartitafe 
tuenda, Vitaque producenda, libro ejusdem argumenti Ang-^ 
lice edito longe auctior et limatior ; huic accessit de natura 
fibrae; ejusque laxse sive resolatss morbis tractatus nunc pri-» 
mum editus." In 1753, he published a piece in 8vo, under 
the title " The English Malady : or, a treatise of Nervous^ 
diseases of all kinds ; as Spleen, Vapours, Lowness of 
Spirits, Hypochondriacal and Hysterical distempers, &c/'' 
His next publication, which was printed in 1740, was en-' 
titled " An essay on Regimen ; together with five dis- 
courses, medical, moral, and philosophical : serving ta 
illustrate the principles and theory of philosophical Medi- 
cine, and point out some of its moral consequences.'* The 
last work of our author, which he dedicated to the earl of 
Chesterfield, was entitled *^ The natural method of curing 
the Diseases of the Body, and the Disorders of the Mind 
depending on the Pody ; in three parts. Part I. General 
reflections on the oeconomy of nature in animal Life; 
Part II. The means and methods for preserving Kfe and 
faculties ;* and also concerning the nature and cure of 
acute, contagious, and cephalic disorders. Part III. Re-^ 
flections on the nature and cure of particular chronical 
distempers." ^ 

Dr. Cheynedied at Bath, April 12, 1743, in the seventy- 
second year of his age. He had great reputation in his own 
time, both as a practitioner and as a writer ; and most of 
his pieces passed through several editions. He is to be 
ranked among those physicians who have accounted for 
the operations of medicine, and the morbid alteration? 
which take place in the human body, upon mechanical 
principles. A spirit of piety and of benevolence, and an 
ardent zeal for the interests of virtue, are predominant 
throughout his writings. An amiable candour and inge- 
nuousness are also discernible, and which led him to re-' 
tract with- readiness whatever appeared to him 'to be 
censurable in what he had formerly advanced*. Some of 

* Of ibis we have a remarkable in- far as it is personal or peevish, and ask 

stance iti the preface to bis Essay on him and the world pardoa for it; a$ ( 

Health and Long Life, in which is the do for the defence of Dr. Pitcairne's 

following passage : " The defence of Dissertations, and the New Theory of 

that book (his Methodus Fluxionum Fevers, against the late learned and 

inversa) against the learned and acute ingenious Dr. Oliphant. I heartiljf 

Mr. Abr. de Moivre, being written in a condemn and detest all personal reflec- 

spirit of levity and resentment, I most tions, all malicioas and unmanoerlir 

sincerely retract, and wish undone, so • terms, and all false and unjust rppre- 

C H fi Y N E. ^>55 

the metaphysical notions which he has introduced into bb 
books may perhaps justly be thought fanciful and ill- 
grounded ; but there is an agreeable vivacity iii his pro- 
ductions, together with much openness and frankness, and 
in general gteat perspicuity. — Of his relations, his half- 
brother, the rev. William Cheyne, vicar of Weston near 
Bath, died Sept. 6, 1767, and his son the rev. John Cheyne, 
vicar of Brigscock, Northamptonshire, died August il, 

CHEYNE (Jameb)j professor of philosophy, and rector 
of the Scotch college at Doway in Flanders, was of the t.n* 
cient family of Arnage, or Arnagie in Aberdeenshire, 
where he was bom in the early part of the sixteenth cen- 
tury. After studying classical and philosophical learning 
in the uhiverstty of Aberdeen, he applied to divinity under 
Mr. John Henderson, a celebrated divine of that time ; but 
on the establishment of the reformation, Cheyne (as well ad 
bis master) went over to France, and taught philosophy fot 
spQie time in the college of St. Barbe at Paris. From 
thence he. went to Doway, where he taught philosophy for 
several years, and was made rector of the Scotch college, 
and canon and greatpenitentiary of the cathedral of Tournay. 
He died in 1602, and was buried in that church under a 
marble monument,' with an inscription. The authors quoted 
by Muchenzie give him the character of one of the first 
mathematicians and philosophers and most learned men of 
his time. He wrote, 1. " Analysis in Philosophiam Aristot.'* 
Duac. (Doway), 1573, 1595, 8vo. 2. " De sphaera seu 
globi coelestis fabrica," ibid, 1675. 3. " De Geographia, 
lib. duo,'* ibid. 1576, 8vo. 4. ** Orationes duo, de per- 
fecto Philosopho, &c." ibid. 1577, 8vo. 5. " Analysis et 
scholia in Aristot. lib. XIV.'* ibid. 1578, Svo. * 

CHEYNELL (Francis), a nonconformist of some note, 
the son of John Cheynell a physician, was born at Oxford 
in i>608 ; and after he had been educated in grammar 

seotationd, as, unbecoming gentlemen, to adhere: << To neglect n.othing to 

KCholars, and Christians; and disprove secure his eternal peace, any more 

and undo both performances, as far as than if he had been certified he should 

in me lies, in every thing that does not die within the day; nor to mind any 

strictly and barely relate to the argu- thing that his secular obligations and 

ment.^' Another of Dr. Cheyne's reso* duties demanded of him less, than if 

lutions onght never to be forgotten, he had been insured to live fifty year» 

and to which he sincerely endeavoured more.*' 

} Biog. Brit. — Chesterfield** Miscellanies. — Gent. Mag. see Index. 

' Machenzie*;> Scotch writers, vol. HI. — Ikmpjitec Hist. Eccles. — Tanner. 


256 C Ji E y N E L L, 

learning, became a tnember of the university there io 
1623. When he had taken the degree of B. A. he was, 
by the interest of his mother, at that time the widow of 
Abboty bishop of Salisbury^ elected probations fellow of 
jMerton college in 1629. Then he went into orders, and 
officiated in Oxford for some time ; bat when the church 
began to be attacked in 1640, he took the parliamentarian 
side, and became an enemy to bishops and ecclesiastical 
ceremonies. He embraced the covenant, was made on6 
of the assembly of divines in 1643, and was frequently 
appointed to preach before the members of parliaments 
He was one of those who were sent to convert the university 
of Oxford in 1 646, was made a visitor by the parliament 
in 1647, and tbe year after took possession by force of the 
Margaret professorship of that university, and of tbe pre^ 
sidentship of St. John^s college. . But being found an 
improper man for those places, he was forced to retire to 
the rectory of Petworth in Sussex, to which be had been 
presented about 1643, where- he continued aa useful mem- 
ber to his party till the time of the restoration, when he 
was ejected from that rich parsonage. 

Dr. Cbeynell (for he had taken his doctor's degree) was 
a man of considerable parts and learning, and published a 
great many sermons and other works i but now he is chiefly 
memorable for his conduct to the celebrated Chillingworth^ 
in which be betrayed a degree of bigotry that has not been 
defended by any of the nonconformist biographers. In 
1643, when Laud was a prisoner in the Tower, there was 
printed by authority a book of CheynelPs, entitled ^* The 
rise, growth, and danger of Socinianism,'' and unques- 
tionably one of his best works. This came out about six 
years after Cbillingworth's more famous work called " Tbe 
Religion of Protestants," &c. and was written, as we are 
told in the title-page, with a view of detecting a most 
horrid plot formed by the archbishop and hb adherents 
against the pure Protestant religion. In this book the 
archbishop, Hales of Eton, Chillingworth, and other emi- 
nent divines of those times, were strongly charged with 
Socinianism. The year after, 1644, when Chillingworth 
was dead, there came out another piece of CheynelPs with 
this strange title, ^^ Cbillingworthi Novissima ; or, the sick- 
ness, heresy, death and burial of William Chillingworth." 
This was also printed by authority ; and is, as the writer 
of Chillingworth's life truly observes, a most ludicrous 

■d lA E ¥ N E L t; 257 

65 well as melancholy instance of fanaticism, or religious 
madness. To this is prefixed a dedication to Dr. Bayly^ 
Dr. Prideaux, Dr. Fell, &c. of the university of Oxford^ 
who had given their imprimatur to Chillingwbrth^s book J 
in which tbo^e divines are abused not a little, for giving 
«o much countenance to the use of reason in religious' mat* 
ters, as they had given by their approbation of Chilling^ 
Worth*s book. After the dedication follows the relation 
itself; in which Cheynell gives an account^ hovjr he camd 
acquainted with this man of reason, as he calls Chilling- 
worth ;- what care he took of him ; and how, as his illness 
increased, "they remembered him in their prayers, and 
prayed heartily that God would be pleased to bestow saving 
graces as well as excellent gifts upon him ; that He woula 
give him new light and new eyes, that he might see aiad 
acknowledge, and recant his error ; that he might deny 
hb carnal reason, and submit to faith :'^ in all which he i^ 
supposed to have related nothing but what was trae. Foi* 
he is allowed by bishop Hoadly to have been as sincere, ad 
honest, and as charitable as his religion would suffer biiH 
to be ; and, in the case of Chillingworth, while he thought 
it his duty to consign his soul to hell, was led by his hu- 
manity to take care of his body. Chillingworth at length 
died; and Cheynell, though he refused, as he tells us, to 
bury his body, yet concdi.ved it very fitting to buryhii 
book. For this purpose be met Chillingworth*s friends at 
the grave with' his book in his hand; and, after a short 
preamble to the people, in which he assured thtem •* hoW 
happy it wotild be for the kingdom, if this' book jind 
all its fellows could be so buried that they might tiever rise 
more, unless it were for a confutation," be exclaimed^ 
** Get thee gone, thou cursed book, which has seduced so 
many precious souls: get thee gone, thou corrupt rottert 
book, earth to earth, aufldust to dust: get thee gone into 
the place of rottenness,* that thou nxaye3t rot with thy 
author, and 6ee cdrrup.tioh:" ' * ' 

* Clieynell's death happened in J 665, at an obscure vil- 
lage called Pir€iston, in Sussex, wherie he had purchased 
an estate, to which hfe retired upon his being turned out 
of the fiVmg of »PetWokh. The Warnith of his ^eal, in- 
creased by thp turbulence of th^e tinaes in which be lived, 
amd hy the opposition to which tji« unpopular nature of 
some of. bis jem^ployments exposed him, was at last 'height* 
ened to'distraction, and he was for some years disordered 
Vol. IX. S 

258 C H E Y N E L L. 

in his understanding. Wood thinks that a tendency to 
madness was discoverable in a gireat part of his life ; Ca« 
lamy, that it was only transient and accidental, tlmugh be 

E leads it as an extenuation of that fury with which his 
indest friends confess him to have acted on some occa- 
sions, particularly, we may add, at Oxford, when one of 
the parliamentary visitors, where his behaviour was savage 
enough to justify more than the retaliation inflicted on his 
party.' Wood declares that he died little better than dts- 
tracted ; but Calamy, that he was perfectly recovered be- 
fore the restoration. He had many good qualities, parti- 
cularly a hospitable disposition, and a contempt for money ; 
but his extravagant zeal marred his usefulness, and re- 
flected no honour on his general character, or on his party. 
With regard, however, to his charging Chilling^orth with 
Socinianism, that is now universally allowed. ' 

CHIABRERA (Gabrielo), an Italian poet, was bom M 
Savone, in 1 552. He went to study at Rome, where Aldus 
Manutius and Muretus gave him their friendship and advice^ 
and pope Urban VHI. and the princes of Italy honoured him 
with many public marks of their esteem. In 1^24 Urbany 
himself a poet, as well as a protector of poets, invited him 
to Rome for the holy year ; but Chiabrera excused himself 
on account of old age and infirmities. He died at Sayone 
in 1638, aged eighty-six. His Lyric Poems, Rome, 17 18^ 
3 vols. 8vo, and << Amadeida,** Napoli, 1635, 12mo,^re 
particularly admired. All his works were collected ;at 
Venice, 1731, 4vols. Svo.* • 

CHIARAMONTI (Scipio), iii Latin Claramontios^ 
an eminent Italian astronomer and philosopher, was born 
at Cesena in the province of Romagna in June 1565. His 
father was a physician at Cesena. He studied at P^rUgia 
and Ferrara, and became distinguishect for his progress;, in 
philosophy and mathematics; the former of wkicb -he 
' taught for some time at Pisa. He passed, however, '^e 
greater part of his long life at Cesena, and in his history 
of that place, which he published in 1641, he informs -vs^ 
that for fifty -nine years he had served bis country in apuhr 
lie capacity. He was, in particular, frequently deputed to 
Rome, either to offer obedience to the pope in the name 

" • . * 

- 1 Fram tli6,few incidentt of hb life Dr. Johnson dr«w out mn elegant naiT%tiTe 
in 1751, now printed in big worlu. See also, Atb. Ox. vol. II.— -Wood's Ami* 
^uities of Oxford, by Gutcb.-^aiamy. — ^Neal's Puritans, &c. 
» XUib)Hchi.?f']^aiUet JttgeiiieBt4«*£rytbr«9l ?iBii«otiiecfi.^lf«r^^ J; 


of his countrymen, or on other afikirs.- He had married a 
-Jady whom be calls Virginia de Abbatibus, but becoming 
a widower at the age of eighty, he went into the church, 
received priest's orders, and retired with the priests of the 
congregation of the oratory, for whom he built a church at 
Cesena, and there he died Oct. 3, 1652, in his eighty* 
feyepth year. He established at Cesena the academy of 
jth^ Oifuscati, over which he presided until his death. His 
works, written partly in Italian and partly in Latin^ are 
very numerous, and filled a considerable space in the li* 
tjOrary history of his time : 1. '^ Discorso della Cometa po« 
gon«ure deir anno 1618> &c»" Venice, 1619, 4to, in which 
- he suggests . that comets are sublunary, and not celestial 
bodies. 2. ^^ Anti-Tycho, in quo contra Tychonem Brabe, 
^et nonnullos alios, &c. demoustratur Cometas essesubki- 
nares,'* Venice, 1621, 4to. Kepler on this occasion stept 
forward in defence of Tycho Brabe, who had been dead 
some, years. 3. '^ De conjectandis.cujusque moribus et 
^ latitantibus animi affectibos semeiotice moralis, seu de sig- 
. .nis libri decern," ibid. 1625, 4to, reprinted by Herman 
Conringius, who calls it an incomparable work, at Helm* 
:8tadt, in 1665, 4to. MorhofF also praises, it highly. M. 
. Trichet Dufresne brought a copy of it for the first tim^ 
. iuto France, and M. de la Cbambre availed himself of it 
in his work on the passions. 4. *< Notae in moralem;Suam 
semeioticam> seu de ^ignis,** Cesena, 1625, 4to. It is, 
, peihaps,. unnecessary to inform our readers that physio- 
gnomy was a favourite study from the beginning of the 
^fteenth to the end of the sixteenth century, and Chiara^ 
men ti appears to have made as much progress in it as any 
. «f his contemporaries. 5. An answer to Kepler, under the 
title '^ Apologia pro Anti-Tycbone suo adversus Hyperas- 
'piteaJoaanis Kepieri," Venice,. 162 6, 4to. 6. "De tri- 
Jbu8 novis stellis, qufls annis 1572, 1600, et 1604, com- 
: pi^meie," Cesena, 1628, 4to. Galileo now took the part 
, of Tycho Brabe, and published, in Italian a work against 
^ .Chiaramonti, who answered it in, 7. ^^ Difesa di Scipioni 
Chiaramonti,^e/' Florence, 1633^ 4to. 8. << Delia ra« 
. gione di statp libri tre» nel quale trattato da primi pnn« 
. -cipii dedotto si suo pcona la natiira, le ms^sime, e le specie 
de^ governi buoni, cattivi e mascherati,'' Florence, 1635, 
* 4tx>, and translated into Latin, Hamburgh, ,1679, 4to. 9. 
'^ Examen ad censuram Joannir'Camilli Gloriosi in libruni 
de tiibut novis stellis,'' ibid. 1636^ 4to* 10. << De sede 

3 ;2 

^60 C H I A R A M O N T L 

sublunari dotnetftrum, opuscula tria/* Amst. 1636^, 4to. 1 1^. 
*< Castigatio J» CamiUi Gloriosi adversus Clatamontium 
castigata ab ipso Clavamontio/' Gesena, 1638, 4to. -^12: 
^* De inetbodo ad doctrinam spectante, Hbri quatuor, &c." 
abid. 1639, 4to. IS. ^^ Caesene Historia libris sesdecim, 
ab initio civitatis ad h^e teropora/* with a sketch of the 
general history of Italy during the same period, Cesena, 
1'641, 4to, 14. " De atrabile, quoad mores attinet," Pa- 
ris, ^641, 6vo, dedicated to Naud6, but in the licence it 
H erroneoosly said that the author was physician to the 
p>pe» 15. ** Anti-Philolaus, in quo Philolaus redivivus de 
tevrae motu et solis ac fixarum quiete impugnalur," &c. 
Cesena> 1643, 4to. This was written against BuUialdus's 
attempt to revive the system of Philolaus, but in this we 
doubt whether our author was equal to his antagonist. 16. 
^* Defensio ab oppognationibus Fortunii Liceti de sede Co- 
me tarum,'' Cesena, 1644, 4to. 17. " De Universe, libri 
sexdiecim/- Cologne, 1644, 4to. 18. One of his best 
works, ^* De altitudine Caucasi liber iinuS| cura Gab. Nau* 
diei editus," Paris, 1649, 4to, and 16»0, 4to. 19; " Pfai^ 
losophia naturalis methodo resolutiva tradita, &c.^* Cesena, 

1652, 4to, 20. ** Oiniscula varia mathematica," Bologna, 

1653, 4to. 2 1 . " Commentaria in Aristotelem de iride, 
fcc'* ibid, 1654, 4tQ. 22. " In quatuor meteortim Aristo* 
telis librum commentaria,*' Venice, 1668, 4to, 23. "Delle 
scene, e tbeatri opera poschuma,^^ Cesena, 1675, 4to. * 

CHICHELE (Henry), archbishop of Canterbury, and 
founder of All Souls college, Oxford, was born, probably 
i» 1362, at Higham-Ferrars in Northamptonshire, of pa- 
rents who, if not distinguished by their opulence, were at 
least enabled to place their children in situations which 
c}ualified them for promotion in civil and political life. 
Their sons, Robert and Thomas, rose to the highest dig- 
nities in the magistracy ef London ; and Henry, the sub*- 
ject of this memoir, was, at a suitable age, placed at Win«> 
Chester school, and • thence removed to New coUegei 
where be studied the civil and canon law. Of his pro- 
ficiency here, we have little information, but the progress 
ef his advancement indicates that he soon acquired distinct- 
tion, and conciliated the affection of the first patrons of 
the age. From 1392 to 1407, he can be traced through 
•■ . . 

1 Moreri. — Saxii Onomast. in CUtranontioSj and Movboff Polyhist. in tbt 
saii^e. — ^Nicer^n, vol. XXX, 

C H I C H E L E, 861 

vsiriou^ ecclesiastical preferments and dignities, for some 
at least of which he was indebted to j^ichard Metford, 
bishop of Salisbury. This valuable friend be had the mis- 
fortune to lose in the last mentioned year ; but bis repu« 
tation was so firmly established, that king Henry IV. 
about this time employed him on an embassy to pope In- 
nocent VII. on another to the court of France, and on a 
third to pope Gregory XI L who was so much pleased with 
his conduct as to present him to the bishopric of St. 
David'S| which happened to become vacant during his 
residence at the apostolic court in 1408. In the following 
year he was deputed, along with Hallum, bishop of Salis- 
bury, and Chillingdon, prior of Canterbury, to represent 
England in the council of Pisa, which was convoked tQ 
settle the disputed pretensions of the popes Gregory and 
Benedict, both of whom were deposed, and Alexander V, 
chosen in their room, who b^^d once studied at Oxford. 
. On our founder^s return, he passed some months in dis- 
charging the functions of his diocese. In May 1410, be 
was again sent to France, with other negociators, to ob-« 
tain a renewal of the truce between the two kingdoms; 
but this was not accomplished until the year following, nor 
without considerable di65culties. For nearly two years 
after this, we find him residing on his diocese, or paying 
occasional visits to the metropolis, which his high charac- 
ter as a statesman rendered no less necessary than grateful 
to bis royal master. 

On the accession of Henry V. he was again consulted 
and employed in many political measureQ, and appears to 
have completely acquired the confidence of the new sove- 
reign, who sent him a third time into France on the sub- 
ject of peace. The English were at this time in possessioa 
of some of the territories of that country, a circumstance 
which rendered every treaty of peace insecure, and create4 
perpetual jealousies and efforts towards emancipation ou 
the part of the French. 

In the spring of 1414, Cbichele succeeded Arundel as 
archbishop af Canterbury, which he at first refused in de- 
ference to the pope ; but on the pontiff^s acceding to the 
election made by the prior and monks, he was put in com- 
plete possession, and soon had occasion to exert the whole 
of his talents and influenee to preserve the revenues of the 
church, wbich the parliament had more than once advised 
tlie king to take into hi^ own band$. The time was crit^* 

262 C H I C H E L E. 

cal ; the king had made demands on the court of France^' 
which promised to end in hostilities, and large supplies 
were wanted. The clergy, alarmed for the whole, agreed 
to give up a part of their possessions, and Chichele under- 
took to lay their offer before parliament, and as far as 
eloquence could go, to render it satisfactory to that assem- 
bly. It is here that historians have taken occasion to cen« 
sure his conduct, and to represent him as precipitating the 
king into a war with France, in order to divert his atten* 
tion from the church. But while it is certain that he 
strongly recommended the recovery of Henry's hereditary 
dominions in France, and the vindication of his title to that 
crown, it is equally certain that this was a disposition 
which he rather found than created ^ and in what manner 
he could have thwarted it, if such is to be supposed the 
wiser and better course, cannot be determined without a 
more intimate knowledge of the state of parties than is 
now practicable. The war, however, was eminently suc- 
cessful, and the battle of Azincourt gratified the utmost 
hopes of the nation^ and has ever since been a proud me- 
mento of its valour. During this period, besides taking 
the lead in political and ecclesiastical measures at home| 
Chichele twice accompanied the king's camp in France. 

After the death of Henry V.' in 1422, and the appoints 
ment of Humphrey duke of Gloucester to be regent during 
the minority of Henry VI., Chichele retired to his pro- 
vince, and began to visit the several dioceses included in 
it, carefully inquiring into the state of morals and relig^ion. 
Tlie principles of Wickliffe h^ made considerable p/o- 
grress, and it was to them chiefly that the indifference of 
the public towards the established clergy, and the efforts 
which had been made to^ alienate their revenues, were 
attributed. Officially, tberefojis^, we are not to wonder that 
Chichele, educated in all the prejudices of the times, en- 
deavoured to che^k the growing heresy, as it was csdled ; 
but from the silence of Fox on the subject, there is reason 
to hope that his personal interference was far more gentle 
than that of his predecessor Arundel. On the other hand, 
history has done ample justice to the spirit with which be 
resisted the assumed power of the pope in the disposition 
of ecclesiastical preferments, and asserted the privileges 
pf the English church. In all this he was supported by 
the nation at large, by a majority of the bishops, and by 
the university of Oxford, nor at this time was more zeal 

C H I C H E L E. 363 


sbbwn against the Lollards, or first protestaDts, than against 
the capricious and degrading encroachments of the court 
of Rome. Among the vindications of Chichele's character 
from the imputations thrown upon it by the agents of the 
pope, that of the university of Oxford must not be omitted. 
They told the pope, that ^ Chichele stood in the sanctu* 
ary of God as a firm wall that heresy could not shake, nor 
simony undermine, and that he was the darling of the 
people, and the foster parent of the clergy." These re- 
monstrances, however, were unsatisfactory to the proud 
and restless spirit of Martin V. but after he had for some 
time kept the terrors of an interdict hanging over the na« 
tion, the dispute was dropped without concessions on either 
side, and the death of this pope, soon after, relieved the 
archbishop from farther vexation. 

^ He was now advancing in years, and while he employed 
his time in promoting the interests of his province, he 
eonceived the plan of founding a college in Oxford, which 
he lived to accomplish on a very magnificent scale. One 
benefit he conferred, about the same time, of a more gene« 
ral importance to both universities. Puring the sitting of 
one of the convocations in 14^38, the universities presented 
a remonstrs^nce, stating the grievances they laboured under 
from wars, want of revenues, and th^ neglect of their 
'inembers in the disposal of church livings. Chichele im- 
mediately procured a decree that all ecclesiastical patrons 
should, for ten years to come, confer the benefices in their 
^ift on members of either university exclusively ; aqd that 
vicars general, commissaries and officials, should be chosen 
.otkt of the graduates in civil and common law. 

He had now held eighteen synods, in all of which he 
distinguished himself as the guardian of the church, and 
was eminently successful in conciliating the parliament 
and nation, by such grants on the part of the clergy as 
showed a readiness, proportioned to their ability, to siip- 
port the interests of the crown and people. The most 
noted of his constitutions were those which enjoined ^e 
celebration of festivals ; regulated the probates of wills ; 
provided against false weights; and augmented the, sti- 
pends of vicars. That which is most to be regretted wiete, 
hi^ instituting a kind of inquisition against LoUardism. i 

In 1442, he applied to pope Eugenius for an indulgence 

to resign his office into more able hands, beiiig now nearly 

eighty years old, and, as he pathetically urges, <^ heavy 


C H I C H E L E. 

iadfen, aged, infirm, and w^ak beyond measure.'* He io-* 
treats that be may be released from a burthen which he 
was no longer able to support either with ease to . himself, 
or advantage to others. He died, however, before the 
issue of this application could be known, on the 12th of 
April 1443, and was interred with great solemnity in the 
pathedral of Canterbury, under a monument of exquisite 
workmanship built by himself. As a farther mark of re- 
spect, the prior and monks decreed that no person .should 
be buried in that part of the church where his remains 
were deposited^ 

His character, when assimilated to that of the age in 
which he lived, is not without a portion of the dark senti« 
ment, and barbarous spirit of persecution, which obstructed 
the reformation ; but on every occasion where be dared to 
fxert his native talents and superior powers of thinking, 
ye discover the measures of an enlightened statesman, and 
that liberal and benevolent disposition which would confer 
pelebrity in the brightest periods of our history. 

The founclatipn of AH Souls college is not the 6rst in- 
stance of his munificent spirit. In 1422, he founded a 
collegiate church at his native place, Higham-Ferrars, so 
amply endowed, that on its dissolution by Henry VIII. its 
revenues were valued at 1^6^. This. college consisted of a 
quadrangular buildings of which the church only now re« . 
mains, and is used sls a parish church. . To this he attached 
^n hospital for the poor, and both these institutions were 
long supported by th^ legacies (^ his brothers Robert and 
William, aldermen of London *, He also expended large 
sums in adorning the catl^efiral of Canterbury, founding a 
library there^ and in adding to the buildings of Lambeth 
palace t, Croydon churcbj and Rochester-bridge. 

His first intentipHs with respect to Oxford ended in the 
erection oif a house for the schplar^ of the Cistercian order, 
who at that time had no settled habitatiqn at Oxford. This 
mansion, which wa& called St. Bernard's College, wasi afteri 

^ Robert Chichele, citizen and gro- 
cer, served the oAoe of fheriff id 1409> 
and that of lord mayor twice, in:14U 
and 1422. He died without issue. 
William served the office of sheriff in 
1409, and his spn, John, was cfaam- 
berlaia of London. He had a very 
Dumeroos issue. 

f He.boiit the great tewer at the 
vest end of th^ chapel, called the Lol- 

lard*s ToWer, at the top of which is a 
prison room. Before the rtfbrmation, 
the archbishops had prisons for eeele* 
siastical offenders, who, if persons of 
rank, were kept in separate apartments, 
and used to eat at the archbishop's 
table, Lysoas's Environs, ait. Lah- 
BETH, and Churton's Lives of the Fouih; 
ders, p. 189, et seqq. 

C H r C H E L E. 265 

awards- alienated to sir Thomas White, and formed part of 
St. John's college. The foundation of All Souls, however, 
is that which has conveyed his memory to our times with 
the highest claims of veneration. Like his predecessor 
and friend Wykeham, he had amassed considerable wealth, 
and determined to expend it in facilitating the purposes of 
education, which, notwithstanding the erection of the pre- 
ceding colleges, continued to be much obstructed during 
those reigns, the turbulence of which rendered property 
insecure, and interrupted the quiet progress of learning 
and civilization. 

At wiiat time he first conceived this plan is not recorded. 
It appears, however, to have been in his old age, whep be 
obtained a release from interference in publiq measures. 
The purchases he made for his college consisted chiefly, of 
Berford hall, or Cherleton's Inn, St. Thomas's hall, Tinge^ 
wick hall^ and Godknave hall, comprising a space of one 
hundred and seventy-two feet in length in the High street, 
and one hundred and sixty*two in breadth in Cat, or Cathe^ 
rine street, which runs between the High street and . Hert-* 
ford college : to these additions were afterwards made, which 
enlarged the front in the High street. The foundatioti 
stone was laid with great solemnity, Feb. 10, 1437. John 
Druell, archdeacon of Exeter, and Roger Keyes, both 
afterwards fellows of the college, were the principal archir 
tects, and the charter was obtained of the king in 1438, 
and confirmed by the pope in the following year. In th^ 
charter, the king, Henry VI. assumed the title of foun^lei^ 
at the archbishop's solicitation, who appears to have paid 
him this compliment to secure his patronage for the ii^sti- 
tution, while the full exercise of legislative, authority vffi.% 
reserved to Chichele as co-founder. 

According to this charter, the society was to consist of a 
warden and twenty fellows, with power in the warden to 
increase their number to forty, and to be called The war- 
den and college of the souls of all the faithful deceased^ 
Collegium Omnium jinimarum Fidelium defunciorum de 
Oxan. The precise meaning of this may be understood 
from the ol)ligation imposed on the society to pray for the 
good estate of Henry VL and the archbishop during their 
lives, and for their souls after their decease ; also for th6 
aouls of Henry V. and the duke of Clarence, together with 
those of all the dukes, earls, barons, knights, esquires^ 
and other subjects of the crown of England, who had fallen 


C H I C H E L E. 

in the war with France ; and for the souls of all die faithful:/ 

Sixteen of the fellows were to study the civil and canon 
laws,* and the rest, philosophy and the arts, and theology* 
But the most remarkable clause in this charter, when com- 
pared to former foundations, is that which gives the society 
leave to purchase lands to the yearly value of 300/. a sum 
very far exceeding what we read of in any previous foun- 
dation, and which has more recently been increased to 
1050/. by charters from Charles I. and George II. Ano- 
ther diarter of very extensive privileges was granted soon' 
after the foundation by Henry VI. ; and this, and the char- 
ter of foundation, were confirmed by an act of parliament 
14 Henry VII, 1499. 

It was not till within a few days of his death that the 
archbishop gave a body of statutes for th& regulation of his^ 
college, modelled after the statutes of his iUustrious pre- 
cursor Wykeham. After the appointment of the number 
of fellows, already noticed, he ordains that they should be 
born in lawful wedlock, in the province of Qanterbury^ 
with a preference to the next of kin, descended from his 
brothers Robert and William Chichele *. To the society 
were also added chaplains, clerks, and choristers, who 
appear to have been included in the foundation, although 
they are not mentioned in the charter. 
• For the more ample endowment of this college, the 
founder purchased and bestowed on it the manor of Wedon 
jtnd Weston, or Wedon Pinkeney in Northamptpnshire. 
King^s college, Cambridge, became afterwards possessed 
of a pah of it, bqt All Souls has, besides the advowson of 
the churches belonging to it, the largest estate, and thi^ 
lordship of the waste. The founder also gave them the 
4nanors of Horsham, and Scotney^ or Bletching-court in 
Kent, and certain lands called the ThriiFs or Friths in 

.* This part of the fouDder's statutes 
lias occasioned much litigation, as the 
'farther the time is remored from> bis 
age, the difficulty of ascertftiniog con- 
iiaDguinity becomes almost iosupera- 
ble. According to the ** Stemmata 

^tticbeleatta," published in 1765, the 
collateral descendants of our founder 
were then to be traced through nearly 
Iweke hundred families; but this, 
which seems at first to Administer iaci- 

' IKj* M in tact the soarce of many dis* 

puted and disputable claims. In ITtS, 
on an application to CornwalUs, areh^ 
bishop of Canterbury) as visitor, he 
decreed that the number of fellows to 
be admitted on claim of kindred should 
be limited to twenty. In 1792, on the 
dain of kindred by s person, when the 
nuai)'«r of twenty: happened to be QOfls- 
plete, the matter was re-he«fd, and th^ 
former archbishop's decree ratified and 

C H I C H E L E. «67 

Wapenbain, Northamptonshire ; with the suppressed alien 
priories of Romney in Kent ; the rectory of Upchurch ; 
the priory of New Abbey near Abberbury, in Shropshire ; 
of St. Clare in Carmarthenshire, and of Llangenith in 
Glamorganshire. Wood says, that king Edward IV. took 
into his hands all the revenues of this college and these 
priories, because the society had "sided with Henry VL 
against him ; but it appears by the college archives, that 
the king took only these alien priories, and soon restored 
them, probably because he considered it as an act of jus** 
tice to rest(Mre what had been purchased from, and not 
given, by the crown. Besides these possessions, the trus- 
tees of the founder purchased the manors of Edgware, 
Kingsbury, and Malories, in Middlesex, &c*; and Hebe* 
queathed the sums of lZ4l. 6s, Sd. and«« thousand marks, 
to be banked for the use of the college *. 

These transactions passed -i^iefly during the building of 
the college, which the aged founder often inspected. - In 
14<42, it was capable of receiving the warden and felldws^- 
who had hitherto been lodged at the archbishop*s expenses 
in a hall and chambers hired for that purpose. The cha« 
pel was consecrated, early in the same year, by the 
founder, assisted by the bishops of Lincoln (Alnwick)^ 
Worcester (Bourchier), Norwich (Brown), and others who 
were suffragans. The whole of the college was not iinisheil 
before the latter end of 1444, and the expense of buildings 
according to the accounts of 'Druell and Keys, may be 
estimated at 4156/. 6s. 3ld. The purchases of ground^ 
books, chapel furniture, &c. amounted to 4302/. 5s, %(k 
The subsequent history of this college is amply detailed in 
t>ur authorities. ^ 

CHICOYNEAU (Francis), counsellor of state, and 
first physician to the French king, was born at Montpellief 
in 1 6f 2. Having obtained his doctor's degree, though no 
more than twenty years old, he was sent to stop the pro- 
gress .of the plague then raging at Marseilles, by the duke 
of Orleans, regent of the kingdom. The boldness and 
confidence with whicEi he entered that city, where every 

. # He gmve ajio 1*23/. .6*. $d, to New to Um iaenilM!i9» end fabMribedLUifeljr 
eollege, and the Mine f urn to Uie uni- to.Uie publie library, 
Ternty cbest, ai a food for imall kians 

1 Chalniert's Hitt. of Oiford.— Life of Chichele by Duck, an^ a better cbe 
by Spenser, 1783, Sto, — ^BM)g.Brit-^ Wood's Colleges apd ^alU, and Auoals,^ 
^ateite Vte, p. 1. 

268 C H I C O Y N E A U. 

■ • • 

one seemed only waiting for death, had a striking effect on 
their fears. He encouraged the inhabitants^ and quieted 
their alarms by his presence ; and his success was beyond 
expectation. His services were rewarded by marks of 
honour and a pension from the king. In 1731 he was 
called to court physician to the royal children, by 
the interest of Chirac, whose daughter he had married; 
and after whose death he was made first physician to the 
king, counsellor of state, and superintendant of the mine- 
xal waters of the kingdom. He died at Versailles in 1752, 
aged near 80. The most curious o^ his works is that 
wherein he maintains that the plagu<^ is not contagious, 
entitled ^^ Observations et reflexions touchant la nature, 
les evenements, et le traitement de la Peste de Marseilles," 
Paris, 1721, 12mor He published also a valuable collec- 
tion of facts relative to the plague, under the title of 
•* Traits des causes, &c. de la Peste," Paris, 1744, 4to. * 

CHICOYNEAU (Aime Francis), born at Montpellier 
in 1702, was brought up under his father, the subject of 
the foregoing article. The famous Chirac afterwards 
taught him the elements of physic, and he was instructed 
in anatomy by Du Vernay and Winslow, and botany by 
Yaillant, under whom he made great progress. The de- 
monstration of the virtues of plants was his first function in 
the university of Montpellier, which he executed with 
great success, and the royal garden of that town, the most 
ancient in the kingdom, the work of Henry IV. was en- 
tirely renewed in a very short time. He died in 1740, at 
t}ie age of 38, professor and chancellor of the university of 
Montpellier, being the fifth of his family that had enjoyed 
that dignity. ' 

CHJFFLET (John James), a physician and politician, 
was born at Besan9on, a town of Franche Cpmt^, in 1588. 
H<e was descended from a fao^ily distinguished by literary 
merit, as well as by the services it bad done its country* 
He was educated at Besan^on, and then travelled through 
several parts of Europe, where he became acquainted with 
all the men of letters, and in every place made his way 
into the cabinets of the curious. At his return he applied 
himself to the practice of physic ; but being sent by the 
town of Besangon, where he had been consul, on an em4 
bassy to Elizabeth Clara Eugenia, archduchess of the Low 

t Moreri.-*X>ict Hist. > Ibid, 

C H I P F L E T. S6f 

Countries, thiat princess was so pleased with him, that she 
prevailed with him to continue with ber in quality of phy- 
sician in ordinary. Afterwards be became physician to 
Philip IV* of Spain, who honoured him very highly, pnd 
treated bim with great kindness-. ChifBet imagined, that 
these bounties and honours obliged him to take up arms 
against all who were at variance with his master ; and ac*> 
cordingly wrote his book entitled " Vindioise Hispanicae," 
against the French. He wrote several pieces in Latin, 
which were both ingenious and learned, and were collected 
and published at Antwerp, 1659, fol. 

His medical works were, ** Singulares ex curationibns 
et cadaverum sectionibus observationes,^' Paris, 1611, 8vo, 
in which he is weak enough to suppose many diseases to 
be produced by the influence of the stars, but there are 
nevertheless some useful and valuable observations in this 
volume. *^ Pulvis febrifugus orbis American! ventilatus,*' 
Lorain, 16^3, 4to. Intermittents that had' been stopped 
by taking the J Peruvian bark^ frequently, he says, returnr, 
and with increased violence ; he therefore dissuades from 
using it. 

Chifflet died in 1660, leaving a son, John Chifflet, who 
afterwards made a figure in the republic of letters, parti- 
cularly for his knowledge of the Hebrew. He had another 
son, called Julius Chifflet, well* skilled in languages and 
in the civil law, and who bad the honour to be invited to 
Madrid by the king of Spain in 164S, where he was made 
chancellor of the order of the golden fleece: He published 
the ^< Hist, du Chevalier Jaq. de Lalain,'*' Brussds, 163^^, 
4to; " G6nealogie de la Maison de Rye," 1644, folio; 
*^ G6\\63iogie de la Maisdn de Tassis,'' 1645; fol; His^- 
toria Velleris Aurei," Ant? 1653, 4to. Tbete was als6 
Philip Chifflet^ canon, of Befian^on, &c. ^ Laurence and 
Peter Francis Chifflet, Jesuits, who were all men of high 
reputation \p the^learned world. The last-mentioned, who 
died May II, 1682, aged ninety^two, left various woAs t 
among the rest,^^^ L*Histoire de I'Abbaye' de Tournus," 
1664, 4to ; ^> Lettre sur Beatrix- Comtesse de Champagne/^ 
There hav^ been other learned men of this name, as may 
be seen in Moreri, who is rather prblit on this family.^ 

CHILD (Wiluam), Mus. D. was a native of Bristol 
anc^ a disciple of Elway fievifi. In 1 63 1, being then oF 

I Moreri.— H«n«r BiU. M4d.-*SakU Onoduut 

270 CHI LD. ' 

Christ- church <iollege, Oxfori), he took bis degree of btf* 
chelor in music ; and in 1636, was appointed one of the 
organists of St George's chapel at Windsor, in the roeHn 
of l>r. John Munday, and soon after one of the organists 
of the royal chapel at White-hali. After the restoration 
be was appointed chanter of the king's chapel, and one of 
the chamber musicians to Charles II. In. 166 3, the uni- 
versity of Oxford conferred on him the degree of do<^or 
in music, at an act celebrated in St. Mary's church. Dn 
Child, after having been organist of Windsor chapel sixty* 
five years, died in that town 1697, at ninety years of age*. 
In tbe inscription on his grav^^stone, in the same, chapel, 
it is recorded that he paved the body of that choir at.his 
,own expense; he likewise gave 20L towards building 
the town -hall at Windsor, and 50L to the corporation to 
be disposed of in charitable uses, at their discretion. His 
works are '^^ Psalms for Three Voices," &c. with, a con- 
.tinued base either for the organ or theorbo^ composed 
after the Italian way, London, 1639. ^ Catches, Rounds, 
and Canons," published in Hilton's <' Catch that C&tch 
can," 1652. << Divine Anthems and Compositions to se« 
veral Pieces of Poetry," some of which were written by 
Dr. Thomas Pierce, of Oxford. , Someof his secular com- 
positions likewise appeared in a book entitled ^^ Court 
Ayres," printed 1655. But his priucipal productions are 
his services and full anthems, printed in Dr. Boyce's col- 
lection. His style was so remarkably easy aiui natural^ 
compared with that to which choirmen had been accus* 
tomed, that it was frequently treated by them with de- 
rision. Indeed, his modulation, at present, is so nearly 
modern, as not to produce that solemn and seemingly new 
effect on our ears, which we now experience from the 
productions of the siocteenth century. There are several 
inedited and valuable compositions by Dr. Child preserved 
in Dr. Tudway's manuscript ^^ Collection of Engli^ Church 

Music," in the British Museum.^ 

• CHILDREY (Joshua), . a divine and Mtural philoso- 
pher, was bom in 1623, and educated, at Rochester, 
.whence he removed to Magdalen^^coUege, Oxford, io 
164^, and became one of the clerks of the house, but ap- 
pears to haye left the university on the iMreakiug out^of 
the rebellion* When Oxford was surrendered to the par-^ 

1 Buniey sad Hswkiai^ Hitt of Mttiic« 

c H 1 L D R E Y. an 

liameDtary forces, he returned and took his bachelox's 
degree, but two years after was expelled by the parlia- 
mentary visitors. He then subsisted by teaching . sbhool 
at FeversbaiDy in Kent, although not without interruption 
from the republican party ; but on the restoration, he was 
made chaplain, to Henry lord Herbert, was created D. D. 
and bad the rectory- of. Upway, in Dorsetshire, bestowed 
upon him. In Jan. 1663, be was collated to the arch* 
deaconry of Salisbury, and in June 1664 to the- prebend 
of Yatmittster prim^ in the same church, by bishop Earle, 
who valued him as a learned and pious divine, and a great 
virtuoso. He died at Upway, Aug, .26, 1670, and was 
buried in the Cancel of Us cbarcb. He published, 1. a 
pamphlet entitled <^ Indago Astrologica,'' 1652, 4to. 2. 
'^ Syzygiasticon instauratum,< or an Epheroeris of the places 
and aspects of .the Planets, &c«" Lond. 1653, 8 vo. In 
both these is socpexvhat too much leaning to the then 
fashionable reveries of astrology ; but it appears by his 
correspondence with the secretary of the royal society, that 
he had. made large collections for a more* sound pursuit .of 
the subjects usually investigated by that learned body, 
particularly of > jiatural curiosities. His other publication 
was entitled ^^, Britannia Baconioa,-or the natural raritiesv 
of England, Scotland, and Wales, historically related, ac- 
cording to the precepts of lord Bacon," &c." Lond. 16dJ, 
8vo. It was this work which first suggested to Dr. Plot his 
^VNatural History of Oxfordshire/^ . 

CHILLINGWORTH (WiLUAM*), adivinoofthechucch 

^f .England,' celebrated for ius coiutroversial talents, .was 

>the soa of William ChiUingworth, citizen, afterwards «mayor 

of Q:i|fi>rd, and bom. these. Oetobec . ] 602^ He was bap« 

tizedon the. last of that months. Laud^ archbishop of Can* 

terbary,. but then fellow, of St* John's-ccilege^ i>eing his 

godfather.:. A&e(r he had biaen educated io grammar 

learnii^ ^ & prinato school in thatieity, he was adibitted 

H scholar of Trinity-college^. June 2, 161(8;, and elected 

r felloNflf Juna <^ip,: I62^.;ra£ter h^vin^« t^kea his .degrees of 

B. A« arid M. A«un tby^; regular way. . He did : not confine 

.fai3 studies (0 divinity: be applied himself ivitk gceatsuc* 

ceas tq;inf^tbematics; nand, 1 whit ^howwtbe^ extent of- his 

genius,, he wastaUo aQoou^vted^a good.^aet:, ^ Accordingly, 

1 1 

" ' ' * AUip Ox, vqI. iLr^^aikeW ^u^Bnifs of the cUrgy, 

J72 C H I L L I N G W O R T tt 

sit John Suckling has mentiotied him in his Session of the 
Poets : ' 

" There was Seldeti, and be set hard by the chair ; 
Wainman not &r off, which was very hat. 
Sands with Townshend, tor tfaey kept no order^ 
Pigby and ChiUingsworth a little further/' 

The conrersation and study of the uhiirersity scholars, in 
his time, turned chiefly upon the controversies between 
the church of England and the church of Ronrfe, occa- 
sioned by the uncommoti liberty allowed the Romish priests 
by James I. and Charles I. Several of them lived at or 
near Oxford, and made frequent attempts upon theyodng 
acholars ; some of whom they deluded to the Romish re- 
ligion^ and afterwards conveyed to the English seminaries 
beyond sea. Among these there was the famous Jesuit:, 
John Fisher, alias John Perse, for that was his true name, 
who was then muoh at Oxfbrd ; and Cbiiiingworth '' being 
accounted a very ingenious man, Fisher used ^11 possible 
means of being acquainted with hiin. Their (Conversation 
$oon turned upon the points controverted between the two 
chiinches, but particularly on the necessity of an infeillible 
living judg^ in matters of faitli. Chiltingwortfa found him* 
self unable to answer >tbe arguments of tlie Jesuit on this, 
head; and being convinced of the* necessity of such a 
judge, he was easily brought to believe that this judge 
was. to be found in the church of Rome ; that therefore the 
church of Rome must be the true ^ church, and the only 
dburch in which men could be saved. Upon thiahe for- 
sook ^he communion of the church of England, and cor- 
dially embraced the Romish religion. 
" In order to secure his conquest, Fisher persuaded hini 
to go over to the college of the Jesuits at Doway ; and he 
was desired to set down in writing the'niotives or reasons 
which had engaged hint to embrace the Romish religion. 
But his godfttther, Laud, who was then bishop of London, 
hearing of this afiair, and being extremely concerned at 
it, wrote to. him; and Chiliihgworth*s answer expressing 
much moderation, candour, and. iihparjtiality, that prelate 
continued to correspond with him, and to press' hinni with 
several argutiaent^ against ihe doctrine and practice of the 
Bbmafnists. '^\s set him dpon a new inquiry, ^hicb had 
the desired effect. But the place where he was not being 
suitable to the state of a free and impartial inquirer, he 
resolved to come back to England^ and left Doway ia 


i^Sly after a short stay there. Upon bis return, h^ was' 
received with great kindness and affection by bishop Laud», 
who approved bis design of retiring to Oxford, of which' 
tiniversity that prelate was then chancellor, in order to 
complete the important work he was then upon, ** A free 
Enquiry- into Religion." At last, after a thorough ex*ami* 
nation, the protestant principles appearing to him the most 
agreeable to holy scripture and reason, he declared for 
them; and having fully discovered the sophistty of the 
motives which had induced him to go over to the church 
of Rome, he wrote a paper about 1634 to confute them, 
but did not think proper to publish it. This paper is no\r 
lost; for though we have a. paper of his upon the same 
subject, which was first published in 1 687, among bis ad« 
ditional discourses^ yet it seems to have been written on 
some other occasion, probably at the desire of some of 
bis friends. That his return to the church of England was 
owing, to bishop Laud, appears from that prelate's appeal- 
to the letters which passed, between them ; which appeal 
was made in his speech before the lords at his trial, in order 
to vindicate himself from the charge of popery. ' 

As, in forsaking the chutxsh of England, as well as in 
returning. to it, he was solely influenced by a love of truths 
so, upon the same principles, even after his return toprO'- 
testantism, he thought ijt incumbent upon him to re^exa«- 
mine the grounds of it. This appears from a letter he 
wrote to Sheldon, containing some scruples he had about 
leaving the church of Rome, and returning to the church 
of England ; and these scruples, which be declared in« 
genuously to his friends,, seemed to have occasioned a re^ 
port that he had turned papist a second time, and then 
prot^stant i^ain. It would have been more just, perhaps^ 
to conclude that his principles were still unsettled, but, as 
his retuni to the . protestant religion made much noise, he 
became engaged in several disputes with those of the 
Romish ; and particularly with John Lewgar, John Floyd 
a Jeauit, who went under the name of Daniel, of Dan. a' 
Jesu, and White. Lewgar, a great zealot for tl>e church 
of Rome, and one who had been an intiniate friend of our 
author, . as soon as he heard of his return to the church of 
England^ sent him a very angry andabosive letter; to which 
ChilliBgworth returned so mild and affectionate an answer, 
that Lewgar could not help being touched with it^ and ' 
desired to see his old friend again. They bad a eonference 

Vol. IX. T 


f76 C H I L L I N G W O R T H. 

notice of at the bottom of each page^ with the word* OxC 
or Lond. after them. The tenth and last edition is of the 
year 1742, with the "Life of Mr. CbilUngworth/* by Dr. Bircb^ 
lyhich life was copied into the General Dictionary^ 10 vols. 
fol. The Jesuit Knotty as well as Floyd and Lacy^ Jesuits^ 
wrote against Chillingworth $ but their answers were soon 

In the mean time he had refused preferment, Which wa9 
offered him by sir Thomas Coventry, keeper cS the great 
seal, because his consciei?ce would net allow mm to sub-> 
scribe the thirty-nine arilqlea. Con«derin^ that^ by,sub« 
scribing the articles^ he must qot only declare^ willingly^ 
and €x animOf that every one of the sinticles is agreeable 
to the word of God, mxt also that the book of commoir 
prayer ebntained nothing contrary to the word of. God ^ 
th^t it might lawfully be used ; and that he himself would 
ilse it : and conceiving at the same time that, both in the' 
articles and in -the book of common prayer, there were 
siome things repugnant to the scripture, or which were 
not lawful to.f»e used, be fully resolved to lose for ever all 
hopes: Q^; preferment, rather tbapi comply with &e sub-^ 
scriptiofls required. One of his chief objections to the 
common, prayer related to the Athan^si^n creed, ther 
daiQuatpry clauses of which he looked upon as contrary to 
the wprd of Gp^* Another objection qoncemed the fourtb 
<;pmniandmeDt^ which, by the prayer subjoined, to it^ 
*^ Lord, have merdy upon us,^^ &c. appeared t^ him to be 
n^de a part of the Christian lawy and corvsequently to bind 
Christians to the observation of the Jewish sabbath. . These 
scruples of oc^ author, about subscribing the articles, fur- 
liished his antagonist Knott with an ob^ctioh against hioo^ 
ajT ai^ improper champion for the protestant* cause. Tor 
which he answers in the close of his preface to the *^ Re- 
ligion' of Protestants.*'' He expresses' here not only bi9 
readiness to subscribe, but also what he conceives to be 
the sense and,ii>tent of such a subscription ;, a sub-' 
scription of peace or union, and not of belief or assent, as 
he formerly thought it was. This was also the sense of 
archbishop Laud, with whiph he could not then be unac- 
quainted ; and of his friend Sheldon^ who laboured to 
convince hin» of it, md was„ no doubt, the person that 
brought him at^ last into it. For there is in Des Maiseaux^st 
a^comit, a letter which he wrote to Sheldon upon this oc- 
casion ; and it seems tliere passed several letters betweefk 


them upon ^is subject. Such at least is the apology wbieli 
tkis biographers have o^ered for his ready subscriptioiii 
' after it bad appeared to every impartial person that hisob* 
Jections were insurmountable. The apology we think as 
weak, as bis subscription was strong and decisive, runnkig 
in the usual language, ^^ omnibus hisce articulis et singtiUs 
In lisdeto amtentis volen;}, et e^ animQ . s.iibscriboy et c^<» 
^nsum mtum iisdem pr^sb^o.'' The distinction, after sueh 
a declaratljion, between pe^ce and union, afid belief and 
assent, is, we fear, too subtle for conotmon understaodiogi*. 
When, by whatever means, he bad got the better of Mi 
scruples, he was promoted to the chanc^Uorsbip of Sali9* 
bury, with .the prebend of Bri|f:worth, in Northampto{)$hin8^ 
annexed; and^ |ks appears from the subscription-book of 
the church of ^lisbury, upon Ji^ly 20, 16S8, C!OQi||>Hdd 
fvith the usual subscription, in the map^u^r just relsited;' 
About the same time he was appointed mastin: Qf Wigston*^ 
hospital, in t<^icestershire ; ^^ both which," s^ya Wood^ 
^^ and {)erbaps some other preferHQents, k^ kept to bis 
flying day/' In 1640 he was deputed by the chapter of 
Salisbury th^eir proctor in ocHivocation. . He was likewise 
deput/^ to ^e cQnvocation which ti^et the same year with 
the new parliament, and was opened Nov. 4, In 1^42 b« 
was put into the roll with some others by bis majesty, 1^ 
be created D. D. ; but the pivil war bt^^fiy o^ti he never 
received it. He w^s zealously attached to. tb^ royal paM;y) 
latnd at the siege of Gloucester,, begun Attg> 10, tQ43, wm 
present in {the king^s army, where he a4y^d »ad directed 
the making certain, engines, for ^ssau}ting th^ town, aft^ 
^he manner of ^e Roman tcstudin^s cum pl^Aw^ but whidi 
tihe success of the enemy pr^v^nted bim itam .e9»|>loying^ 
jSoon aft^r, having accompanied the lofd ilopton, geneml 
of the king's foixes in the west, to Arundel castle,, iq Su^SeK^ 
^nd choosing to repose himself in tfafit garrison, on accottnt 
of an indisposition, opcaaioned by the severity of the seit't 
son,. he was taken prisoner Dec. 9, .164$, by the pltr^ 
ment forces under the cojQAmand of sir WUlian^ Waller^ 
when the cjastle surrendered* £ut bi^ liUn^sa increasing^ 
and not being able to go to London witb the gfurrisan^ Jmt 
obtained leave to be couvewd to (>hiche)ster<; wbem bei 
was lodged in the bishop's p^ace^ ai^ where, after a sh^nrt 
illness,, be died. We h^ve ^ )^ery particular It^^count o£ 
his sickqe^$ and* death, written by bis ^reat adversary, . Mr.> 
Cheynell, in bis ^^ Chillingwortbi Novissima, or the sick- 


C H I L L I N G W O R T H. 

ness, heresy, death, and burial, of William Chilling-' 
worth, &c/* London, 1644, 4to. Cheynell accidentally 
xnet him at Arundel castle, and frequently visited him at 
Chichester, till he died. It v^s indeed at the request of 
this gentleman, tliat our author was removed to Chichester; 
where Cheynell attended him constantly, and behaved to 
him with as much compassion and charity as his bigotted 
and uncharitable principles would suffer him. There is na 
reason^ however, to doubt the truth of CheynelPs account, 
as to the most material circumstances, which prove that 
Chillingworth was attended during his sickness, and pro- 
Tided with all necessaries, by one lieutenant GoUedge, 
and his wife Christobel, at the command of the governor 
of Chichester; that at first he refused the assistance of sir 
William Walier^s physician, but afterwards was persuaded 
%to admit his visits, though there were no hopes of his re*' 
coTery ; that his indisposition was increased by the abusive 
treatment he met with from most of the officers who were 
taken prisoners with him in Arundel castle, and who looked 
upon him as a spy set over, them and their proceedings ; 
and that during bis whole illness he was often teased by 
Cheynell himself, and by an officer of the garrison of Chi* 
Chester, with impertinent questions and disputes. ^ And on 
the 8an>e ahtbority we may conclude that lord Clarendon 
was misinformed of the particulars of his^ death ; for, after 
having observed that he was taken prisoner in Arundel 
castle, he adds : ^^ As soon as his person was known, which 
would have drawn reverence from any noble enemy, thq 
clergy that attended that army prosecuted him with all 
the inhumanity imaginable ; so that by thair barbarous 
usage, he died withiii a few days, to the grief of all that 
hnew'him, and of many who knew him not, but by his 
hook^ and the reputation he had with learned men.'* 
From this it appears that the noble historian did npt know, 
or bad forgot, that he was sent to Chichester, but believed 
that he died in Arundel castle, and within a few days after 
the taking of it by sir William Waller. Wood tells us 
alsOy that the royal party in Chichester looked upon the 
hBpertinemt discourses of Cheynell. to our author, as a 
ahortening of his days. He is' supposed to have died Jan.- 
30^- tBbugh 'the day is not precisely known, and was bu- 
lied, acoording to hi$ own desire, ' in the cathedral church, 
pf Chich^st^. Cheynell appeared at bts funeral^ and gav^ 

C H I L L I N G W O R T H. 27S 

:43iat instance of bigotry and bufibonery which we have related 
'already under bi$ article. 

For his character Wood has given the following: ** He 
was a most noted philosopher and orator, and, without 
doubt, a poet also ; and had such an admirable faculty in 
reclainiing schismatics and confuting papists, that none in 
his time went beyond him. He had also very great skill 
in mathematics. — He was a subtle and quick disputant, and 
would several times put the king's professor to a push. 
Hobbes of Malmesbury would often say, that he was like 
a lusty fighting fellow, that did drive his enemies before 
hitn, but would often give bis own party smart back-blows^ 
and it was the current opinion of the university^ that he 
and Lucius lord Falkland,'' who by the way was his most 
iutimate friend, ^' l>ad such extraordinary clear reason, 
that, if the great Turk or devil were to be converted, they 
were able to do it He was a man of little stature, but of 
great soul: which, if times had been serene, and life 
spared, might have don« incomparable services to the church 
of England." Archbishop Tillotson has sf^oken of him in 
the highest terms :^^ I know not how it comes to pass,!' 
Stays that eminent prelate, ^' but so it is, that every on^ 
that offers to give a reasonable account of his £aith, and to 
establish religion upon rational principles,, is presently- 
branded for a Socinian ; of which we have a sad instance 
in that incomparable person Mr. Chillingwortb, the glory 
of this age and nation: who, for no other cause that I 
know of, but his worthy and successful attempts to make the 
Christian religion reasonable, and to discover those firm 
and solid foundations upon which our faith is built, has 
been requited with this black and odious character. (But, 
if this be Socinianism, for a man to inquire "into the"* 
grounds and reasons of Christian religion, and to endea)^ 
vour to give a satisfactory account why he believes it, I 
know no way, but that all considerate and inquisitive men, 
that are above fancy and enthusiasm, must be either Soci>> 
nians or atheists." Mr. Locke has also spoken of Chilling^ 
worth with equal commendation. In a small tract, coob 
taining ^' Some thoughts concerning reading and study for 
a gentleman," after having observed that the art of speaks- 
ing well consists chiefly in two things, .namely, perspicuity 
and right reasoning, and proposed Dr^ Tillotson as.a pat* 
I tern for the attainment of the art of speaking clearly, he 
adds : *^ Besides perspicuity, thejce miist be also right 

2tO ,C H I L L I N O W O R T a 

tm^oning, Brilhout wbich, perspicuitv sevros but t6 ttacfiMiB 
the speaker^ And for attaining of .tbts, I should {nrotloapttiid 
'.Gon9t2^iH Beading oif ChiUingwortb, who, by bia ekample, 
^ili .teacb both perspicuity and the way of tight reasoniiig^ 
rbetter than a^y book that I know i and thetadbre will de* 
:SiSirv» to .be jr^d lupoD thait acoouoi cnrer «nd jover agaiii ; 
jHOt to say any /thing of his m^ument.*^ 

LcMrd Clarendon^s ^aracter of him, -however, appeam 
jraperior to any given by those wbo had no pcsrsoiud know- 
ledge of ChiUingwortb. ** Mr. Obiliingworth,^* sa3its that 
fudjaoirable portrait-painter, ^^ was of a statuiie little sup^if 
•rioMT to Mr. Hales, (and it was an agpe in wiucb there •wei« 
many great and wonderful 4asen of that size)' ami a inaKof 
MO great a subtilty of uhdeni^ndifig, and so rare a tempei^ 
in debate, that as it was impossible topxiovoke him inisqp 
any passion, so it was very diffieult to keep a man^s •self 
irom being a little ^scomposed by his sharpness. Mi 
quidmess of argument, and instances; in which he had ^ 
jrare. facility, and a great advantage over all the qo^n I «veif 
knew. He bad spent all his younger tioie in 4ispu4^oti i 
^jul bad arrived to so great a mastery, as he was inferioii 
to no man in those skirmisrties ; but be had, witb bi^-n^^tt- 
ble perfection in this exercise, eontraoted such an irreso* 
lutioQ, and h^bit of dpubtkig, thftt iby^ "degiees he gr6«^ 
confident of nothing, and a sceptic at least, in tbe greatest 
ipy^teries of faith. 

. >^This inade him from first wavering it| religion, an^ 
indulging to scruj^les, to reconcile bi0self too soon, am) 
too easily to the church of Rome ; and carrying still bii 
9wn ipquisitiveness about him, without any resignation t<> 
their authority (which is the only temper can makq 
that cbvircb spre of its proselytes) having made a journey 
to St Om^s (Doway), purely to perfect his oonvevsion, 
by the conversation of those who ha4 the greditest name,, 
be fouod as little satisfaction there, and returned with as 
much baste from them; with a belief that an entire e)^- 
^mption from error was neither inherent in, nor necessary' 
to any church :< which occasioned that war, which was car-? 
vied on by the Jesuits with so great asperity and re« 
proaches against him, and ^ in which he defende'd himself 
by such an admirable eloquence pf language, and clear, 
and incom^parable power of reason, that be qot only made 
tbem i^pear unequal adversaries, but. carried tbe war ioto' 
|bpir awn quarters ; and mad^ tbe pope^s infallibility to be 

JD H I L L I N O W O It T H. Ml 

^imooh Aludcen, »iid dedioed by theit own doctors (and 
as great an acrimouy amonggt themselves upon that subjeci^ 
aad to be 4U least as much doubted, as in the schools of 
the reformed or pi»testaiit; and forced tbem since^ to 
defend and maintain those unhappy controversies in reti- 
gion, with arms and weapons of another iiatnre, than werb 
used) or known in the church of Rome, whenBellarmine 
died ; and which probably will i& time undermine the very 
iiattudation that supports it. 

'* Such a levity and propensity to change is commonly 
attended with great infirmities in, and no less reproach 
and prqudioe to the person ; but the sincerity of his heart 
was so conspicuous and without the least temptation of any 
comipt end, and the innocence and candour in Us nature 
#0 evident and without any perverseness ; that all who 
ifjkew him, clearly discerned, that all those restless motions 
and fluctuations proceeded only fmm the warmth and jea* 
Ipttsy of bis own tbonghts, in a too nice inquisition for 
truth. Neither the books of the lidversary, nor any of 
their persons, though he was acquainted with the best of 
both, had ever made groat impression upon him : all hh 
dosibts gr^w out of himself, when he assisted his scruples 
with all the strength of his own reason, and was then tab 
})ard for himself; but finding as little quiet and repose in 
Itfaose victories, he quickly recovered, by a new appeal tb 
bis own judgoient; so that he was in truth, upon the mat- 
ter, in all his sallies, and retreats, his own convert ; though 
be was not so totally divested of all thoughts of this world, 
but that when be was ready ibr it, he admitted some greiit 
and considerable churchmen to be sharers with him in his 
public oonversion. 

^* He did readily believe all war to be unlawfiit ; and 
did not tbiffk that the parliament (whose proceedings he 
|>erfectly abhorred) did in truth intend to involve the na- 
tion in a civil war, till after the battle of Edgehilt ; and 
then he thought any expedient, or stratagem that was like 
fo put a speedy end to it, to be the most commendable. ' 

*^ He was a man of excellent parts, and of a cfaeerfaf 
disposition; void of all kind of vice, and endiked With 
fnany notable virtues ; of a very public heart, knd' an 'in- 
defatigable desire to do good ; bis ^nly unbappiness pro** 
oeeded from his sleeping too little, and thinking too much ; 
whjch sometimes threw him into violent fevers.'* < 


With respect to his inclination to Socinian tenets, that 
pdint has heen so clearly demonstrated by the. late Mr* 
Whitaker, in his <' Origin of Arianism disclosed/' p. 482-r- 
.492^ as to admit of no doubt. Dr. Kippis, in the last 
edition of the 3iograpbia Britannica, acknowledged him- 
self to be convinced by Mr. Whitaker's testimonies and 
reasonings, and therefore retracted what he had said on the 
subject, in a preceding volume. 

Besides the works already noticed, there are extant of 
Mr. ChilUngworth's, ^^ Nine Sernions on occasional sub- 
jects,'' 1664^, 4to; and a tract called ^^ The Apostolical 
Institution of Episcopacy," 1644, 4to« It was also added 
to an edition of a tract on the same subject, by Dr. Morton, 
bishop of Durhaqa, entitled ^^ Confessions and proofs of 
protestant divines," 1644, 4to. A volume. of bis manu- 
script tracts, chiefly of the controversial kind, is among 
the manuscripts in the Lambeth library, which. archbishop 
Teuison purchased of Mr. I^enry Wharton. Mr. Chilling- 
worth left his relations residuary legatees to his property, 
after a few trifling legacies, and the sum of 400/. to the 
corporation of Oxford for charitable purpoaies. ^ . 

CHILMEAD (Edward), an excellent Greek and Latin 
scholar and mathematician, was born in 1610 at Siow in 
the Wold, in Gloucestershire, and became one of the clerb 
of Magdalen college, Oxford; and in 1632, one of the petty 
carions or chaplains of Christ church. Being ejected from 
this by the parliamentary visitors in 1648, he came to 
London in great necessity, and took lodgings in the bouse 
of Thomas Est, a musician and music pripter, in Alders^ 
^gate street. There being a large ropm in this house, Chil- 
mead made use of it for a weekly music meeting, from the 
profits of which he derived a slender subsistence,. aQ4 Pro- 
bably improved it by being employed as translator. He 
died in 1653, having for some years received relief from 
Hdward Bysshe, esq. garter kipg at. arms, and sir Henry 
Holbrook, the translator of Procopius. He was interred in 
the church of St. Botolph without Aldersgate* Among 
bis works, qur musical historians notice his tract ^' De 
musica antiqua Gra&ca,'' printed in 1672, at the end of the 
Oxford edition of Aratus: he abo wrote annotations on 
three odes of Dionysius, in the same volume, with the 

•- • 

' Life by Des Malzeauz, London, 1725, 8vo. — Gen. DicJt. — Biog. Brit-^ 
Cheyneil's ChilliDsworthi No^issima.— Clarendon's Life, — Ath. Ox. vol. IL 

C H I L M E A D. ass 

anicient Greek musical characters, which Chilmead ren-^ 
dered in the notes of Guido*s scale* His other works are, 
1. *^ Versio Latina et Annotationes in Joan. Malaise Chro- 
Bographiam/* Oxf. 1691, 8vo. 2. A translation, from the 
French of Ferrand, of ** A Treatise on Love, or Erotic 
Melancholy,*' 1640, Svo. 3. Gaffarel's *« Unheard-of Cu^ 
liosities/' 4. Campanella's ** Discourse touching the 
Spanish monarchy," which not seiling, Prynne prefixed aa 
epistle and a new title, *^ Thomas Campanella's advice ta 
the king of Spain, for obtaining the universal monarchy of 
the world," Lond. 1659, 4to. 5. Hues' ^•'Treatise of the 
Globes," ibid. 1639 and 1659; and 6. Modena's << History 
of the Rites, Customs, &c. of the Jews," ibid* 1650. He 
also compiled the ^* Catalogus MSS. Gseecorum in BibL 
Bodl/* 1636, a manuscript for the use of the Bodleian, 
and the most complete of its time. ^ 

CHILO, one of the -wise men of Greece, as they arc 
called, flourished about the first year of the fifty-sixth^ 
Olympiad, or 556 B. C. Diogenes Laertius, however^ 
think? he was an old man in the fifty -second olympiad.' 
Fenelon, with his usual respect for the ancient philoso** 
phers, asserts that he was a perfect model of virtue. About 
the fifty-fifth olympiad, he was made one of the ephprt 
at Lacedsmon, a dignity ^which counterbalanced the au« 
thority 6f the kings. He appears to have been supersti* 
tiously attached to divination, and stories are told of his' 
fi^retelling future events, which he contended might be 
done by the human intellectl He died at Pisa^ through 
excess of joy, when embracing his son, who had retomed 
ffom the Olympic games, crowned as victor. He executed 
the offices of magistracy with so much uprightness, that in 
bis old age, he said, that he recollected nothing in his public 
eonduct which gave him uneasiness, except that, in onein*^' 
fttance, be bad endeavoured to screen a firiend from punish-:* 
menti He held, however, the selfish maxim of Pittacus^ 
that ^^ we ought to love as if we were one day to hate, and 
bate, ad if we were one day to love.'* The more valuable 
of hu precepts and maxims, were :< — ^Three things are dif** 
ficult: to keep a secret,* to bear an injury patiently, and 
to spend leisure well.-^Visit your fviend in misfortune 
rather than in prosperity. — Never ridicule the unfortunate. 
<v!r>Think befbfre you speak.-^— Do not desire impossibilities*. 

\ Ath. 0;|. wl. ll.«*9awkini's Hisfc. of Musk:. 

2011 C H I S H U L L. 

a sennon, on the 23d of November, at SeijeftntViitil 
^hapel, in Chancery'laney which was published in the 
beginning of 1708, and was entitled, *^ The great Danger 
and Mistake of all new. uninspired Prophecies relating to 
the End of the World,'' with an appendix of historical 
collections applicable to subject. On the 1st of SepteoA- 
ber, in the same year, he was presented to the vicarage of 
Walthamstow, in Essex; and in 1711, he had the honour 
of being appointed one of the chaplains in ordinary to the 
^ueen. About the same time, he pubHshed a visitation 
Mid, a few other occasional sermons, preached on public 
occasions, all which were favourably received. But he^ 
soon became, more distinguished for his researches in an- 
cient literature and history* 

One of his first publications in these sciences appeared in* 
1721, and was entitled, . <^ Inscriptio Sigsea antiquissin&a 
BOT£TPO$HAON exarata. Commentario earn Historico- 
Grammatico-Critico illustravit Edmundus Chishuil, S.T.B* 
' retgiae majestati a sacris,'' folio. This was followed by' 
^VNotarum ad inscriptionem Sigaeam appendicula ; addit& 
a Sigaeo alter^ Antiochi Soteris in^criptione,'' folio, in 
fifteen pages, without a date. Both these pieces were 
afterwards incorporated in his << Antiquitates Asiaticae.** 
When Dr. Mead, in 1724, published his Harveian oration^ 
delivered in the preceding year at the royal college of 
physicians, Mr. Chishuil added to it, by way of appendix^- 
*^ Dissertatio de Nummis quibusdam k Smyrnseis in Medi- 
corum honorem percussis,^' which gave rise to a contro-» 
versy very interesting to the professors of the medical art, 
and amusing to the learned world in general. The ques* 
tion was, whether the physicians of ancient Rome were not 
usually vile and despicable slaves, or whether there were 
not some, at least, among them, who enjoyed the privileges 
of a free condition, and the respect due to their services. ' 
The history of this controversy will be found in the articles of 
Mead and Middleton ; but Mr. Chishuil has not been deemed 
happy in all his explanations of the Smyrnsean inscriptions* 
In 1728 appeared in folio, his great work, '^Antiqui- 
tates Asiatics^ Obristianam JEram autecedentes ; ex pri- 
mariis Monumentis Grsecis descriptse, Latine v^sse, Notis-^ 
que et Comquentariis illustrates. Accedit Monumentum 
Latinum Ancyranum.'' Dr. Mead contributed fifty-one 
guineas. Dr. William Sherard twenty, and* Dr. Lisle five 
guineas towards this book^ which was published by sub- 


ittriptioQ, afc on& goitiea the common copy, and twa gui«^ 
peas the .royal paper. The work contains a collection of^ 
ioscriptions made by consul Sherard, Dr. Picenini, and 
Dr. Lisle, afterwards bishop of St. Asaph, which was de- 
posited in the earl of Oxford's library, and is now in the 
British Museum. Mr. CbishaU added to the ^^ Antiquitate» 
Asiatics^'' two small pieces which be had before published^ 
mz, ^^ConjectaneadeNummoCKIini inscripto/' and ^^ Iter 
AsisB Poeticum,'' addressed to the rev. John Horn. Our 
author not having succeeded in his explication of an in* 
jvcription to Jupiter Ourios, ' afterwards cancelled it, and 
substituted a different interpretation by Dr. Ashton, which 
was more satisfactory; but our author did- not submit in 
ihis case with so good a grace as might have been wished^ 
^d was reasonably to be expected. He added also, at the 
saoae time, anoth^ half sheet, with the head of Homer, of 
which only fifty copies were printed. He had formed the 
design of publishing a second volume, under the title of 
'^ Antiquitates Asiaticae ; pars altera diversa, diversarum 
Urbium inscripta Marmora complectens,*' and the printing 
was begun ; but the author's death put a stop to the pro- 
gress of it, and the manuscript was purchased at Dr. As- 
I^ew'ssale in 1785 for the British Museum, for about 601. 
It is to be regretted that the learned Thomas T3nrwhitt de- 
clined being the editor of this second volume. Mr. Chi- : 
shuirs printed books were sold by a marked catalogue by 
lyhiston in 17^5. In 1731, Mr. Chishull was presented 
to the rectory of South-church in Essex. This preferment 
he did ^ot long live to enjoy ; for he departed the present 
life at Waltliamstow, on the 18th of May, 1733. Mn 
Clarke, of Chichester, writing to Mr. Bowyer, says, '^ I was 
viery sorry for Mr^ ChishuU's death as a public loss." That - 
our author sustained an excellent character, as a clergy- 
man and a divine, cannot be doubted. Two letters, writ- 
ten by him to bis friend Mr. Bowyer, and which Mr. 
Nichols has preserved, are evident proofs both of the piety 
and benevolence of his disposition. With respect to hi^ 
literary abilities, Dr^ Taylor styles him " Vir celeberrimus 
iBgenii acumine et ^terarum peritta, quibus excellebat' 
maxime ;'' and Dr. Mead has bestowed a high encomium 
i:q»on him, in the.preface which introduces Mr. ChishuU^s. 
Dissertation on the Smyrnaean Coins. The same eminent 
pbjrsician testified his regard to the memory of his learned 
friend, by publishing in 1747 our author's "Travels in 



Turkey, and back to England/' fol. They were originally 
poblisbed at a guinea, in sheets,, and in 1759, the remain^- 
ing copies, which were numerous, were advertised by tbo 
proprietors at fourteen. shillings bound.' 

CHISI, or CHIGI, or GHISI (Agostixi), a merchant 
at Rome, and a patron of literature and the artst was a na*^ 
tive of Siena, in the fifteenth and sixteenth: centuries, who- 
having frequent occasion, in his mercantile coaeernB, to 
lesort to Rome, at length fixed his abode there, and erects 
ed for himself a splendid mansion in theTmnstevere, which 
he decorated with works in painting and sculpture by ther 
greatest artists of the time. He had long been considered 
as the wealthiest merchant in Italy ; and on the expeditiait 
of Charles VIIL against the kingdom of Naples^ had ad-^t 
vaiiced for the use of that monarch a considerable sum of 
moneyy which it is thought he never recovered; His wealtla 
be employed in encouraging pahiting, sculpture, and every 
branch of the fine arts, and likewise devoted himself tothcr 
restoration of ancient learning. Among the learned meii 
whom he distingoisbed by his particular favour, was Cor« 
nelio Benigno of Viterboy who united to a sound critical" 
judgment an intimate acquaintance with the Greek tongue^ 
and had before joined with a few other eminent «cholarsia 
revising and correcting the geographical work* of Pt(4o« 
ssseus, which was published at Rome in 1507. Under the 
patronage of Chisi, Comelio produced atZaccaria Callier«» 
go's press, the fine edition of the works of Pindar, 1515^ 
4to, the first Greek book printed at Rome ; and from the 
same press issued the correct edition of the Idyilia and 
Epigrams of Theocritus, 1516. It is. said that it was not 
only in his patronage of letters and of the arts that Chisi 
emulated the Roman pontif!s, but vied with them also i» 
the luxury of his table, and the costly and ostentatious ex -^^ 
travagance of bis feasts. His death is said to have oecurred 
in 1520. After this event, his family were driven froat 
Rome by Paul III. who seized upon their mansioft in the 
Transrevere, and converted it into a sort of aqipendage to 
the Famese palace, whence it has since been called the 
Farnesina. But in the ensuing century, the family of 
Chisi, or Chigi, rose to pontifical honours in the person of 
Alexander VII. Fabio Chigi ; who established it : in great 

- 1 Biog; Brit, from infornuticm chieSy in Kichok-s BoirfeP| whsm Me 
curioas letters of Mr. CiMihull.'-Atik Ov^o^* II* 

C H I S I. S89 

«i^t^ witifaout, however, restoring to it the family mao^ 
sion, which has descended with the possessions of the Far* 
Bese to the king of Naples, to whom it now belongs. ^ 

CHOISI (Francis TiMOLEON de), dean of the cathedral 
at Bayeax, and one of the members of the French aca- ' 
demy, was born April 16, 1644, at Paris. He was sent to 
the king of Siam, with the chevalier de Chauimont in 1685, 
and ordained priest in the Indies by the apostolical vicar. 
He died October 2, 1724, at Paris, aged Hi. Although his 
life in our authorities is very prolix, he seems entitled to 
very little notice or respect. His youth was very iVregular. 
Disguised as a woman, under the name of comtesse dea 
BarreSj he abandoned himself to the libertinism which su<^ 
a disguise encouraged ; but we are told that he did not act 
thus at the time of writing his ecclesiastical history ; though 
sudi a report might probably arise from his having been so 
accustomed from his youth to dress in woman^s clothes, to 
please Monsieur, brother of Louis XIV. who liked such 
amusements, that be wore petticoats at his house as long as 
iie lived, equally a disgrace to himself and his patron. The 
principal of his works are, 1 . ^' Quatre Dialogues sur I'lm^ 
mortality de TAme," &c ; which he wrote with M. Dan-» 
geau, f2mo. 2. "Relation du Voyage de Siam," 12mo.; 
S. **HistDijres de Piet6 et de Morale," 2 vols. 12mo. 4. 
^^ Hist. Ecclesiastique,'' 11 vols, in 4to, and in 12mo. 3: 
** LaVie de David, avec une Interpretation des Pseisiumes,^* 
4to. 6. <*The Lives of Solomon j of St. L6uis, 4to; of 
Philip de Valois, and of king John, 4to ; of Charles V. 4to; 
of Charles VL 4tp ; and of Mad. de Miramion, 12mo; his 
Memoirs, 12mo. These are all superficial works, and have 
found readers only from their being written in that free and 
natural style which amuses the atteotion. What he wrote 
on the French history has been printed in 4 vols. 12mo. 
His Ufe was published at Geneva, 1748, 8vo, supposed to 
be written by the abb6 d'Olivet, who has inserted in it the 
Historyof la comtesse des Barres, 1736, small 12mo, written 
by tfae^bb^ Choisi himself/' 

' CHOKIER (John Ernest de), the brothear of Erasmus 
de Surl^, lord of Chokier (one of the ablest lawyers of his 
time, who died in 1625), was born at Liege Jan. 14, 157]> 
of .an ancient and noble family^ * He studied lai# at the 
university of Lova^ne, and especially the Roman history 

* Roscoe's Leo.— Gen. Diet* art Chi^i. 

^ D'Alembert's Hist, de Pacad. Franc. — Moreri. 

Vol. IX. U 

290 C H O K I E R. 

and antiquities under Lipsius. After taking the degree of 
doctor in canon and civil law at Orleans, he went to Rome, 
and was introduced to pope Paul V. On hij return to 
Liege, he received some promotion in the church ; and 
Ferdinand of Bavaria, bishop and prince of Liege, made 
him vicar-general of his diocese, and one of his cbunsel- 
lors. Chokier.was not more esteemed for his learning than 
for his benevolence, which led him to found two hospitals, 
one for poor incurables, and the other for female penitents. 
He died at Liege, either in 1650 or 1651; but his bio* 
graphers have not specified the particular time, although 
they notice that he was buried in the cathedral of Liege, 
under a magnificent tomb. Among his works, are, 1. 
** Notae in Seneca^ libellum de tranquillitate animi," Leige, 
1607, Svo. 2. " Thesaurus aphorismorum politicorum, 
sen commentarius in Justi-Lipsii politica, cum exemplis, 
notis et monitis," Rome, 1610, Mentz, 161^, 4to, and with 
corrections and the addition of some other treatises, at 
Liege, 1642, folio. Andrew Heidemann translated this 
wbrk into German, but with so little fidelity, as to oblige 
the author to publish against it in a volume entitled '^ Spe- 
cimen candoris Heidemanni,'' Liege, 1625, Svo. 3. "Notae 
et dissertationes in Onosandri strategicum," Gr. and Lat. 
1610, 4t6, and inserted in the latter editions of his 
*^ Aphorismi." 4. " Tractatus de permutationibus bene- 
ficiorum'," 1616, 8vo, and afterwiirds Rome, 1700, folio, 
with other treatises on the same subject. 5. " De re num- 
maiia prisci sevi, collata ad sestimationem monetas presen- 
tis," Cologne, 1620, Svo, Liege, 1649. . Another title of 
this work we have seen is ** Monetae antiques diversarum 
gentium maxime Romanae copsideratio et ad nostram ho-> 
diernam reductio." He published some other works on 
law subjects and antiquities of the courts of chancery, the 
office of ambassador, &c. ; and some of controversy against 
the protestants, and one against the learned Samuel Ma- 
rets, entitled " Apologeticus adversus Samuel MaresU 
librum, cui titulus, Candela sub modio posita per clerum 
Romanum,*' 1635, 4to ; but he had not complete success 
in proving that the Roman catholic clergy at that time 
did not ^< hide their candle under a bushel.*' * 

CHOMEL (James Francis), a French physician, was 
the son of Noel Chomel, an agriculturist, and the author of 

1 Moreri.«^Foppeb Bibl» Belg.-^Saxii Onomast. 

C H O M £ L. 291 

the ** Dictionnaire oeconomique," of which we have an 
English translation by Bradley , 1725, 2 vols, folio* He was 
born at Paris towards the end of the seventeenth century, 
and studied medicine at Montpellier, where he took his 
degree of doctor, in 1708. Returning to his native city, 
he was appointed physician and counsellor to the king. 
The following year he published " Universae Medicines 
Theoricae pars prima, seu Physiologia, ad usum scholae ac- 
commodata," Montpellier, 1709, 12mo ; and in 1734, 
*^Traite des Eaux Minerales, Baines et Douches de Vichi,** 
1734, 12mo, and various subsequent editions. To that of 
the year 1738 the author added a preliminary discourse on 
mineral waters in general, with accounts of the principal 
medicinal waters found in France. His elder brother, 
Peter John Baptiste, studied medicine at Paris, and was 
admitted to the degree of doctor there in .1697. Applying 
himself more particularly to the study of botany, while 
making his collection, he sent his observations to the royal 
academy of sciences, who elected him one of their mem- 
bers. He was also chosen, in November 1738, dean of 
the faculty of medicine, and the following year was re- 
elected, but died in June 1740. Besides his "Memoirs** 
sent to the academy of sciences, and his '^ Defence of 
Tournefort,'* published in the Journal des Savans, he pub- 
lished ** Abrege de PHistoire des Plantes usuelles," Paris^ 
1712, 12mo. This was in 1715 increased to two, and in 
1730, to three volumes in 12mo, and is esteemed an useful 
manual. His son, John Baptiste Lewis, was educated also 
at Paris, and took his degree of doctor in medicine in 
1732. He was several years physician in ordinary to the 
king, and in November 1754 was chosen dean of the 
faculty. He died in 1765. He published in 1745, 1.- " An 
account of the disease then epidemic among cattle,** and 
boasts of great success in the cure, which was effected, he 
says, by using setons, imbued with white hellebore. 2, 
^^ Dissertation historique sur la Mai de Gorge Gangre^ 
neaux, qui a regne parmi les enfans, en 1748:** the ma- 
lignant sore throat, first treated of in this country by Dr. 
Fothergill, about ten years later than this period. 3. ^^ £s- 
sai historique sur la Medicine en France,*' 1762, 12mo. 
He also wrote, ^* Vie de.M. Morin,*' and ^^Eloge hbtorique 
de M. Louis Duret,** 1765.' 

1 Diet. Hist— Haller Bibl. Med. et Bibl. Botaq. 

U 2 

292 e H O P I N. 

CHOPIN (Rene), an eminent lawyer, born 1557, at 
Bailleul in Anjou, was counsellor to the parliament of 
Paris, in which situation he pleaded with great reputation 
a long time, and afterwards, confining himself to his study, 
composed a considerable number of works,, printed in 1663, 
5 vols, folio ; and there is a Latin edition of them in 4 vols. 
He was consulted from all parts, and was ennobled by Henry 
III. in 1578, for his treatise '* De Domanio.'' What he 
wrote on the custom of Anjou, is esteemed his best work, 
and gained him the title and honours of sheriff of the city 
of Angers. His books ^^ De sacr^ Politic Monastica,'' and 
*^ De Privilegiis Rusticorum," are also much valued. Cho* 
pin's attachment to the league drew upon him a macaronic 
satire, entitled <* Anti-Chopinus,'' 1592, 4to, attributed to 
John de Villiers Hohnan ; but the burlesque style of this 
piece being unsuitable to the subject, it was burned by a 
decree of council* The occasion of its being written was, 
*^ Oratio de Pontificio Gregorii XIV. ad Grallos Diplpmate 
a criticis notis vindicato,'' Paris, 1591, 4to, which is not 
among Chopin's works. On the day that the king entered 
Paris, Chopin's wife lost her senses, and he received orders 
to leave the city ; but remained there through the interest 
of his friends, upon which he wrote the eulogy of Henry IV. 
in Latin, 1594, 8vo, which is also omitted in his works, as 
well as <' Bellum Sacrum Gallicum, Poema,^' 1562, 4to. 
He died at Parisian. 30, 1606, under the hands of the sur- 
geon, who was cutting him for the stone. ^ 

CHOUET (John Robert), a learned philosopher, and 
one of the most eminent magistrates of Geneva, was bom 
there in 1642. He was the first who taught the philosophy 
of Descartes at Saumur. In 1669, he was recalled to Ge» 
neva, and gave lectures there with great applause. Chouet 
became afterwards counsellor and secretary of state at Ge- 
neva, and wrote a history of that republic. He died Sep- 
tember 17, 1731, aged 89. His publications are, <^An 
Introduction to Logic," in Latin, 1672, 8 vo; ^^ Theses 
Physic8B de varia Astrorum luce,'' 1674, 4to; ^^Memoire 
succinct sur la Reformation," 1694; ^^ Reponses si des - 
Questions de Milord Townsend sur Geneve ancienne fiaites, . 
en 1696, et publi^es en 1774." Besides these, he left in , 
MS. in 3 vols, folio, a work, entitled ^< Diverges Recbercbes ~ 

t Diet, L*A4Tocat.—]Xct. Hilt,— Moreri. 

C H O U L. 293 

sur PHist. de Geneve, sur son Gouvernement et sa Con- 

CHOUL (William pu), a gentleman of Lyons, of the 
sixteenth century, bailiff of the mountains of Dauphiny, 
travelled over Italy to improve himself in the knowledge 
of antiquity ; and is principally known by a scarce and ex- 
cellent treatise of the '^ Religion and Castrametatidn of the 
ancient Romans/* folio, Lyons, 1556, 1569, 4to, and 1580, 
4to. This singular work of antiquities is remarkable, espe- 
cially for its second part, which treats of the manner of 
pitching and fortifying the camps used by the Romans, of 
their discipline and their military exercises. It has been 
translated into Latin, Italian, and Spanish: the Latin, 
Amst. 1685, 4 to, the Italian, Lyons, 1559, folio; both edi- 
tions are scarce, but less so than the French original, 
though not so well executed. He has the honour of being 
one o£ the earUest French antiquaries, but his countrymen 
have {freserved no memorials of his personal history. The 
last edition of the French Diet. Hist, attributes to him two 
other treatises, "Promptuaire des Medailles,*' and "Trait6 
des Bains des Grecs et des Romains,** but we suspect this 
last is included in the larger work above mentioned. ' 

CHRETIEN (Florent), or as he was called Quintus 
Septimus Florens Christianus, a French poet, was born at 
Orleans Jan. 26, 1541. He was called Quintus, because 
he was his father*s fifth child, and Septimus, because he 
was born in the seventh month of his mother*s pregnancy* 
He was well skilled in languages and in the belles lettres ; 
and was tutor to Henry IV. whom he educated in the re- 
formed religion; but he himself returned to the Roman 
catholic church before his death, which happened in 1596. 
He was author of some satires against Ronsard, tinder the 
name of '^ La Bisironnie,** 1564, dvo; poems, printed scr 
parately in 8vo, and some translations ; the principal of 
which is that of Oppian, 4to. He had a part in the Satyrs 
Menipeee. Notwithstanding his disposition to satire, he 
preserved the attachment of his friends, and the genei*al 
esteem of the public. Wjilliam his father, physician to 
Francis I. and Henry II. translated some medical works into 

t Momi.— •«!• t. Lit. de O^neTe. * Mbrnl'^-Diet Hi«t«9>8uii Onontit 
! Moreri-^IKct. Hist«— >Baillet Juf enens dtt Satsbs, / 

294 ' CHRISTIE. 

CHRISTIE (Thomas), aa ingenious writer, was the son 
of a merchant of Montrose in Scotland, where be was born 
in October 1761 ; and after a good school education, was 
placed in the counting-house by his father, whose opinion 
was, that whatever course of life the young man might 
adopt, a system of mercantile arrangement would greatly 
facilitate hb pursuits. It is probable that he went through 
the routine of counting-house business with due attention, 
especially under the guidance of his father ; but his leisure 
hours were devoted to the cultivatiofi of general literature 
with such assiduity, that at a very early age he was qualified 
to embrace any of the learned professions with every pro- 
mise of arriving at distinction. * His inclination appears to 
have led him at first to the study of medicine, and this 
brought him to London in 1787, where he entered himself 
at the Westminster Dispensary, as a pupil to Dr. SiI^Qlons, 
for whom he ever after expressed the highest esteem. At 
this time Mr. Christie possessed an uncomaM>n fund of ge- 
neral knowledge, evidently accumulated in a long course 
of reading, and knew literary history as well as most vete- 
rans. While he never neglected his medical pursuits, and 
to all appearance had nothing else in view, his mind con- 
stantly ran on topics of classical, theological, and philoso- 
phical literature. He had carefully perused the best of 
the foreign literary journals, and could refer with ease to 
their contents ; and be loved the society in which subjecte 
of literary history and criticism were discussed. The writer 
of this article, somewhat his senior in years, and not wholly 
inattentive to such pursuits, had often occasion to be sur- 
prized at the extent of his acquirements. It was this ac- 
cumulation of knowledge which suggested to Mr. Christie 
the first outline of a review of books upon the analytical 
plan ; and finding in the late Mr. Johnson of St« PauPs 
Church-yard, a corresponding spirit of liberality and enter- 
prise, the "Analytical Review" was begun in May 1788; 
and, if we mistake not, the preface was from Mn Christie's 
. pen, who, at the same time, and long afterwards contributed 
many ingenious letters to the Gentleman's Magazine, with 
the editor of which (Mr. I^ichols) he long lived in habits of 

Having studied medicine for some time, under Dr. Sim- 
mons, he spent two winters, attending the medical classes 
at Edinburgh, and afterwards travelled, in search of general 
knowledge, to almost every considerable town in the king^ 


dooQi. where bis letters of recommendation^ his insatiable 
thirst for ioformation, and above ali^ his pleasing manners, 
and interesting juvenile figure^ procured him admission to 
all who were distinguished for science, and by many of the 
most eminent literary, characters he was . welcomed and 
encouraged as a young man of extraordinary talents. He 
then went to the continent for further improvement; 
and while he was at Paris, some advantageous offers from 
a mercantile house in. London, induced him to resume his 
original pursuit, and to become a partner in that house* 
This journey to Paris, however, prodiiced another effect, 
not quite so favourable to his future happiness. Becoming 
acquainted with mauy of the literati of France, and among 
them, with many of the founders of the French revolution^ 
he espoused their principles, was an enthusiast in their cause, 
and seemed to devote more attention, more stretch of mind, 
to the study and support of the revolutionary measures 
adopted in that country, than was consistent with the sober 
pursuits of commerce. This enthusiasm, in which it must 
be confessed he was at that time not singular, produced in 
1790^ "A Sketch of the New Constitution of France," in 
two folio sheets ; and in 1791, he enlisted himself among 
the answerers of Mr. Burke's celebrated " Reflections," in 
** Letters on the Revolution of France, and the new Con- 
stitution established by the National Assembly,'* a large 
8vo volume, which was to have been followed by a second y. 
but the destruction of that constitution, the anarchy which 
followed, and the disapppintment of his, and the hopes of 
all the friend^ of liberty, probably prevented his prose- 
cuting the subject. In 1792, havi'ig dissolved partnership 
with the mercantile-house above alluded. to, he became a 
partner in the carpet-manufactory of Messrs. Moore audi 
Co. in Finsbury-square ; but in 1796, some necessary ar- 
rangements of trade induced him to take a voyage to Suri- 
nam^ where he died in the prime of life in October of that 

The materials Mr. Christie had collected for his Thesis, 
when intending to take a medical degree, were afterwards 
published in the *^ London Medical Journal'' in a letter to 
Dr. Simmpns. l^ut his most valuable publication, although 
much less known the^n it deserves, was a first volume of 
^* Miscellanies, philosophical, medical, and moral," 1789, 
a thick crown 8vo, containing 1. Observations on the lite- 
rature of the primitive Christian writers i being an attempt 


to vindicate them from the imputation of RcMisseau and 
Gibbon, that they were enemies to philosophjr and human 
learning, originally read in the Society of Antiquaries of 
Scotland. At the time be wrote this, his mind was much 
occupied by theological inquiries. 2. Reflections sug- 
gested by the character of Pamphilus of Csesarea. 

3. Hints respecting the state and education of the people. 

4. Thoughts on the origin of human knowledge, and on the 
antiquity of the world. 5. Remarks on professor M einers's 
History of ancient opinions respecting the Deity. 6. Ac- 
count of Dr. Ellis's work on the origin of sacred knowledge. 
Most, if not all these were prepared for the press berore 
he had reached his twenty*fifth year, and afford such an 
instance of extensive reading and thinking as rarely occurs 
at that age. ' 

CHRISTIE (Wiluam), M. A. probably a relation of 
the preceding, was born near Montrose in 1730, and edu- 
cated in King's college, Aberdeen, where he took his de- 
grees, and was licensed to preach as a probationer ; but 
not having interest to procure a living in the church, he 
accepted of the place of master of the grammar-school of 
Montrose, where he was greatly celebrated for his easy 
and expeditious method of teaching the classics. He wrote 
a ^^ Latin Grammar,'' and an " Introduction to the making 
of Latin," both of which are well esteemed. He died at 
Montrose in 1774, aged 44. ^ 

CHRISTINA^ queen of Sweden, one of the few sove- 
reigns whose history is entirely personal, was the only child 
of the great Gustavus Adolphus, by Maria Eleonora of 
Brandenburg. She was bom Dec. 18, 1626, and succeed- 
ed to the throne of her father when she was only five years 
of age. During her minority, the long war with the Ger- 
man empire, in consequence of the inviaision of Gustavus, 
as supporter of the protestant league, was carried on by 
able men, and particularly Oxentiem. Her education was 
conducted upon a very liberal plan, and she possessed a 
strong understanding, and was early capable of reading the 
Greek historians. Thucydides, Polybius, and Tacitus, were 
her favourite authors ; but she as early manifested a dis- 
taste for the society and occupations of her sex^ and de- 
lighted in manly sports and exercises. She aflfected Kke* 

< Gent. Mag. 1797. — Personal knowledge. ^ ^ 

I From iho last edition of tbii Pictionarj. 

C HT R I S T I N A. ' 297 

wise an extraordinary love of letters, and even for abstract 
speculations. When at the age of eighteen she assumed 
the reins of government, she was courted by several 
princes of Europe, but rejedted their proposals from various 
motives, of which the true one appears to have, been a con- 
ceited sense of superiority, and a desire to rule uncon- 
trouled* Among her suitors were the.printe of Denmark, 
the elector Palatine, the elector of Brandenburgh, the 
kings of Portugal and Spain, the king of the Romans, and 
Charles Gustavus, duke of Deux Ponts, her first cousin. 
Him the people, anxious for her marriage, recommended 
to her ; but she rejected the proposal, and to prevent its 
renevi'al, she solemnly appointed Gustavus her successor. 
In 1650, when she was crowned, she became weary and 
disgusted with public affairs, and seemed to have no am- 
bition but to become the general patroness of learning and 
learned men. With this view, she invited to her court men 
of the first reputation in various studies : among these were 
Grotius, Descartes, Bocfaart, Huet, Vossius, Paschal, Sal* 
masios, Naude, Heinsius, Meibom, Scudery, Menage, Lu- 
cas, Holstenius, Lambecius, Bayle, and others, who did 
not fail to celebrate her in poems, letters, or literary pro- 
ductions of some other kind, the greatest part of which are 
now forgotten. Her choice of learned men seems to hav6 
been directed more by general fame, than by her own 
judgment^ or taste for their several excellencies, and she 
derived no great credit either as a learned lady, or as a 
discriminating patroness of literature. She was much 
under the influence of Bourdelot the physician, who gained 
his ascendancy by outrageous flattery : and her inattention 
to the high duties of her station di^usted her subjects. 
She was a collector of books, manuscripts, medals, and 
paintings, all which she purchased at such an enormous 
expence as to injure her treasury, and with so little judg- 
ment, that having procured some paintings of Titian at a 
most extravagant price, she had them clipped ta fit the 
pannels of her gallery. 

In 1652 shfe first proposed to resign in favour of her 
successor, but the remonstrances of the States delayed this 
measure until 1654, when she solemnly abdicated the 
crown, that she might be at perfect liberty to execute a 
plan of life which vanity and folly seem to have presented 
to her imagination, as a life of true happiness, the royal 
oHum cum dignitaie. Some time before thb step„ Anthony 

398 C H R I S T I N A, 

Macedo, a Jesuit, was chosen by John IV. king of Portugal, 
to accompany the ambassador he sent into Sweden to queen 
Christina; and this Jesuit pleased this princess so highly, 
that she secretly opened to him the design she had of chang- 
ing her religion. She ' sent him to Rome with letters to 
the general of the Jesuits ; in which she desired that two 
of their society might be dispatched to her, Italians by 
nation, and learned men, who should take another habit 
that she might confer with them at more ease upon matters 
o# religion. The request was granted ; and two Jesuits Virere 
immediately sent to her, viz. Francis Malines, divinity 
professor at Turin, and Paul Casati, professor of mathe- 
matics at Rome, who easily effected what Macedo, the 
first confidant of her design, had begun. Having made 
her abjuration of the Lutheran religion, at which the Roman 
catholics triumphed, and the protestants were discontented, 
both without much reason, she began her capricious tra- 
vels : from Brussels, or as some say, Inspruck, at which 
she played the farce of abjuration, she went to Rome, 
where she intended to fix her abode, and where she ac- 
tually remained two years, and met w^th such a reception 
as suited her vanity. But some disgust came at last, and 
she determined to visit France, where Louis XIV. received 
her with respect, but the ladies of the court were shocked 
at her masculine appearance, and more at her licentious 
conversation. Here she courted the learned, and appointed 
Menage her master of ceremonies, but at last excited general 
horror by an action, for which, in perhaps any other coun- 
try, she would have been punished by death. This was tlje 
murder of an Italian, Moualdeschi, her master of the horse, 
who had betrayed some secret entrusted to him, .He was 
summoned into a gallery in the palace, letters were, then 
shewn to him, at the sight of which he turned pale, and 
intreated for mercy, but he was instantly stabbi^d .by two 
of her own domestics in an apartment adjoining that in 
which she herself was. The French court w^s justly of- 
fended at this atrocious deed, yet it met with vindicators, 
among whom was Leibnitz, whose name was disgraced by 
the cause which he attempted to justify. Christina was 
sensible that she was now regarded with horror in France, 
and would gladly have visited England, but. she received 
no encouragement for that purpose from Cromwell : she 
therefore, in 1658, returned to Rome, and resumed her 
amrusements in the arts and sciences. But Rome had dq 


permanent charms, and in 1660^ on the death of Gustavus^ 
she, took a journey to Sweden for the purpose of recovering 
her crown and dignity. She found, however, her ancienc 
subjects much indisposed against her and her new religion. 
They refused to confirm her revenues, caused her chapel 
to be pulled down, banished all her Italian chaplains, and, 
in short, rejected her claims. She submitted to a second 
renunciation of the throne, after which she returned to 
Rome, and pretended to interest herself warmly, first 
in behalf of the island of Candia, then besieged by the^ 
Turks, and afterwards to procure supplies of men and 
money for the Venetians. Some diflFerences with the pope 
made her resolve, in 1662, once more to return to Sweden ; 
but the conditions annexed by the senate to her residence 
there, were now so mortifying, that she proceeded no far- 
ther than Hamburgh, and from Hamburgh again to Rome, 
where she died in 1689, leaving a character in which there 
is little that is amiable. Vanity, caprice, and irresolution 
deformed her best actions, and Sweden had reason to re- 
joice at the abdication of a woman who could play the 
tyrant with so little feeling when she had given up the 
power. She left some maxims, and thoughts and reflec- 
tions on the life of Alexander the Great, which were trans- 
lated and published in England in 1753 ; but several let- 
ters attributed to her are said to be spurious. ^ 

CHRISTOPHERSON (John), a learned English bishop, 
was a Lancashire man by birth, and educated in St. John's 
college, Cambridge. He was one of the first fellows of 
Trinity college after its foundation by Henry 1546, 
and shortly after became master of it; and in 1554 was 
made dean of Norwich. In the reign of Edward VI. he^ 
lived abroad in a state of banishment, in which, as he tells 
us in the preface to his translation of Philo Judacus, be 
was all the while supported by his college ; but upon 
queen Mary's succeeding to the crown, returned, and was 
made bishop of Chichester. He is said to have died a 
little before this queen in 1558. He translated Philo Ju- 
daeus into Latin, Antwerp, 1553, 4to, and also the eccle- 
siastical histories of Eusebius, Socrates, Sozomen, Evagrius, 
and Theodoret, Louvain, 1570, 8vo; Cologn, 1570, fol. ; 
but bis translations are very defective. Valesius, in bis 

> Lacomb'B Life of Christina.-— Unitr. History.— Wbitelocke'ft Jourpal- of the 
Sv«difih Embassy, 1772, 2 vols. 4to.— Coxe's Trayels. 

300 C H R I S T O P H E R S O N. 

preface to Eusebius, says, that compared with Rufinus and 
Musculus, who had translated these historians before him^ 
he may be reckoned a diligent and iearnea man ; but yet 
that he is very far from deserving the character oif a good 
translator : that his style is impure, and' full of barbarism ; 
that his periods are long and perplexed : that he has fre- 
quently acted the commentator, rather than the translator ; 
that he has enlarged and retrenched at pleasure ; that he 
has transposed the sense oftimes, and has not always pre* 
^served the distinction even of chapters. The learned Huet 
has passed the same censure on him, in his book ^< De In- 
terpretatione." Hence it is that all those who have followed 
Christopherson as their guide in ecclesiastical antiquity, 
and depended implicitly upon his versions, have often 
been led to commit great faults ; and this has happened 
not seldom to Baronius among others. 

Christopherson wrote also, about the year 1546, the 
tragedy of Jephtha, both in Latin and Greek, dedicated 
to Henry VIII. which was most probably a Christmas play 
for Trinity college. It was said that he was buried iu ^ 
Christ Church, London, Dec. 28, 1558, but Tanner thinks 
he was buried in Trinity college chapel, as in his will, 
proved Feb. 9, 1562, he leaves his body to be buried on 
the south side of the altar of that chapel. Strype, how- 
ever, in the Introduction to his Annals, p. 31, describes his' 
pompous funeral at Christ Church. It is more certain that 
he joined his brethren in queen Mary's reign in the naea- 
sures adopted to check the reformation.^ 

CHRYSIPPUS, a celebrated stoic philosopher, was born 
at Soli, a city of Cilicia, afterwards called Pompeiopolis, 
and was not the disciple of Zeno, as some have said, but{ 
of Cleanthes, Zeno's successor. He had a very acute 
genius, and wrote a great many books, above 700, as we 
are told, several of which belo)iged to logic ; for he ap- 
plied himself with great care to cultivate that part of phi- 
losophy. Val. Maximus relates, that he began bis 39th 
book of logic when he was eighty years old : and Lucian, 
who sought out absurdities in order to laugh at them, «ould 
not forbear ridiculing the logical subtilties of this philoso- 
pher. The great number of books he composed will not 
appear so surprising if it be considered that his manner . | 

was to write several times upon the same subject } to set . | 


chrysip:pus, 301 

down whatever came into his bead ; to take little pains in 
correcting his works ; to crowd them with an infinite num« 
her of quotations : add to all these circumstances, that he 
was very laborious, and lived to a great age. Of his works 
nothing remains except a few extracts in the works of 
Cicero, Plutarch, Seneca, and Aulus Gelllus. He had an 
unusual portion of vanity, and often said to Cleanthes, 
^' Shew me but the doctrines^ that is sufficient for me, and 
all I want; I shall find the proofs* of them myself." A 
person asked him one day whom he should choose for a 
tutor to his son ? " Me," answered Chrysippus ; " for, if 
I knew any body more learned than myself I would go and 
study under him." There is another apophthegm of his 
preserved, which does him much more honour than either 
of these ; and therefore we hope it is not spurious. Being 
told that some persons spoke ill of him, ^^ It is no matter," 
said he, " I will live so, that they shall not be believed." 

The stoics complained, as Cicero relates, that Chrysip- 
pus had coMec^ed so many arguments in favour of the scep-^ 
tical hypothesis, that he could not afterwards answer them 
bimself ; and had thus furnished Carneades their antagonist 
with weapons against them. This has been imputed to his 
vanity, which transported him to such a degree, that he 
made no scruple of sacrificing the doctrines of his sect for 
the sake of displaying the subtlety of his own conceits. The 
glory which he expected, if he could but make men say 
that he had improved upon Arcesilaus himself, and had 
expressed the objections of the academics in a much 
stronger manner than he, was his only aim. Thus most of 
the contradictions and absurd paradoxes which Plutarch 
imputes to the stoics, and for which he is very severe upon 
them, are taken from the works of Chrysippus. Plutarcb- 
charges him with making God the author of sin, and this 
probably arises from his definition of God, as it is preserved 
by Cicero, which shews that he did not distinguish the 
deity from the universe. He thought the gods mortal, and 
even asserted that they would really perish in the confla«« 
gration of the world : and, though he excepted Jupiter, 
yet he thought him liable to change. He wrote a book 
concerning the amours of Jupiter and Juno, which abounded 
with so maioy obscene passages that it was loudly exclaimed 
against, but Brucker seems to be of opinion that what he 
advanced of this kind was merely in the way of paradoxi- 
cal assertion, thrown out ki the coiurse of disputation, and 

302 C H R Y S I P P U S. 

foi% the sake of displaying his ingenuity. He is iuciiued 
likewise to think that he is not justly chargeable with any 
other kind of impiety than may be charged upon the sect 
which he supported. It is, however, easy to guess that 
the stoics had not much reason to be pleased with his 
writings ; for, as he was a considerable man among them, — 
so considerable as to establish it into a proverb, that *^ if 
it had not been for Chrysippus, the porch had never 
been,". — it gave people a pretence to charge the whole 
body with the errors of so illustrious a member. Accord* 
ingly we find that the celebrated authors among the stoics, 
Seneca, Epictetus, Arrian, though they speak very highly 
of Chrysippus, yet do it in such a manner as to let us see 
that they did not at the bottom cordially esteem him. There 
does not appear to have been any objection brought against 
his morals, and he was sober and temperate^ 

Chrysippus aimed at being an universal scholar; and 
wrote upon almost every subject, and even condescended 
to give rules for the education of children. Quintilian has 
preserved some of his maxims upon this point. He ordered 
the nurses to sing a certain kind of songs, and advised 
them to choose the most modest. He wished, that, if it 
were possible, children might be nui'sed by none .but 
learned women. He would have children be three years 
under the care of their nurses ; and that the nurses should 
begin to instruct them without waiting till they were older; 
for he was not of the opinion of those who thought the age 
of seven years soon enough to begin. He died in the 
143d olympiad, eighty-three years of age, B. C, 208, 
and had a monument erected to him among those of the 
illustrious Athenians. His statue was to be seen in the 
Ceramicus, a place near Athens, whei'e they who had been 
killbd in the war were buried at the expence of the public* 
He accepted the freedom of the city of Athens, which, 
neither Zeno nor Cleanthes had done ; and is censured for 
it^ but without much reason, by Plutarch. ^ 

CHRYSOLORAS (Emanuel), the principal of those 
learned men who brought the Greek language and litera-* 
ture into the West, was born at Constantinople, as it is 
supposed, about 1355. He was of considerable rank, and 
descended from so ancient a family that his ancestors are 

1 Gen. Dict,<— Brucker's Hist, of Philosophy.— Diog. Uertios, fcc— Saxii 

C H R Y S O L O R A S. 303 

said to have removed with Constantine from Rome to By- 
zantium. He was sent ambassador to the sovereigns of 
Europe by the emperor John Palseologus in 1387, to solicit 
assistance against the Turks, and was here in England in 
the reign of Richard II. In an epistle which he wrote at 
Rome to the emperor, containing a comparison of ancient 
and modern Rome, he says that he was two years before at 
London with his retinue. When he had finished this Em- 
bassy in somewhat more than three years, he returned to 
Constantinople ; but afterwards, whether through fear of 
the Turks, or for the sake of propagating the Greek learn- 
ing, left it again, an4 came back into Italy about 1396, by 
invitation from the city of Florence, with t\ie promise of a 
salary, to open a school there for the Greek language. 
With this he complied, and taught there for three years, 
and had Leonard Aretin for his scholar. From Florence he 
went to Milan, at the command of his emperor, who was 
come into Italy, and resided in that city ; and while he 
was here, Galeazzo, duke of Milah, prevailed with him to 
accept the Greek professorship in the university of Pavia, 
which had lately been founded by his father. This he 
held till the death of Galeazzo, and then removed to Ve- 
nice on account of the wars which immediately followed. 
Between 1406 and 1409 he went to Rome upon an invita- 
tion from Leonard Aretin, who had formerly been his 
scholar, but was then secretary to pope Gregory XII. In 
this city his talents and virtues procured him the honour of 
being sent, in 1413, into Germany by pope Martin V. as 
ambassador to the emperor Sigismund, along with cardinal 
Zarabella, in order to fix upon a place for holding a ge- 
neral council ; and Chrysoloras and the cardinal fixed upon 
Constance. Afterwards he returned to his o^n emperor at 
Constantinople, by whom he was sent ambassador with 
others as representatives of the Greek church, to the coun- 
cil of Constance; but a few days after the opening of the 
council he died, April 15, 1415. He was buried at Con- 
stance; and a handsome monument was erected over him, 
with an inscription upon it by Peter Paul Vergerio. His 
scholar Poggio also honoured his memory with an elegant 
epitaph, and a volume of eulogies upon him lately existed 
in the monastery at Camaldoli, justly due to one who con- 
tributed so essentially to revive Grecian literature, which 
had lain dormant in the West for seven hundred years* 
Emanuel had a nephew, John Chrysoloras, who likewise 

304 C H R Y S O L Q R, A S. 

taught Greek in Ital ji and died in 1425. Emanuel^ , 
Greek Grammar was published soon after the invention of 
printing, and there are a great many editions from 1480 
to 1550, 4to and 8vo, almost all of which are very scarce. * 

CHRYSOSTOM (John), one of the most learned and 
eloquent of the fathers, was born at Antioch, of a noble £ai^ 
mily, about the year 354. His father, Secundus, dying when, 
he was very young, the care of his education was left tQ ^ 
his mother, Anthusa. He was designed at first for the bar,^ 
aad was sent to learn rhetoric under Libanius ; who had 
such an opinion of his eloquence, that when asked who 
would be capable of succeeding him in the school, be an^ 
swered, ^^ Johp*, if the, Christians had not stolen him firomc 
us/* He soon, hpwever, quitted all thoughts of the bar» 
and being instructed in the principles of the Ghristiao re- 
ligion, was afterwards baptized by MeletiuSf aud ordained 
by that bishop to be a reader in the church of Antioch, 
where he converted his two friends, I'heodorus and Mazi- 
nips. While he was yet young, he formed a resolution of 
entering upon a mpnastic life, and in spite of all remoii** 
strances from his mother, about the year 374, he betook . 
himself to the neighbouring mountains, where he lived fouf 
years with an ancient hermit ; then retired to a more secret 
part of the desert, and shut himself up in a cave, in which 
situation he spent two whole years more ; till at lengthy 
worn out almost by continual watchings, fastings, and other 
severities, he was forced to return to Antioch, to his old 
way of living. 

He was ordained deacon by Meletius, in the year 381, 
and now began to compose and publish many of \i\& works. 
Five years after, he was ordained a priest by Flavian, in 
which ofBce he acquitted himself with so much reputation, 
that, upon the death of Nectarius, bishop of Constanti* 
nople, in the year 397, he was unanimously chosen to fiU 
that see. The emperor Arcadius, however, was obliged 
to employ aJl his authority, and even to use some strata- 
gem, before he could seduce Chrysostom from his native 
Antioch, where he was held in so much admiration and 
esteem. He sent in the mean time, a mandate to Tbeo* 
philus, bishop of Alexandria, to consecrate Chrysostooi 
bishop of Constantinople \ which was done in llie year 

1 Hody de Graec. iliuitribus,— Bonier de Gnecis Lit. Graec* in Italia iiiftau* 

C H R Y S O S T O M. 30« 

39^9 notwithstanding the secret and envious attempts o^ 
Theopbilus to prevent it But Chrj'sostom was no sooner 
at the head of the church of Constantinople, than that zeal 
and ardour, for which he was afterwards famous, was em* 
ployed in endeavouring to effect a general reformation of 
manners. With this disposition, he began with the clergy, 
and- next attacked the laity, but especially the courtiers, 
whom he soon made bis enemies ; and his preaching is said 
to have been eminently successful among the lower classes^. 
Nor was his zeal confined altogether within the precincts of 
Constantinople; it extended to foreign parts, as appears 
from his causing to be demolished some temples and sta« 
tues in Phoenicia; but all writers are agreed that his temper, 
even in his best- duties, was violent, and afforded his ene- 
mies many advantages. 

In the year 400, he went into Asia, at the request of 
the clergy of Epbesus ; and by deposing thirteen bishops 
of Lydia and Phrygia, endeavoured to settle some disorders 
which had been occasioned in that church. But while be 
was here, a conspiracy was formed against him at home, 
by Sieverian, bishop of Gabala, to whom Chrysostom had 
committed the care of his church in his absence, and who 
endeavoured to insinuate himself into the favour of the no* 
bility and people, at Chrysostom's expence. He had even 
formed a confederacy against him with his old adversary, 
Theopbilus of Alexandria, which the empress Eudoxia en- 
couraged, for the sake of revenging some liberties which 
Chrysostom had taken in reproving her. By her intrigues, 
chiefly, the emperor was prevailed upon to call Theophilus^ 
frodf) Alexandria, and he, who wanted an opportunity to 
ruin Chrysostom, ckme immediately to Constantinople, 
and brought several Egyptian bishops with him. Those of 
Asia, also, whom Chrysostom had deposed for the tumults 
they raised at Epbesus, appeared upon this occasion at 
Constantinople against him. 7'heophilus now arrived, but 
infltead of taking up his quarters with his brother Chry* 
sostom, as was usual, be had apartmetits in the empress's 
palace, where he called a council, and appointed judges. 
Chrysostom, however, with much spirit, excepted against 
the judges, and refused to appear before the council ; de« 
daring that he was not accountable to strangers for any 
supposed misdemeanour, but only to the bishops of his 
owti and the neighbouring provinces. Notwithstanding 
this, Theopbilus held a synod of bishops, to which he sum* 

Vol. IX. X 

J0« € H R Y S O S T O M.' 


mdned Chrysostom to appear, and answer to various^a^^ 
tides of accusation. But Chryso^tom sent three bishops 
and two priests to acquaint Theophilus and his synod, chat 
though he was viery t'eady to submit himself to the jadg* 
ment of those who should be regularly assembled, and have 
a legal right to judge him, yet he absolutely refused to be 
judged by him and his synod ; and having persisted in this 
refusal four several timc^, he wa^ in consequence ide- 
posed in the beginning of the year 403. The news of hjs 
deposition was no sooner spread* about Constanthiople, 
than all the city was in ^ sin uproar, and when tli^ emperor 
ordered him to be banished, the people determined to 
detain him by force. In three days, however, to preveiit 
aiiy further disturbance, he surrendered him^lf'to those 
who had orders to seize him, and was Conducted by tHeiii 
to a smalt town in Bitliynia, as the residence of his oanisli- 
ment. His departure made the people more outi^geoas 
than ever : they prayed the emperor thatt he might be te- 
called; they even threatened biiifi ; add Eudoxia was so 
frightened with the tumult, that dhe herself solicited for it. 
A numerous synod, assembled at Constantinople, 'now re- 
tk;inded all former proceedings, and' Chrysdstom was re- 
tailed in triumph ; but his troubles Were tioft yet at an 
end. The empress aboui the latter end of this year had 
erected her own statue near the church ; and the'pedple, 
to do honour to her, bad celebrated the public games be- 
fore it. This Chrysostom thought indecent ; and the fire 
of his zeal, far from being extinguished by his late mlsfbr* 
tunes, urged him to preach againn those who were cbh-^ 
cerned in it. His discpurse provoked the empress^ ii^fao 
still retained her old ietimity to him ; and made ber resolv^ 
Once more to have him deposed from his bishopftic; ' Me 
irritated her not a little, as soon a^ he was apprized^^bf 'he^ 
tiiachinations agaittst him, by most imprudently bdgintjlng 
ibhe of bis sermons with these remarkable Word^ : ^^ Behbl4 
the furious Herodias, insisting to have the bead ofiKyhni 
Baptist in a charger!" We are not to wbndeir, thcfrdbrfi^ 
t^at a syiiod of bishops was assibmbfed, i^fio iitihiediatfefy 
i^epos^d hin(i, alleging that he stood already deposed, 'by 
virtue of the former setitence given'sigainst hitn 5 which^ 
they said, had never been reverted, nof himself re-^c?»ti- 
blisKed in his see^ i:n that legal and orderly manner yfaiefai 
the cations V requited. In eonsequeoee of that jiidg* 
^en^ ^ the ' i^mper^r fbrbade: him to enter ~ the - cbu>ch[ 

C H R Y S O S T M. 307 

any morei and ordered bidi to b^ banished. His followers 
and adherents were now insulted and persecuted by the 
soldiery, and stigmatized particularly by the name of Jo- 
hannites* He bad, indeed, a strong party among the 
people, who would now have armed themselves in his de- 
fence; but he chose rather to spend the remainder of his 
clays in banishment, than be the unhappy cause of' a civil 
war to his country ; and therefore surrendered himself a 
second time to those who were to have the care of him* 
He. set out in June 404, under a. guard of soldiers, to 
Nicca, where he did not make any long stay^ but pursued 
iiis journey to Cucusus, the destined place of his banish- 
ment) at which he arrived in September. It is remarkaWe 
that the very day Chrysostom left Constantinople, the 
great church was set on fire and biirnt, together with the 
palace, which almost adjoined to it, entirely to the ground. 
irhe same year there fell bail-stones of an extradrdinary 
size, that did considerable damage to the town ; which 
calao^ity was also followed by the death of the empress 
Eudoxia, and of Cyrinus, one of Cbrysostom's chief ene«* 
mies. . All these were considered by the partisans of Cbry^ 
sostom, as so many judgments from heaven upOn the. 
country which thus persecuted Chrysostom, 

Cucusus was a city of Armenia^ whose situation was 
remsirkably barren, wild, and inhospitable ; so that Chry« 
sostool was obliged to change his place of residence fre- 
quently, on account of the incursions which were made by 
th^ barbarous nations around him* He did not, however, 
neglect his episcopal functions ; but sent forth priests and 
ttllOnks to preach. the gospel to the Goths and Persians, and 
to take care of the churches of Armenia and Phcenicia. 
Tl^is prqbably .provoked, his enemies, not yet satiated with 
n^ve^gCf to molest hini even in this situation, wretched as 
it wasj and they prevailed with the emperor to have him 
iGfea^Or a desert region of Pontus, upon the borders of the 
Euxinesea,. .But the fatigue of travelling, and tlie hard 
iil3ag^.he'met with from the soldiers, who were conducting^ 
ifita Un^tber^ had suchaq effect upon him, that he was 
seized with a violent fever, and died in a few holkrs, at 
C.oinanis,:ia Armenia, in the year .407* Afterwards, th^ 
we&teqi and easterti cburohes were divided about him ; the 
^rmer. bolting him id great veneration, while the latter 
considered him as a bishop excommunicated. But the 
death of j(ircadius, happening about five months after> the 

308 C H R Y S O S T O M. 

eastern churches grew softened by degrees ; and it is cer« 
tain, that about thirty years after, his bones were removedl 
to Constantinople, and deposited in the temple of the holy 
apostles, with all pomp and solemnity. It was from his 
eloquence, that the name of Cbrysostomus, or golden^ 
mouth, was given to him after his death, his usual name 
being only John. 

Chrysostoro was undoubtedly one of the most distin- 
guished of the Greek fathers, and one of the most eloquent 
preachers of his time. In his works he appears to have 
aimed earnestly at reformation of manners, and much of 
the manners of the times may be gleaned from his various 
-^^nritings. We have seen that the intemperance of his zeal 
.sometimes furnished his enemies with advantages which 
. they would have sought without success in the purity of his 
' life. He is said to have been from his youth of a peevish 
und morose temper ; but he was open and sincere, spoke 
what he thought, and was regardless of toonsequencesr* 
The machinations, however, of his enemies, prevailed ai 
last, and shortened the life of one of the most learned, 
eloquent, pious, and charitable men of his age. His 
language, says Dr< Blair, is pure, and his style highly; 
figured. He is copious, smooth, and sometimes pathetic. 
But he retains, at the same time, much of that character 
which has been always. attributed to the Asiatic eloquence^ 
which i^ diffuse and redundant to a great degree, and often 
Over-wrought and tumid. He may be read, however^ with 
advantage, for the eloquence of the pulpit, as being freer 
from false ornaments than the Latin fathers. 


The editions of his works are very numerous. We shall 
mention only that beautifully printed one by sir Henry 
Saville, Eton, 1613, 8 vols, folio, the Greek only; and 
Montfaucon^s in Gr. & Lat. 1718— 1738^ 1? vols, fol.* 

CHUBB (Thomas), once a noted deistical writer, and 
the idol of that party, was born at East Haroham, a small 
village near Salisbury, Sept 29, 1679. His father, a 
maltster, dying when he was young, and the widow having 
three more children to maintain by her labour, he receive4 
no other education than being instructed to read and writQ 
an ordinary-hand. At fifteen he was put apprentice to ai 
glover in Salisbury ^ and when his term Was eixpired, coa« 

1 Dapin.— Life by £rataiat.-»Tillemoiit and '^Panaiia8.«»^Milner'f Ciu Bi<L 
▼Ol. U. p« 279. 

'• -4 # 

C H U B B. sod 

tusoed for a time to serve his master as a journeyman, but 
this trade being prejudicial to bis eyesy he was admitted 
by a tallow-chandler, an intimate friend of his, as com- 
panion and sharer with him in his own business. Being 
endued with considerable natural parts, and fond of reading, 
he employed all his leisure to gain such knowledge as 
could be acquired from English books ; for of Latin, 
Greek, or any of the learned languages, he was totally 
Ignorant : by dint of perseverance he also acquired a smat-t 
taring of mathematics, geography, and many other branched 
of science. 

But' divinity was, unfortunately for himself^ his favourite 
study ; and it is said that a little society was formed kt 
Salisbury, under the management and direction of Chubby 
tor the sake of debating upon religious subjects. Here the^ . 
scriptures were at first read, under the guidance of some 
commentator ; but in time every man delivered bis 8«nti« 
ments freely, and without reserve, and commentators were, 
no longer in favour, the ablest disputant being the man 
who receded most from established opinions. About this 
time the controversy upon the Trinity was carried on very 
wamdy between Clarke and Waterland ; and falling under 
the cognizance of this theological assembly, Chubb, at 
the request of the members, drew up his sentiments about 
k, in a kind of dissertation ; which, after it had undergone 
some correction, and been submitted to Whiston, wha 
saw pot much in it averse to his own opinions, published 
it under the titl^ of ^^ The Supremacy of the Father as- 
serted, &c." A litera]:y production from one of a mean 
^tid illiberal education will alwavs create wonder, and a 
tallow-^chandler arbitrating between such men as <])larke 
and Waterland^ could not fail to excite attention. Those 
who would have thought nothing of the work had it come- 
txom the school of Clarke, discovered in this piece of 
Chubb's, great talents in reasoning, as well as great per*-, 
spicuity and correctness in writing; so that he began to^ 
We cdnsidered as one much above the ordinary sizeof maii«^' 
Hence Pope, in a letter to his friend Gay, was led to ask 
him if he had '^ seen or conversed with Mr. Chubb, whQ i» 
k wonderful phenomenon of Wiltshire?" and says, in re* 
Ijatidn to a quarto volume of tracts, which were printed 
^ft^strwards, th%t h^ had *' read through his whole volume 
with admiration of the writer, though not always with ap-« 
probation of his doctrine." How rar Pope was a judge of 

• 10 C H U B.B; 

controyersial divinity is not now a question, but the friends 
of Chubb appear to have brought forward his evidence 
with triumph. 

Chubb had no sQoner commenced author, than his suc- 
cess in this new capacity introduced him to the personal 
l^nowledge of several gentlemen of eminence and letters, 
from whose generosity he received occasionally presents of 
BQoney. We are even told that sir Joseph Jekyll, master of 
the roU3> took him into his family, and used, at his hours df 
i^etirement) to refresh himself from the fatigues of business 
with his conversation ; but the value of this patronage is 
considerably lesseoedf when it is added thai; sir Joseph 
occasioually employed him to w^it {it table, as a servant 
out of livery. Chubb, however^ as what is called an un* 
jiaught genius, was generally caressed ; for nobody sus« 
pected as yet, to what prodigious lengths he would suffer, 
bis reasoning faculty to carry him. He did not coptinue 
Baany years with sir Joseph Jekyll, though it is said he wasi 
tempted to it by the offer of a genteel allowance, but re** 
tired to hi$ friend at Salisbury, where he spent his days m 
reading and writing, and assisting at the trade, which, by 
the death of iiis partner, had devolved on a nephew, and 
was .to the last period of his Ufe a coadjutor in it. Vet 
that this may not appear a degradation, we are gravely 
udd that he only ^d candles by weight in the shop, and 
did not actually n^dAr^ tliem. In thi^ minced employment 
he passed hjs life, and died suddenly at Salisbury, Feb. 8^ 
174$-7, in the sixty-eighth year of bis age. 

He left behind him two volumes of posthumous works, 
which he calls f * A Farewell to his readers,'* from which we 
may fairly, form this judgment of his opinions: '^ that he 
bad little .or np belief of revelation ; that indeed he plainly 
rejects the Jewish revelation, and consequently the Chris- 
ti^U) which is founded upon it ; that be disclaims a future 
judgcQ^Ot, and is very unqertain as to any future state of ex* 
isteoce ; that a particular providence is not deducible from 
the . phenomena of the world, and Isherefore that pf ayer 
cannot be proved a duty, &c» . &c.!' . With such a man wc^ 
may surely part without reluctance. The wonder is that 
he should have ever drawn any considerable portioa of 
public attention to the reveries id ignorance, presumption, 
and disingenuous sophistry.. Like his legitimate. successor, 
the late Thomas Paine, he was utterly destitute of that 
learning and critical skill which is Qecessm-y to the expta* 
nation of the sacred writings, which, however, he tortured 

C,H, UBB. 311 


to his meaning without shame and candour, frequently 
liringing forward the sentiments of his predecessors in 
scepticism, as the genuine productions of his own unassisted 
powers of reasoning. His writings are now indeed probably 
little read, and bis memory might long ago have been con* 
sfcrned to oblivion; had not the editors of the last edition of 
the Biographia Britannica brought forward his history and 
writings in a strain of prolix and laboured panegyric. By 
what inducement such a man as Dr. Kippis was persuaded 
16 admit this article, we shall not now inquire, but the 
perpetual struggle to create respect for Chubb is evidently 
as impotent as it is inconsistent While compelled to admit 
bis attacks upon all that the majority -of Christians hold 
sacred, the writer tells us that' *^ Chubb*s views were nqt 
inconsistent with a firm belief in our holy religion,'' and in 
another place, he says that *^ Chubb appears to have bad 
Very much' at heart the interests of our holy religion." Tq 
his o\Vn profound respect for Chubb, this writer also unites 
the ^ admiration'* of Dr. Samuel Clarke, bishop Hoadly^ 
Dr. John Hoadly, archdeacon RoUeston, and Mr. Harris ; 
bnt he does not inform us in what wiay the admiration of 
Uiese eminent characters was efxpressed ; and the only evi* 
deuce lie brings is surely equivocal. He ' tells us that 
'^ several of his tracts, when in. manuscript, were seen by 
these gentlemen; but they never made thb least correC'^ 
tion in them, even with regard to orthography, in which 
Chubb was deficient.'^ Amidst all these efforts to screen 
Chubb from contempt, his biographer has not suppressed 
the character of him eiven by Dr. Law, bishop of Carlisle^ 
in his *^ Considerations on the theory of religion," an4 
which, from the well-known candour of that prelate^ may 
be adopted with safety. " Chubb," says Dr. Law, ** not* 
withstanding a tolerably clear head, and strong natural 
parts, yet, by ever aiming at things far beyond his reach^ 
by attempting a v^iety of subjects, for which his narrow 
circumstances^ and small compass of reading and know* 
ledge, had in a great measure disqualified him ; from ^ 
fashionable, but a fallacious kind of philosophy, (with 
which he set out, and by which one of his education might 
very easily be misled), fell by degrees to suph confusion 
in diyinlt^^ to siich low quibbling on some obscure p^issi^s 
iu our translation of tha Bible, and was reduced to ^uch 
wretched cavils as^ to several historical facts and circum* 
Stances, i;vherein a small flkiU either in the languages or 


Ji ♦ • 


sciences, might bare set him right ; or a small share of 
real modesty would have supplied the want of them, by 
putting him upon consulting those who could and would 
have given him proper assistance ;-^that he seems to have 
fallen at last into an almost universal scepticism; and quit* 
ting that former serious and sedate sobriety which gave 
him credit, contents himself wirh carrying on a mere farce 
for some time ; acts the part of a solemn ^i^rave buffoon ; 
sneers at all things he does not understand ; and after, all 
his fair professions, and the caveat he has entered agaiiist 
auch a charge, must unavoidably be set down in the seat 
of the scorner.'* Every point in this charge is fully proved 
in the thirteenth and fourteenth chapters of Dr. Leland^» 
View of Deistical Writers. * 

CHUPLEIGH (Lady Mary), who had the character^of 
a very philosophic and poetic lady, was born in 1^56, and 
was the daughter of Richard Lee, of Winsloder, ia De- 
vonshire, esq. She was married to sir George Chudleigh, 
bart. by whom she had several children ; among the rest, 
Eliza-Maria, who dying in the bloom of life, was lamented 
by her mother in a poem entitled " A Dialogue between 
Lucinda and Marissa." She wrote another poem called 
•• The Ladies Defence," occasioned by an angry sermon 
preached against the fair sex. These, with many others, 
were collected intd a volume in 1703, and printed a third 
time in 1722. She published also a volume of Essays upon 
various subjects in verse and prose, in 17 iO, which have 
been much admired for delicacy of style. These were de- 
dicated to her royal highness the princess Sophia, electress 
and duchess dowager of Brunswick; on which occasion 
that princess, then in her eightieth year, honoured lier 
with a very polite epistle. 

' This lady is said to have written other things, as tra- 
gedies, operas, masques, &c. which, though not printed, 
are preser\'ed in her family. She died in 1710, in -her 
£fty-^fifth year. She was a woman of a sound understanding, 
but as a poetess, cannot be allowed to rank very high;.: It 
was her merit, however, that although she had an educa- 
tion in which literature seemed but little regarded, being 
taught no other than her native language, her fondness 
for books, great application^ and uncommpn abilities, jcn- 
fibled her to figure among the literati of her time. Amidst 


C HUD LEI G H/ 31$ 

'" fhe charms of paetry, in which she took greai delight, she 

' dedicated some part of her time to the severer studies of 
phiiosophy. This appears from her Essays, in which she 
discovers a great degree of piety and good sense. Seveiail 
of. her. letters are iu the <* Memoirs of Richard Gwinnett 
and Mrs. Thomas," 1731, 2 vols. Svo, and in GurU's Col- 
lection of Letters, vol. III.* 

CHURCH (Thomas), D. D. was born in 1707, and 
educated at Brasen Nose college^ Oxford, where he took 

' his degree of M. A. in 1731. In 1740 he was instituted to 
the vicarage of Battersea, which, with a prebendal stall;in 
St. Paul's cathedral, was the only preferment he obtained. 
He distinguished himself much in the field of controversy^ 
in which he engaged with men of very opposite talents aafid 

' pursuits ; with Wesley and Whitfie)d, for their industry 
in promoting methodism, and with Middleton for equal 
2eal in attacking the doctrines of Christianity. Against 
the latter he published ^* A Vindication of the Miraculous 
Powers which subsisted in the three* Centuries of the 
Christian Church, in answer to Dr.-Middleton's Freeln«* 
xjuiryi By which it is shewn, that we have no sufficient 
ieason to believe, from the Doctor's reasonings and objec- 
tions, that no such powers were continued to the churchy 
after the days of the Apostles* With a preface, containing 
some observations on Dr. Mead*s account' of the Demo- 
niacs, in his Medica Sacra, ^' 1749. This was followed 
about a year after, by ** An Appeal to the serious and un- 
prejudiced, or a 8econd Vindication, &c." These were 
so highly approved of, that the university of Oxford con* 
ferred on him the degree of D. D. by diploma. He was 

: also too zealously attached to religion to let the opinfi^ns 
of lord Bolingbroke pass unnoticed, notwithstanding he 
had been bis patron. His publication upon this- subjecdt 
however, was anonymous, ** An Analysis of the Phibso* 
J)hical Works of the late lord Bolingbroke," 1755. Dr. 

; Church published eight single sermons between 1748 and 
2756, in whieh last year he died.' 

CHURCHIIL (Charles), an English poet of unques* 

• cionable' genius, was bom in Vine-street, in the parish of 
St. John the Evangelist, Westminster, some time in Fb* 
4)niary, 1731. His lather was for many years eurate and 

•--•■•■•' •■•'•• .- • 

1 Ballard's Memoirs.-— Gibber's Lives. 

f Lyso^s's ^Bvirons*-— NichpU't Bowysr, vol* II. 

S;14 C H U R C H I L L. 

lecturer of that parish, j&nd rector of Rainbam, near Grays^ 
ill Essex. . He placed his son, when about eight year;; of 
age/at Westminster-school, which w^s tben superintended 
by X>r. Nichols and Dr. Pierson Lloyd. His pit>6cieacy a^ 
school, although not inconsiderable, was less renaart^able • 
than his irregularities. i3n entering his nineteenth year he 
applied for matriculation at the university of Oxford,. whe;r^ . 
it is reported by some, he was rejected on account of his 
deficiency in the learned languages, and by others, thai 
be . was hurt at the trifling and childish questions ppt to . 
him, and answered tb^ e^aniiner with a cpptempt vifhich 
was mistaken for ignorance/ It is.iiot easy to. reconcile 
these - accounts, and,, perhaps, |iot of great impprtancef : 
Churchill, however, was afterwards admitted of. Triiiit^. 
college, Cambridge, hut i^vmediately returned, to liOodopi ." 
and never visited the universHy^ny more. .> . ^ . 

The reason of his abandoning the university ipay. have 
bMn an attachment which he formed while at, Westi)[iin^^x:-r ' 
school, and which ended in a clandestine^ marriage at tb^ ' 
Fleet. This was a severe disappointn;)^nt to his fatber*$ . 
hopes^ but he wisely became recoil ciled to what was ^ih 
avoidable, and entertained the young couple in his housiQ 
about a year, during which his /soiu's conduct was inre* . 
proachable. In 1751 he retired to Sunderland,, in ^e, 
north of Ei>g]and, where he applied hipiself,):o. such $tudiie$ 
aa might qualify him for the church, and at the customafy^ 
age he received deacon's^ orders froqii 'Dr. Wille$>,bishQP'; 
of Bath, and Wells, -ajid in 1756 was or4aiue4 priest .by; 
Dr. Sherlock, .bishop of LondQU* He ii;b^p exerpised bi^ 
clerical functions $t Cadbury in Somersetshire, and i^t 
JUJH^ham^ his /atber^s living, but i^ what nianner, or wit]|;^. 
«i^at display of abilities, is not remembered* A story wimi: 
onrrent some time after his dearth that he received a cura<;:y;: 
of 30/. a year in Wales, and kept a public hpuse to SHF|3tly 
kb deficiencies, but for this there appears.^o have )>een jdo^ 
i^tber foundation . than what the irregularities of hjbi iQpre . 
advanced life supplied. So regardless was he of chai^tei> 
thsa^his enemies found ready credit for any fiction ^i his:^ 
eKpence. While at Rainharo,. he endeavoured to. provide* 
for his family by teaching the youth of the ne^hbourhood^. 
an occupation which i^eciessity rendered eligible, and habi^ . 
might have made pleasing ; but in 1758 bis father^s death, 
opened a more flattering prospect to him in the metropolis^^ 
lihere he was chosen bis successor in the curacy and fee- 



tureship of St JoWs. ¥iX some time he perforined the 
duties of these offices with external decency at least, and 
employed his leisure hours in the instruction of some pu^ 
pits in the learned languages, and was also engaged as a 
teacher at a ladies^ boarding-school. 

He was in his twenty-seventh year when he began lo 
relax from the obligations of virtue, and more openly to 
enter into thbse dissipations, which, while they ruitied- bis ' 
character and im))aired his health, were, not indirectly^ 
the precursors to his celebrity in public life. He was im«- 
moderately fond of pleasure ; a constant attendant at tha 
theatres, and the associate, of men who united wit and 
profligacy; and qualified themselves for moral teachers by 
practising the vices they censured in others. Lloyd, tbii 
poet, had been one of his school-fellows at Westminster^ 
and their intimacy, renewed afresh, became now a. close 
partnership in debt and dissipation. In one respect this 
proved beneficial to Churchill. Dr. Lloyd^ his coropa^ 
Atones father, persuaded Churchiirs creditors to accept of 
£ve shillings in the pound, and to grant releases; nor- 
ought it to be concealed, that there is somre reason lot 
believing that Churchill, as soon as he had acquired money 
by his publications, voluntarily paid the full amount of the 
original debts. 

At what period be made the first experiinedt of his pot 
eJtical talents is not known. He bad, in conjunction with' 
Lloyd, the care of the poetical department in the ^^Th0 
Library," a kind of magazine, of which Dr. Kippis was^ 
editof, and he probably wrote some small pieces in thai 
work, but they cannot now be distinguished. About the 
year 1759 or 1760, he wrote a poem of some length, en-* 
titled ^* The Bard,'* which was rejected by an eminent 
bookseller, perhaps justly, as the author did not publish it 
afterwards, when it might have had the protection of hit 
name. He wrote also " The Conclave,'" a satire levelled 
at the dean and chapter of Westminster, which bis firiendt 
prevailed upon him to suppress. Thus .disappointed in 
his first two proddctions, his^ constant attendance at^ the 
theatres suggeisted' a third, levi^lled at the players. This 
was his celebrated '^ Rosciad,'* in which the pnfessionai 
characters of the performer^ of Drury Lane- and Govent 
Garden , theatres were examined with a severity, ys^t With* 
an acuteness of criticism, and easy flow of humour and^ 
sarcasm^ which retidered what4ie probably considered as i 


temporal^ trifle, a publication of uncommon popularit}**. 
He bad, however, so little encouragement in bringing this 
poem forward, that five guineas were refused as the price 
he valued it at ; and he printed it at his own risk when he 
had scarcely ready money enough to pay for the necessary 
advenisements. It was published in March 1761, and its 

' sale exceeded all expectation, but as his name did not 
appear to the first edition, and Lloyd had not long beibre 
published " The Actor,'* a poem on the same subject, the 
Rosciad was generally supposed to be the production of 
the same writer; while, by others, it was attributed to 
those confederate wits, Colman and Thornton. Churchill, 
however, soon avowed a poem which promised so much 
feme and profit, and as it had been not only severely 
handled in the Critical Review, but positively attributed to 
another pen, he published " The Apology : addressed to 
the Critical Reviewers,'' 1761. In this he retaliated with 
great bitterness of personal satire. 

: The success^ of the ** Rosciad," and of ** The Apology,** 
opened new prospects to their author. He saw in his 
genius a source of plentiful emolument, but unfortunately 
also be contemplated it as an object of terror, which might 
be employed against the friends of virtue, with whom he 
BO longer thought it necessary to keep any terms. Mfhile 
insulting public decency by ♦the grossest immorality, he 
aimed his vengeance on those who censured him, with ar 
sprightliness of malignity and force of ridicule which he 
deemed irresistible. His conduct, as a clergyman, had 
long shocked bis parishioners, and incurred at length the 
displeasure of Dr. Pearce, the dean of Westminster, who 
remonstrated as became his station. But Churchill was 
ifOw too far gone in profligacy, and being, as his friends 

; have been pleased to say^ too honest to dissemble, he re* 
aigned his curacy and lectureship ^, and with thi§ acknow- 

i tedged sacrifice to depravity, threw off all the external 

^ restraints which his former character might be thought to 
impose. That his contempt for the clerical dress might be 
more notorious, he was seen at all public places habited 
in a blue coat with metal buttons, a goIdJaced waistcoat,' 
a gold-laced hat, and ruffles. 

In February 1761 a separation took place between liim 
and his wife, whose imprudence. is said to have kept pace 

« ■> * 

>i^ See a letter from btm on this subject, in the Gent Mag.vpl. XtVIlI. p. 47U 


tvkh bis own * ; but from a licentious passage in one csif 
his letters to Wilkes, it appears that he was tired of her 
person, and probably neglected her in pursait.of vagrant 
amours. As his conduct in this and other matters was too 
notorious to pass without animadversion, he endeavoured 
to vindicate it in a poem entitled *' Night,'' addressed to 
his wretched partner Lloyd. The poetical beauties of this 
poem, which are very striking, can never atone ■■. for the 
absurdity as well as immorality of his main argument, that 
avowed vice is more harmless than concealed ; and did not 
prevent his- readers from perceiving, that lie who ipaiataias 
it, must have lost shame as well as virtue* 

His next publication was ^ The Ghost,'' 1762, ex* 
tended, at irregular intervals, to four books. This wai 
founded on the weH-knowa imposture of a ghost having 
disturbed a family in Cock-lane ; but our poet contrived to 
render it the vehicle of many characteristic sketches, and 
desultory thoughts on various subjects unconnected with 
its title. About this time he appears to have formed a 
connection with the celebrated John Wilkes, an impostor 
qi more ingenuity, who encouraged him to add faction to^; 
profligacy^ and increase the number of his enemies by re* 
Tiling every person of rank or distinction with whom-WUkes 
chose to be at variance. His pen is said to have been aUo 
employed in Wilkes's " North Briton," and in ". The 
Prophecy of Famine." Churchill's next production was- 
originally sketched in prose for that paper^ What other 
contributions he* made cannot now be ascertained, buL it 
may be suspected that Churchiirs satirical talent would ill 
submit to the tameness of prose, nor indeed was such aa 
employment worthy of the author of ^^ The Rosciad," and 
*^ The Apology." — Wilkes suggested " The Prophecy of 
Famine," as a more suitable vehicle for the bitterness of 
national scurrility, and he was not mistaken. * 

The ^^ Epistle to Hogarth" which followed, was occac- 
sioned by that artist's having talten some liberties in his 
political engravings, with the characters of the earls. Teo>> 
pie and Chatham.^ * The only revenge he now took was a 
paltry print representing Churchill as a Russian bear, 
but whether this preceded or, followed the '^ Epistle" is 
not (][uite clear. The parties had been once intimate^ and 

* This has been denied. She survived htm, l^owever^ and he btqueathtrd to 
fier an annuity of 60/. a year. 

SfS C H U R C H I L L. 

Chorchfll pud dae reverence to the talent^ of Hogmrtb, bctr 
in bis present humour he stuck at nothing which coold 
vex and irritates Hogarth died soon after, and some of 
Churchill's friends asserted, with malicious satisfactioft, 
that the poem had accelerated that event. . Mr. Nichols, 
in his eopious life of Hogarth, starts some reasonable doubts 
on this subject. 

In i 7 63 Churchill formed an intimacy with the daughter 
of a tradesman^ in Westminster, and prevailed with her 
to live with him, but within a fortnight his passion was 
satiated, and she had leisure to repent. Her father re* 
ceived her back, and she might probably have been re^ 
formed had she not been insulted by a sister, and her .si- 
tuation rendered so disagreeable that she preferred the 
company of her seducer. Churchill thought him^lf bound 
in honour and gratitude to receive her, and perpetuate her 
wretchedness by a more lengthened connexion. While 
this afiair was the general subject of public indignatioa^ be 
iwrote ^^ The Conference,'' in which he assumes the lao* 
piage of repentance and atonement ^with such psthetie 
effect, that every reader most hope he was sincere-^ 

The duel which took place between Wilkes and Martin 
gave rise to ^* The Duellist," 1763, which he extended to 
three books, and diversified, as usual, by much personal 
satire; In *' The Author," published about the end of the 
same year, he gave more general satisfaction, as the topics 
were of a more general satire. His first publication in 
17^4 was ^' Gotham," which, without a definite-object, or 
much connexion of parts^. contains many passages. of ster.^ 
ling merit. The ** Candidate" was written soon after, to 
expose lord Sandwich, who was a candidate for the o£Bce of 
high steward of the university of Cambridge. His lord-^ 
shipV deficiencies in moral conduct were perhaps no unfair 
objects for satire ; but this from the pen of a man now de^ 
biUtated by habitual excess,, served only to prove that 
Churchill was a profligate in contempt of knowledge and 

The « Farewell," << The Times," and « Indqiendence,**^ 
were hasty compositions that added little to his fame ; andy 
except perhaps ^< The Times,'' announced the deolioeof 

* Of a celebrated statuary, says Mr. " spinster** mentioned in ChurchilPf 

Cole, who was knighted by bi» majesty will, and who was, if we are not mis- 

•ome yean before. Mr. Cole adds the taken, the lady he sedaaed.*T-Gole> 

tiame» but it it uM tiie ttame of a MS. Athei» jh BriU Mift. 

C H UB C HI L L- S19 

^hn ]^i^er9« *^ Independence^' appeared in September, 
I7€4y and was tbe last of his prodactions published in his 
'ttfe«-tifne. " The Journey," and "The Fragment of a Dedi- 
cation to Dr. Warburton," were brought to Hgiit by his 
friends soon after his death, 

^ Towards the end of October, 1764, he accompanied 
Humphrey Cotes, one of Wilkes^s dupes, to'vtsit this pa* 
triotin his Toiuntary exile in France. The party met at 
Boulogne, where Churchill, imniediately on his arrival, *was 
-attacked by a miliary fever, which terminated bts life^ 
Nov. 4, in the thirty-fourth year of his age. It was t«« 
ported^ that his last words were, ** What a fool have I been ! • ^ 
but 'Wilkes, who was present, thought it bis duty, oii ail 
obca^tons^ to contradict this. He considered it asacalnmny 
on a inan ^whose ^* fyrnmess of philosophy,^* be gravely io^ 
fermsus, ^' shone inftili lustre during the whole time of 
his very severe ilkiess." His' body was brought from Bou*^ 
iogne for interment at Dover, where it was deposited in 
the old cbdi^h^yard, former^ betongiog to the collegiacift 
ebureii^ of St. Martin. A stone was afterwardis placed ea 
bis grave, on which are inscribed bis- age^ the time of his 
death^ and tius line ftotn his wodts: 

. " life to the last enjoy'd, here Churchill lies/^ . ' 

" Of the nature of his 'life and its enjoyments, enougb lias 
been said.— ^He ieh two sons, Charles and John, the chai^ 
of .whose education ' was generously undertaken by sir 
Richard Jebb ; but they soon died, like their father, victims . 
to imprudenoe and intempenuice. . 

Tbe year after his death, a volume of Sermons wia^iib* 
lished; which he is said to have prepared for the pressy but 
this seems wholly ^ improbable. Tliey bear no marks vol 
1^ composition idXsA it has been conjectured by tbe editor 
of tbe Biogtaphia, that they ware some of his father's, which 
he had copied forhis own use. Churchill was not a hypo^ 
erite,'and woold not have imblisbed sermons, for a serious 
purpose ; nor could he be tempted by necessity to avail 
Biftisel^ of tpbUic' curiosity. His poetry, supplied all his 
wants ; and if we' nky credit his will, he left behind bun a 
Considerable ium'iif money.' ^ 

The jneri^of Churchill, as a poet, has but lately been 
appre^iaj^ed wi£|;ij.ri^H>3^rtiaUty. During his life, his works 
were popular be}rond all competition. While he continued 
to supply thdt fliidci^s 6f entertainment which is more^enc- 

32a C IT U H C H I L L: 

rally gratifying than a good mind can conceive, pra bad diie^i 
will acknoAvtedge^ he was more eagerly andmore frequently - 
read than any of bis contemporaries* CtnirchiU was ad<- 
mirably suited to the time in. vvhich he Uved. But if his^ 
poems were popular with those who love to see worth de« 
preciated, and distinctions levelled^ with the vulgar, the 
envious, and the malignant, they were no less held in ab-> 
horrence by those who were as much hurt at the prostitu«> 
tioD, as charmed by the excellence of his talents, .ai>d who 
were afraid to praise his genius lest they should propagate 
his writings. Few men, therefore, made so much noise 
during their lives, or so little after their deaths. His part^ 
ners in vice and faction shrunk from the task of popetuating 
his memory, either from the fear of an alliance with a cbawi 
racter so obnoxious as to injure their party, orfrom the^ 
meglect with which bad men usually treat their associates,* 
when they can be no longer useful. . Lloyd, to whom be 
bad been more kind than Colman or Thornton, did not 
aurvive him above a month. Colman and Thornton preserved 
a cautious silence about a man whom to praise was to en- 
gage with the many enemies be had created ; and Wilkes/ 
to whom he bequeathed the editorship and illustration ol 
his poems by notes^ &c. neglected the task, until he had 
succeeded in his ambitious manoeuvres, became ashamed 
of the agents who had supported him, and left his poorer 
partizans to shift for themselves. Even when Dr. Kippis 
apphed to him for such information as might supply a life 
of Churchill for the Biographia, he seemed unwilling err 
unableto contribute much ; and a comparison of that lilor: 
with the scattered accounts previously published, may con- 
vince the reader that Dr. Kippis thanked him for more as« 
sistance than he received. 

While the friends of ChnrcfaiU were thn^ negligent of his 
fame, it was not to be expected that his enemies would-be* 
very eager to perpetuate the memory of a man by whoni 
they had suffered so severely. Perhaps no writer etei? 
made so many enemies, or carried his hostilities into so 
many quarters, without provocation. If we except the 
case of Hogarth, it is doubtful whether he ever attacked 
the character of one individual who did him an injury, or 
stood in his way. Such wantonness of detraction must. 
have naturally led to the general wish that his name s^nd 
works might b& speedily consigned to oblivion. Bis wri* 
tings, however^ may now be read with more calmt)ei$s^ and 



hi^ rank asa poet assigned with the regards due to genius^ 
however misapplied. If those passages in which his genius 
shines most conspicuously were to be selected from the 
mass of defamation by which they are surrounded^ he might 
be allowed to approach to Pope in every thing but correct- 
ness ; and even of his failure in this respect, it may be 
justly said that be evinces carelessness rather than want of 
taste. But he despised regularity in every thing, and 
whatever wa» within rules, bore an air of restraint to which 
his proud spirit could not submit ; hence he persisted in 
despising that correctness which he might have attained 
with very little care. The opinion of Cowper upon this 
subject is too valuable to be omitted. Churchill '^is a 
careless writer for the most part, but where shall we find in 
any of those authors, who finish their works with the 
exactness of a Flemish pencil, those bbld and daring strokes 
of fancy, those numbers so hazardously ventured upon, 
and so happily finished, the matter so compressed, and yet 
so cl^ir, and the colouring so sparingly laid on, and yet 
with such a beautiful efiect ? In short it is not his least 
praise, that he is never guilty of those faults as a writer 
which he lays to the charge of others. A proof that he 
did not judge by a borrowed standard, or from rules laid 
down by critics, but that he was qualified to do it by his 
own native powers, and his great superiority of genius*." 
The superiority of his genius, indeed, is so obvious from 
even a slight perusal of his works, that it must ever be re- 
gretted that his subjects were temporary, and his manner 
irritating, and that heshould have given to party and to 
passion what might have so boldly chastised vice, promoted 
the dignity of virtue, and advanced the honours of poetry. 
His fertility was astonishing, for the whole of his poems 
were designed and finished within the short space of three 
years and a half. Whatever he undertook, he accomplished 
with rapidity, although such was the redundancy of his 
imagination, and such the facility with ivhich he committed 
his thoughts to paper, that he has not always executed 
what he began, and perhaps delights too much in excursions 

* Hayley's Life of Cowper, toI. III. his tatentt by some beautiful linet in 

p. 27, 8vo edit. Cowper had been the his Table Talk. Between Cowper and 

associate of Colman andThornton, and Churchill, iu point of moral characler, 

wrote a few papers in the Conrioisseur. the diftanoe is so great, that it is im- 

Whetber be was equally intimate with possible to suppose there could ever 

ChurchiH dofs not appear, but he was have beto any cordiality. * 
among^ the fin^t to revive the memory of 

VouIX. Y 

322 C H UR C H I L C 

from his principal subject. Of this "The Prophecy of - 
Famine," which, for original creative power, may perhaps 
be preferred to all his other writings, appears to be a 
striking example. It consists of a long introduction which 
might suit any other subject, and detached parts which 
have no natural connexion, and ot which the order might 
be changed without injury. " The Rosciad'* seems to 
have owed its popularity more to its subject, and the cla- 
mour of the players and their friends, than to its poetry. 
In his other works, there are few of the essential qualities 
of a poet which he has not frequently exemplified. He 
has fully proved that he was not incapable or the higher 
species of poetry; he has given specimens of the sublime 
and the pathetic, " the two chief nerves of all genuine 
poesy." In personification he is peculiarly happy, and 
sometimes displays the fine fancy of Spenser united with 
great strength of colouring and force of expression. His 
bursts of indignation are wonderfully eloquent, and with a 
love of virtue, he might have been her irresistible advo- 
cate, and the first of ethic writers. Where he does put on 
the. character of a moral satirist, he is perhaps inferior to 
none of the moderns. But unfortunately his genius was 
biassed by personal animosity, and where he surpasses all 
other writers, it is in the keenness, not of legitimate satire, 
but of defamation, tlis object is not' to reform, but to re- 
venge; and that the greatness of his revenge may be justi- 
fied, he exaggerates the offences of his objects beyond all 
bounds of truth and decency. 

In some cases, the poet may be considered separate from 
the roan, and indeed of naany eminent poets we know too 
little to be able to determine what inHuence their character 
had on their writings. But Churchiirs productions are s^ 
connected with his turbulent and irregular life, that they 
must necessarily be brought in contact. He frequently 
alludes to his character and situation, and takes every op- 
portunity to vindicate^ what seems to redound most to his 
discredit, bis vices and his associates ; and as his works 
will probably long be read with admiration as works of 
genius, or from curiosity as specimens of obloquy, it is 
necessary to be told that he had very little veneration for 
truth, that he drew his characters in extravagant dispro- 
portion, and that he was regardless of any means by which 
he could bring temporary or lasting disgrace on the per^ 
soas whom either faction or revenge made him consider 

C H U K C H I L L. 323 

as enemies.. Mr. Tooke, of Gray's-inn^ lately published an 
edition of ChurchiU's works, illustrated by aaucb contem- 
porary history ; and we owe some particulars of Churchiirs 
life to the well- written memoirs prefixed to this work»* 

CHURCHILL (Sir Winston), a distinguished English 
gentleman, son of John Churchill, esq. of Minthorn in 
Dorsetshire) by Sarah, daughter and coheiress of sir Henry 
Winston, of Standiston in Gloucestershire, was descended 
from a very ancient family, and born at Wooton Glanville 
in Dorsetshire, or, acqording to Wood, at London, in 
16J20. He was sent to St. John's college in Oxford when 
he was scarce sixteen years of age, wher6 he made an un-f 
common progress in his studies ; but, on account of the 
civil commotions which arose soon after, was obliged. to 
leave the university before he had taken a degree. He 
engaged on the side of the king, for which he suffered se-» 
verely in his fortune ; and having married a daughter of 
sir John Drake of Ashe in Devonshire, was forced to seek 
refuge in that gentleman's house,* where many of his chil- 
dren were born. At the restoration he represented Wey- 
mouth in the parliament which met in May 8, 1661. In 
1663, Charles IL conferred on him the honour of knight- 
bood ; and soon after the foundation of the Royal Society, 
he was, for his knownjove of letters and conversation with 
learned men, elected a member of it in Dec. 1664. la 
the same year he was appointed one of the commissioners 
of the court of claims iu Ireland ; and, upon his return, 
one of the clerks comptrollers of the green cloth. Not- 
withstanding his engagements in these public offices, he 
found time to draw up a kind of politica:! essay upon the 
history of England, which was published in folio, 1675, 
under the title of " Divi Britannici, being a remark upon 
the lives of all the kings of this isle^ from the year of the 
world 2855, unto the year of grace 1660." It was dedi- 
cated to Charles II ; and in the dedication the author takes 
notice, that having served his majesty's father as long as 
he could with his sword, he spent a great part of those 
leisure hours, which were forced upon him. by his misfor- 
tunes, in defending that prince's cause, and indeed the^ 
cause of monarchy itself, with his pen : and he frankly 

owns, that he considered his work as the funeral oration of 

J. - 


1 Biog. Brit. — Life by Mr. Tooka as abore.^-Jobnsnn and Chalmers's ^D|f« 
lUht Poets, .1810.— MaBon'8 Ufe of Wbiuhcaa, p. 109. 

Y 2 

.S24 C H C ft C H ILL. 

that deceased govenimeBt, or rather, as his title speaks i^ 
the apotheoses of departed kings. We are told by Wood> 
that there were some passages in this work about the king^s 
power of raising money without parliamenti which gave 
such offence to the members then sitting, that the author 
had them cancelled, and the book reprinted. Nicolson 
speaks very slightly of this performance, . and represents it 
as ^* only giving the reader a diverting view of the arms 
and exploits of our kings down to the restoration in 1660;*' 
but it is very accurate ks to dates and authorities. 

After the dissolution of the parliament in 1678, sir Win^ 
ston was dismissed from the post of clerk of the greeii 
cloth, much against bis master's ijvill, who restored him 
again, and continued him in it during the rest of his reignj: 
He enjoyed the same degree of favour from court, during 
the short reign of James IL ; aivd having lived to see his 
eldest son raised to the peerage, he departed this life^ 
March 26, 1688. Besides three sons, and as many daugh^ 
ters, who died in their infancy, ^ir Winston bad several 
sons and daughters, who lived to grow up. The eldest of 
his sons was John Churchill, afterwards duke of Marlbo- 
rough, of whom we shall speak lajrgely in the next article. 
Arabella, the eldest of his children, born in March 1648, 
was maid of honour to the duchess of York, and mistress 
to the duke, afterwards Jam^s II. by whom she had two 
sons and two daughters. The eldest, James Fitz-James^ 
was created by his father duke of Berwick : he was also 
knight of the garter and of the golden Seece, marshal of 
France, and grandee of Spain of the first class. ,He was 
reputed one of the greatest officers in his time ^ and when 
generalissimo of the armies of France, fell by a cannon-shot 
at the siege of Pliillipsburg in 1734. Henry Fitz-James, 
grand prior of France, lieutenant-general and admiral of 
the French galliiSB, was born in 1673, and died in I7Q2. 
Henrietta, born in 1670, married sir Henry Waldgrave of 
€heuton, and died 1730« The youngest daughter was a 
nun ; but afterwards married colonel Godfrey, tr)r whom 
she had two daughters. ' . 

CHURCHILL (John), duke of Marlborough, and prince 
of the holy Roman empire, was eldest Son of sir Winsi|>a 
Churchill, and born at Ashe in Devonshire on Midsummer^ 
day in 1650. A clergyman in the neighbouihood in* 
structed him in the first pirinciples of literature, ^nd be 

I Bio;. Jttk. 

C H U R e HI L U 


wlas for some time educated at St. Paul's school * ; but his 
fiithef, having other views than what at learned education 
afforded', carried him to court in the tweli'tfa year of his 
age^ where he was particularly favoured by James duke of 
York. He bad a pair of colours given him in the guards^ 
daring the first Dutch war, about 1666; and afterwards 
obtained leave to go over to Tangier, then in our hands, 
and besieged by the Moorsy where he resided for soraue 
tilne, and cultivated the science of arms. Upon bis return 
to England, he attended constantly at court, and was 
greatly respected by both the Icing and the duke. In 1672, 
the duke of Monmouth commanding a body of English 
atiriiiaries in the service of France, Churchill attended 
him, land was soon after made a captain of grenadiers in 
bis grace^s own regiment. He had a share in all the ac- 
tions of that famous campaign against the Dutch; and at 
the siege of Nind^glien, distinguished himself so much, 
that he was particularly taken notice of by the celebrated 
marshal Turenne, who bestowed on him the name of the 
handsbtpe Englishman. He appeared also to so much ad- 
vantage at the reduction of Maastricht, that the French 
king thanked him for his behaviour at the head of the lir^e, 
ahid assured him that he would acouaint bis sovereign with 
it, which the duke of Monmouth also confirnied, telUng 
the king his father how much he bad been indebted to the 
bravery of captain Ghurchill. 

The laurels he brought from France could not fail to 
gain him preferment at home : accordingly the king made 
him a lieutenant-colonel, and the duke made him gentle, 
man of his bed-chamber, and soon after master of the robes. 
The second Dutch war being over^ colonel Churchill was 
again obliged to pass his days at court, where he behaved 
iyith gi^eat prudence and circumspection in the troublesome 
tinies that ensued. In 1679, when the duke of Yqrk was 
constrained to go to the Netherlands, colonel Churchill 

. * k is ratiior singular that this fact 
should have e8c<iped the notice of his 
biographers, especially as Knight, in 
bis Life of Dean Colet, mentions hifH 
among the eminent scholars of St« 
PauPs. The fact, however, is corrobb- 
nted by the following MS note of 
George North, of Codicote, in his copy 
of Colei'3 Life, sent with Mr. Gough's 
books to the Bodleilin library, th^ 
note occurs in p. 4Sd of the Catalogue 
•f the Library of St. Paul's, under the 

article " Vegetius de re Militari." 

" Frum this very boqk, John Gbnrch* 
ill, scholar of this school, afterwa^i 
th« c<^iel>rated duke of Marlborough, 
first learnt the elements of the art of 
War ; as was told me, George Northt 
on St Paul's day 1724-^, by an old 
clergyman, who said he was a con- 
temporary scholar, was then well ac- 
quainted with biiiii and frf qiueutly saw 
\im re^d \l. This 1 testify to be true., 

•? G. No«TM.»' 


attended him ; as he did through all his peregrinations, 
till he was suffered to reside again in London. While he 
waited upon the duke in Scotland, he had a regiment of 
dragoons given him ; and thinking it now time to take a 
consort, he made his addresses to Sskrah Jennings, who 
waited on the lady Anne, afterwards queen of. Great- 
Britain. This young lady, then about twenty-one yeare of 
age, and universally admired both for her person and wit, 
hie married in 1681, and by this nKitch strengthened the 
interest he had already at court. In 1682 the duke of 
York returned to London ; and, having obtained leave to 
quit Scotland, resolved to bring his family from thence by 
sea. For this purpose he embarked in May, but unluckily 
ran upon the Lemon Oar, a dangerous sand, that lies 
about 16 leagues from the mouth of the Humber, where 
his ship was lost, with some men of quality, and upwards 
of 120 persons on board. He was particularly careful 
of colonel Churchill's safety, and took him into the boat 
in which himself escaped. The first use made by his 
royal highness of his interest,, after he returiied to court. 
Was to obtain a title for his favourite ; who, by 'letters 
patent, bearing date Dec. 1, 1682, was created baron of 
Eymouth in Scotland, and also appointed colonel of the 
3d troop of guards. He was continued in all his posts 
upon the accession of James; II. who sent him also his am- 
bassador to France to notify that event. On his return, 
he assisted at the coronation in April 1685 ; and May fol- 
lowing was created a peer of England, by the title of baron 
Churchill of Sandridge in the county of Hertforfl. 

In June, being then lieutenant-general of his majesty's 
forces, he was ordered into the west to suppress Mon- 
mouth's rebellion ; which he did in a month's time, with 
an inconsiderable body of horse, and toqk the duke him- 
self prisoner. He was extremely well received by thb king 
at his return from this victory j but soon discerned that it 
only served to confirm the king in an opinion that, by 
virtue of a standing army, the religion and government of 
England might easily be changed. How far lord Churchill 
concurred with or opposed the king, while he was forming 
this project, has been disputed by historians. According 
to bishop Burnet, " he very prudently declined meddling 
much in business, Spoke little except when his advice was 
asked^ and then always recommended nioderate measures." 
It is saitj he declared very early to lord Galway, that if 
bis master attempted to overturn the established religion^ 


he would leave him ; and that he signed the memorial 
transmitted to the prince and princess of Orange, hy which 
they were- invited to fill the throne. Be this as it will, it is 
certain that be remained with the king, and was entrusted 
by him, after the prince of Orange was landed in 1688. 
He attended king James when he marched with his forces 
to oppose the prince,' and had the command of 5000 men ; 
yet the earl of Feversbam, suspecting his inclinations, ad- 
vised the king to seize him. The king's affection to him 
was so great, that he could not be prevailed upon to do it ; 
and this left him at liberty to go over to the prince, which 
accordingly he did, but without betraying any post, or car- 
rying off any troops. Whoever considers the great obliga- 
tions, lord Churchill lay under to king James, must natu- 
rally conclude, that he could not take the resolution of 
leaving him, and withdrawing to the prince of Orange, 
but with infinite concern and regret; and that this was 
really the case, appears from a letter, which he left for 
the king, to shew the reasons of his conduct, and to ex- 
press his grief for the step he was obliged to take. 

Lord Churchill was graciously received by the prince of 
Orange ; and it is supposed to have been in consequence 
of his lordship's solicitation, that prince George of Den- 
mark took the same step, as his consort the princess Anne 
did also soon after, by the advice of lady Churchill. He 
was entrusted in that critical conjuncture by the prince of 
Orange, first to re-assemble his troop of guards at London, 
and afterwards to reduce some lately-raised regiments, and 
to new model the army, for which purpose he was invested 
with the rank and title of lieutenant-general. The prince 
and princess of Orange being declared king and queen of 
England, Feb. 6, 1689, lord Churchill was on the 14th 
sworn of their privy council, and one of the gentlemen of 
the bed-chamber to the king; and on the 9th of April 
following, raised to the dignity of earl of Marlborough in 
the county of Wilts. He assisted at the coronation of 
their majesties, and was soon after made commander in 
chief of the English forces sent over %o Holland. He pre- 
sided at the battle of Walcourt, April 15, 1689, and gave 
such extraordinary proofs of hi^ skill, that prince Waldeck, 
speaking in his commendation to king William, declared, 
that ** he saw niore into the art of* war in a day, than 
some generals in many years." It is to be observed, that 
king William commanded this year in Ireland, which was 
the reason of the earl of Marlborough's being at the head 

328 C H U R C H I L L. 

of the English troops in Holland, where he laid the fouR'- 
dation of that fame among foreignersi which he afterwards 
extended all oyer Europe. He next did great services for 
king William in Ireland, by reducing Cork and some 
other places of much importance \ in all which he shewed 
such uncommon abilities, that, on his first appearance at 
court after his return, the king was pleased to say, that 
** he knew no man so fit for a general, who had seen so 
few campaigns.^' Alt these services notwithstanding did 
not hinder bis being disgraced in a very sudden manner : 
for, being in waiting at court as lofd of the bed-chamber, 
and having introduced to his majesty lord George Hamil- 
ton, he was soon followed to his own house by ihe same 
lord, with this short and surprising message, ^' That the 
king had no farther occasion for his services ;^' the more 
surprising, as his majesty just before had not discovered 
the least coldness or displeasure towards him. The cause 
of this disgrace is not eyen at present known ; but only 
suspected to have proceeded from his too close attachment 
to the interest of the princess Anne. This strange and un- 
expected blow was followed by one much stranger, for 
soon after he' was coujmitted to the Tower for high treason ; 
but was released, and acquitted, upon the principal ac- 
cuser being convicted of perjury and punished ; yet it is 
now believed that a correspondence had been carried on 
between the earl of Marlborough and the exiled king ; and 
during queen Mary*s life, he kept at a distance from court, 
jittending principally, with his lady, on tbe princess Anne. 
After queen Mary's death, when tbe interests of the tjwo 
l^ourts were brought to a better agreement, king William 
thought ^t to recall the earl of Marlborough -to his privy 
council; and in June 1698, appointed him governor to^he 
duke of Gloucester, with this extraordinary compli^^nt, 
^* My lord, make him but what you are, and my nephew 
>vill be all I wish to see him." He continued in favoj^ to 
the king's death, as appears from his having beei> ,xlffree 
times appointed one of the lords justices during ^is, ab- 
sence; nan^ely, July 16, 1698; May 31, 1699; andJFiine 
,27, 17P0. As soon as it was discerned that the deatl) of 
Charles II, of Spain Would become tbe occasion of anc^iher 
general war, the king sent a body of troops over to JHol- 
Jand, and made lord Marlborougn commander in chief of 
them. He appointed him also an^bassador extraordinary 
and minister plenipotentiary to their high mightin€»ses. 
Jh^ king following, and taking a view of the forges, tiined 


with him at his quarters in Sept. 1700 ; and this was one of 
the last favours he received from king William, who died 
the &th of March following, unless we reckon his recom- 
mendation of him to the princess of Denmark, a little be- 
fore his death, as the fittest person to be trusted with the 
command of the army which was to protect the liberty of 
Europe. About a week after, he was elected knight of the 
oiost noble order of the garter, and soon declared captain-.' ' 
general of all her majesty's forces in England and abroad ; 
upon which he was immediately sent over to the Hague 
with the samei character that he had the year before. His 
stay in Holland was very short, but enough to give the 
States General the necessary assurances of bis mistress's 
sincere intention to pursue the plan that had formerly been 
settled. The States concurred with him in all that he pro- 
posed, and made him captain-general of all their forces, 
appointing him 100,000 florins per annum. 

On his return to England, he found the queen's council 
already divided ; some being for carrying on the war as 
auxiliaries only, others for declaring against France and 
'Spain immediately, and so becoming principals at once. 
The earl of Marlborough joined with the latter ; and these 
carryiiiig their point, war was declared May 4, 1702, and 
approved afterwards by parliament, though the Dutch at 
that time had not declared. The earl took the command 
June 20 ; and discerning that the States were made uneasy 
by the places which the enemy held on their frontiers, he 
began with attacking and reducing them. ^ Accordingly, in 
this single campaign, he made himself master of the castles 
of Gravenbroeck and Waerts, the towns of Venlo, Rure- 
m6nd, and StevensWaert, together with the city and citadel 
of Liege ; which last was taken sword in hand. These ad- 
vantages were considerable, and acknowledged as such by 
the States ; but they had like to have been of a very short 
•date : for, the army separating in the neighbourhood of 
Liege, Nov. 3, the earl was taken the next day in his 
passage by water, by a small party of thirty men from the 
gartison at Gueldres ; but it being towards night, and the 
earl insisting upon an old pass given to his brother, and 
now out of date, was suiF<dred to proceed, and arrived at 
the Hague, when they were in the utmost consternation at 
the accident which had befallen him. The winter ap- ' 
proaching, he embarked for .England, and arrived in Lon- 
don Nov. 28. The queen had been complimented some 
%ixnt before by both houses of parliament, on the success 


of her arms in Flanders ; in consequence of which there 
had been a pu.blic thanksgiving Nov. 4, when her majesty 
went in great state to St. Paul's. Soon after a committee 
of the house of commons waited upon him with the thanks 
of the house; and Dec. 2, her majesty declared her in- 
tention in council of creating him a duke : which she soon 
did, by the title qf marquis of Blandford, and duke of 
^ Marlborough. She likewise added a pension of 5000/. per 
Annum out of the post-office, during her own life, and sent 
a message to the house of commons, signifying her desire 
. that it might attend the honour she had lately conferred ; 
but with this the house would not comply, contenting 
themselves, in their address to the queen, with applauding 
her manner of rewarding public service, but declaring their 
inability to make such a precedent for alienating the reve- 
nue of the crown. 

He was on the "point of returning to Holland, when, Feb. 
8, ll03f his only son, the marquis of Blandford, died at 
Cambridge, at. the age of 18, and was interred in the 
magnificent chapel of King's college. This very afflicting 
accident did not however long retard him ; but he passed 
over to Holland, and arrived at the Hague March 6. The 
nature of our work will not suffer us to relate all the mili- 
tary acts in which the duke of Marlborough was engaged : 
it is sufficient to say, that, numerous as they were, they 
vtere all successful. The French had a great army this 
year in Flanders, in the Netherlands, and in that part of 
Cermany which the elector of Cologn had put into their 
hands ; and prodigious preparations were made under the 
most experienced commanders : but the vigilance and 
activity of the duke baffled them all. When the campaign 
was over, his grace went. to Dusseldorp to meet the late 
emperor, then styled Charles HI. king of Spain, who made 
him a present of a rich sword from his side, with very high 
compliments; and then returning to the Hague, after a 
very short stay, came over to England. He arrived Oct. 
13, 1703 ; and soon after king Charles, whom he had ac- 
companied to the Hague, came likewise over to England, 
and arrived at Spithead on Dec. 26 ; upon which the dukes 
of Somerset and Mariborough were immediately sent down 
to receive and conduct him to Windsor. In January the 
States desired leave of the queen for the duke to come to 
the Aague; which being granted, he embarked oh the 
15th, .and passed over to Rotterdam. He went immedi« 
ately to the Hague> where he communicated to the pen* 

C H U R CHILL- ,331 

sionary his senae of the necessity there was of attempting 
something the next canipaign for the relief gf the emperor ; 
whose affairs at this time were in the utmost distress, hav- 
ing the Bavarians on one side, and the Hungarian malcon- 
tents on the other, making incursions to the very gates of 
V.ienna, wlille his whole force scarce enabled him to main- 
tain a defensive war. This scheme being approved of, and 
the plan of it adjusted, the duke returned to England in 
the middle of February. 

When measures were prdperly settled at home, April 
8,1704, he embarked for Holland ; where, staying about # 
a month to adjust the necessary steps, he began his march 
towards the heart of Germany ; and after a conference held 
with prince Eugene of Savoy, and Lewis of Baden, he 
arrived before the strong entrenehmfents of the enemy at 
Schellenburg, very unexpectedly, on June 21 ; whom, after 
an obstinate and bloody dispute, he entirely routed. It 
was on this occasion that the emperor wrote the duke a 
letter with his own hand, acknowledging his great services, 
and ofFering him the title of a prince of the empire, which 
he modestly declined, till the queen afterwards commanded 
him to accept of it. He prosecuted this success, and the 
battle of Hochstet was fought by him and prince Eugene, 
on August 2 ; when the French and Bavarians were the 
greatest part of them killed and taken, and their com- 
mander, marshal Tal lard, made a prisoner. After this glo- 
rious action, by which the empire was saved, and the 
whole electorate of Bavaria conquered, the duke continued 
his pursuit till he forced the French to repass the Rhine. 
Then prince Lewis of Baden laid siege to Landau, while 
the duke and prince Eugene covered it ; but it was not 
taken before the 1 2th of November. He made a tour also 
to Berlin-; and by a short negotiation, suspended the dis- 
putes between the king of 'Prussia and the Dutch, by which 
he gained the good will of both parties. When the cam-^ 
paign was over, he returned to Holland, and, Dec. 1 4, ar- 
rived in England. He * brought over with him marshal 
Taliard, and 26 other officers of distinction, 121 standards^ 
and 17t) colours, which by her majesty's order'were put up 
in Westminster-hall. He was received by the queen with 
the highest marks of esteem, and had the solemn thanks of 
both nouses of parliament. Besides this, the commons 
addressed her majesty to jperpetuate the memory of this 
vtctOTj', which she did, by granting Woodstock, with the 
hundred of Wotton, to him and his heirs for ever. This 


was confirmed by an act of parliament, which passed ott, 
the 14th of March following, with this remarkable clause,.^ 
that they should be held by tendering to the queen, her 
heirs and successors, on August 2, every year for ever, at 
the castle of Windsor, a standard with three Bears de lys 
painted thereon. Jan. 6, the duke was magnificently en-, 
tertained by the city; and Feb. 8, tbe commons addressed 
the queen, to testify their thanks for the wise treaty which 
tlie duke had concluded with the court. of Berlin, by which 

^ a large body pf Prussian troops were sent to the assistance 

* of the duke of Savoy. 

The next year, 1705, he went over to Holland in March,, 
with a design to execute some great schemes, which he 
had been projecting in the winter. The campaign wa$ 
attended with some successes, which would have made a 
Considerable figure in a campaign under any other general, 
but are scarcely worth mentioning where the duke of 
Marlborough commanded. He could not carry into exe** 
cution his main project, on account of the impediments he 
met with from the allies, and in this respect was greatly 
disappointed. The season for action being over, he made 
a tour to the courts of Vienna, Berlin, and Hanover. At 
the first of these he acquired the entire confidence of the 
new emperor Joseph, who presented him with the priu«. 
cipality of Mindelheim : at the second, he renewed the 
contract for the Prussian . forces : and at the third, be 
restored a perfect harmony, and adjusted every thing tq 
the electorV satisfaction. After this he returned »to.the. 
Hague, and towards the close of the year embarked for, 
and arrived safe in England. In J^iuary the house, of 
commons came to a resolution, to thank his grace of Marl^. 
borough, as well for his prjudent negotiations, as for liis. 
great services : but notwithstanding this, it very aioon. ap' 
peared that there was a strong party formed agaipst the war^« 
and steps were taken to censure and disgrace the duke. 

All things being concerted for rendering the next year's 
campaign more successful than the former, the duke> m 
the beginning of April, 1 706, embarked for Holland. Thia 
year the famous battle of Ramilies was fought, and won 
upon May 12, being Whitsunday. The duke was. twice 
here in the utmost danger, once by a fall from his borse^ 
and a second time by a canhonrsfaot, which took off the. 

' head of colonel Bingfield,^ as he was holding the sticrup 
for him to remount. The advantages, gained by. ihisyiq^ 


t6ry #ere so far improved by the vigilance and wisdom of 
tbe dukei that Louvain, Brussels, Mechlin, and even Ghent 
and Bruges, submitted to king Charles without a stroke ( 
and Oudenard surrendered upon the first summons. The 
city of Antwerp followed this example; and thus, in thd 
short spape of a fortnight, the duke reduced all Brabant^ 
and the marquisate of the holy empire, to the obedience of 
king Charles. He afterwards took the towns of Ostend, 
Menin, Dendermonde, and Aeth. The forces of the allies 
after this glorious campaign being about to separate, his 
grace went to the Hague Oct. 16, where the proposals, 
which France had made for a peace, contained in a letter 
from the elector of Bavaria to the duke of Marlborousrh. 
were communicated to the ministers of the allies, after 
which he embarked for England, and arrived at London 
Nov. 18, 170G ; and though at this time there was a party 
^nied against him at court, yet the great services he had 
done the nation, and the personal esteem the queen always 
bad for him, procured him an universal good reception* 
The house of commons, in their address to the queen, 
spoke of the success of the campaign in general, and of 
the duke bf Marlborough's share in particular, in the strong* 
est tefms possible ; and the day after unanimously voted 
him their thanks, as did the lords. They went still far* 
tber ; for, Dec. 17, they addressed the queen for leave to 
bring in a bill to settle the duke's honours upon the male, 
and. female issue of his daughters. This was granted ; and^ 
Blenheim-bouse, with the manor of Woodstock, was, after 
the decease of the duchessj upon whom they were settled 
in jointure, entailed in the same manner with the honours. 
Two days after this, tfae standards and colours taken at 
Rainilies being carried in state through the city, in order 
to be hung up in Guildhall, the duke, by invitation, par^^ 
took of a grand dinner with the lord- mayor. The last day 
of the year was appointed for a general thanksgiving, and 
her majesty went in state to St. Paul's ; in which there 
was this singularity observed, that it was the second thanks- 
giving within the year. Jan. 17, the bouse of commons 
|:^esented an address to the queen, in which they signified,, 
that as her majesty had built the boose of Blenheim to per-* 
p^tuate the memory of the duke of Marlborough's services, 
and as the house of lords bad ordered a bill for continuing 
bis honours^ so they were desirous to make some provision 
for the more honourable support of bis dignity. In conse^ 

» » 

334 C a U ft C H 1 L' L. 

quence of this, and of the queen's answer, the pension of 
5000/. per ann. from the post-office was settled in the manner 
the queen had formerly desired of another house of commons, 
which happened not to be in quite so good a temper. 

These points adjusted, the duke made haste to return to 
his charge, it being thought especially necessary he should 
acquaint the foreign ministers at the Hague, that the 
queen of Great Britain would hearken to ho proposals for 
a peace, but what would firmly secure the general tran- 
quillity of Europe. The campaign of the year 1707 proved 
the most barren he ever made, which was chiefly owing to 
a failure on the part of the allies, who began to be remiss 
in supporting the common cause. Nor did things go on 
more to his mind at home ; for upon bis return to England^, 
after the campaign was over, he found that the fire, which 
he suspected the year before, had broke out in his absence; 
that the queen bad a female favourite, who was in a fair 
way of supplanting the duchess ; and that she listened to 
the insinuations of a statesman who was no friend to him. 
He is said to have borne all this with firmness and patience, 
though he easily saw whither it tended; and^ went to Hol- 
land as usual, early in the spring of 1708, arriving at the 
Hague March 19. The ensuing campaign was carried on 
by the duke, in conjunction with prince Eugene, with 
such prodigious success, that the French king thought fit, 
in the beginning of 17C9, to set on foot a negotiation for 
peace. The house of commons this year gave an uncom- 
mon testimony of their respect for the duke of MarK 
borough; for, besides -addressing the queen, they, Janu- 
ary 22, 1709, unanimously voted bim thanks, and ordered 
theqi to be transmitted to him abroad by the speaker. He 
returned to England Feb. 25, and on his first appearance 
in the house of lords, received the thanks of that august^ 
assembly. His stay was so very short, that we need not 
dwell upon what passed in the winter. It is sufficient to 
say, that they who feared the dangerous effects of those 
artful proposals France had been making for the conclu- 
sion of a general peace, were also of opinion, that nobody 
was so capable of setting their danger in a true light in 
Holland as his grace of Marlborough. This induced the 
queen to send him thither, at the end of March, witji the 
character of her plenipotentiary, which contributed not a 
little to the enemy's disappointment, by defeating all their 


Marshal Villars commanded the French army in the cam-- 
paign of 1709 ; and Lewis XIV. expressed no small hope^ 
of him, in saying a little before the opening of it, that 
" Villars was never- beat." However the siege of Touruay, 
and tlie battle of Malplaquet, convinced the monarch that 
Villars was not invincible. Upon the news of the glorious 
victory gained Aug. 1, 1709, the city of London renewed 
their congratulatory addresses to the queen ; and her ma- 
jesty in council, Oct. 3, ordered a proclamation for a ge- 
neral thanksgiving. The duke of Marlborough came to 
St James's Nov. 10, and soon after received the thanks of 
both houses : and the queen, as if desirous of any occasion 
to shew her kindness to him, appointed him lord lieutenant 
and custos rotulorum of the county of Oxford. But amidst 
these honours, preferments, and favours, he was really 
chagrined to the last degree. He perceived that the 
French intrigues began to prevail both in England and 
Holland : the affair of Dr. Sacheverell had thrown the nar 
tion into a ferment ; and the queeu was not only estranged 
from the duchess of Marlborough, but had taken such a 
dislike to her that she seldom appeared at court. 

In the beginning of 1710 the French set on foot a new 
negotiation for a,peace, which was commonly called the 
treaty of Gertruydenburg. The States upon this having 
shewn an inclination to enter into conferences with the 
French plenipotentiaries, the house of commons imme- 
diately framed an address to the queen, that she would be 
pleased to send the. duke of Marlborough over to the 
Hague. Accordingly, towards the latter end of February 
he went to the Hague, where he met with prince Eugene^ 
and soon after set out with him for the army, which was 
assembled in the neighbourhood of Tournay. This cam- 
paign was very successful, many towns being tak6n and 
fortresses reduced : notwithstanding which, when the duke 
came over to England, as he did about the jxiiddle of De- 
cember, he found his interest declining, and. bis services 
undervalued. The negotiations for peace were carried on 
during a great part of the summer, but ended at last in 
nothing. In the midst of the summer, the queen l^ega)t^ 
the great change in her ministry, by removing the earl of 
Sunderland from being secretary of state ; and on Aug. 8, 
the lord treasurer Godolphin was likewise removed. Upon 
the meeting of parliament no notice was taken in the ad- 
dresses of the duke of Marlborough^s success : an attempt 


indeed was made to procure bim the thanks of the bouse 
oif peers, but it was eagerly opposed by the duke of Afgyle. 
His grace was kindly received by the queen, who seemed 
desirous to have him live upon good terms with her new 
ministry; but this was thought impracticable, and it was 
every day expected that he would lay down his commission* 
He did not do this ; but he carried the golden key, the 
ensign of the duchess of Marlborough's office, January 
19, 1711, to the queen, and resigned all her employments 
with great duty and submission. With the' same firmness 
and composure he consulted the necessary measures for 
the next campaign, with those whom he knew to be no 
friends of his; and treated all parties with candour and 
respect. There is no doubt that the duke felt some in- 
ward disquiet, though he shewed no outward concern, at 
least for himself: but when the earl of Galway was very 
indecently treated in the house of lords, the duke of Marl- 
borough could not help saying,- " it was somewhat strange, 
that generals, who had acted according to the best of th^ir 
understandings, and bad lost their limbs in their service,* ' 
should beexamined like offenders about insignificant things.'' 
An exterior civility, in court language styled a good 
understanding, being established between the duke and 
the new ministry, the duke went over to the Hague, to 
prepare for the next campaign, which at the same time he 
knew would be his last He exerted himself in an uncom- 
mon manner, and was attended with the same success as 
iusual. There was in this campaign a continued trial of 
skill between the dlike of Marlborough and marshal Villars; 
and brave and judicious as the latter was, he was obliged 
at leogth to submit to the former. The duke embarked 
for England wb^n the campaign was over, and came to 
JLondon Nov. 8 ; and happening to land the very night of 
queen Elizabetb^s inauguration, when great rejoicings were 
intended by the populace, he continued very prudently at 
Greenwich, ^nd the next day waited on the queen at 
Hampton;^court^ who received him graciously. He was 
visited by the ministers, and visited them ; but he did not 
go to council, because a negotiation of peace was then on 
the carpet, upon a basis which he did by no means ap- 
prove. He acquainted her majesty in the audience he had 
at his arrival, thut as he could not concur in the measures 
of those who directed her councils, so he would not dis- 
trict them by a fruitless opposition. Yet finding himself ^ 


a^tftck^d in the house of lords, and loaded with the impu^ 
tation of having protracted the war, he vindicated bis con^ 
duct and character with great dignity and spirit; add in a 
most pathetic speech appealed to the queen, bis mistress, 
who was diere inco^ito, for the fialsehood of that imputa- 
tion ; declaring, tluit he was as much for peace as any man, 
pcovided it was such a peace as might be. expected from 
»^ war undertaken on such just motives, and carried on 
. with ' uninterrupted success. This had a great effect on 
that august asseoibly, and perhaps made some inq)res« 
sion on the queen i but at the same time it gave such an 
edge- 4;orthe> resentment of his enemies, who were then in 
power, that they resolved at all adventures to remove him^ 
Those who were thus resolved to divest him of his commis-* 
sjnn, found theinselves under a necessity, to engage the 
queeci to take it from him. This necessity, aiose chiefly 
from prince Eugene's being expected to come over with a 
cQmmis$ioQ from the emperor ; and to gii^e some kind of, 
colour to it, an inquiry was promoted in the house of com-^ 
mens, to fix a very high imputation upon, the duke, as if he 
had. put v^y large sums of public^money into hisown pocket*- 
When a question to this purpose had been carried, the 
Jpieen, by a letter, .conceilved in very obscure terms^ ac^ 
quainted him with her liaviag no &rther occason for his 
service, anddisioissed him from all his employments. , 

He was from this^ time ex{H>sed to a most painful.perse*' 
cution%. Qn the one hand, he wa» attacked by the:olamoitrs 
oE.the pqpulaeej and by those i»reUugs»of the press who 
are always readyto espouse the quarrels of a ministry, and 
to insult withouiLn^€^cy whoever they knowmay be insulted 
with iinipunity : on the other hand^ a prosectttion was x^m*- ' 
menced against Um by the attorney^ general^ for applying 
pi|blio iponeytoihis private use; and. the workmen :em-« 
' played 'la building Ble^dieim'^house, though set at work by ' 
the crowo^ were encouraged to sue hifQ iFor the moneyrthat 
was. due to them* All his aetions. were alsQ shamefully 
m|sr^resented. These uneasioe^es, joined to his grief 
fof the death' of the earl of Opdolpbin, induoedhim to^ 
gratify his enemies, by going into a voluotary exile* Acn - 
cordingly Jie epibarked at Dover, ifi^ovember 14^ 1712^ 
and. landing at Ostend, went to Amweiii!, and so to Aix la 
CbapeUe, being . every where receive - with . the ^honours 
due to bis high rank and merit* The duchess .also attended 
)ie|. lord in all his joulrney s, and pKtiouhrlyialu9 viaitJi) the 

Vol. IX. Z 

S3S C H U % C H I L t. 

prineipality of Mindelhetniy which was given him by the 
emperor, arid exchanged for another at the peace^. which 
was made while the duke was abroad. The conclusion of 
tliat peace was so* far from' restoring harmony among the 
several parties of Great^Britain^ that it widened their dif-^ 
ferences exce^ingly : inaonmcfa that the chiefs, despair-* 
ing of safety ^in the way they were in, are said to have 
secretly invited the duke back to England. . Be that as jit 
ni^U, it ts very oeitain that betook a resolution of return-^ 
ingy a little before the queen's death; and landing at' 
Dover, came to London, Aug* 4^ 1714. : He was received 
with all demonstrations of joy, by those who^ upofo the 
demise of the queen, < which had happened upon the Ist, 
were entrusted with the government; and upon the arrival 
of George I. was particulariy distinguished by acts of royal 
&vour: for he was again declared captain-'generaL and 
€X)aimander in chief of ail his majesty^s laond forces, colonel 
of the first regiment of foot guards, and master of the 

His advice was of greatuse in concerting those measunes 
by wJiich the rebellion in . 1 715 • was crushed ; and this ad-« 
vice was the last effort he nsade in respect to public a£birs^ 
for hia infirmities^ increasing widx his years, he netired.frofa 
bulttness, and' spent the greaitest . part of bis»time, divini; 
the remainder of his life, at one or other of his country^ 
hou^s. During bis last years he suffered a decay of his 
mental Aioulties,/ which terminated in bis death June 16^ 
1722, in his 73d year, at Windsor-^Iodge ; aodiiis corpse^ 
on Aug. 9, was interred^ with the highest solemnity in 
Westminster'-abbey; Besides the marquia of Blandford^ 
whom we have already mentioned, he bad four daughters^ 
who married into the best families of the kingdom; • ^ i. 

Various 'characters have been given of.' this illtiatrioufl| 
nobleman, whom party prejudice sniseepresented m hi» 
Kfe-time, and who has since been censured by succeeding 
writers, some of whom seem to have become more bold iar 
proportion to their distance from his time, and from all 
opportunities of jndging widi imparticdiliy. A late hiatorian^ 
however, seems with great justice to characterise him as 
possessing the acoomplisbmentscf a statesman \and courtier 
in a degree inferior to none of his contempotariea; while, 
his military talents raised hhn far above all livalship and 
competition. The natural advantages of « fine figure and 
dignified mien, embellished with all the graces of :the oourv 


to which he was introduced at an early stage of life, befoim 
his more useful qualifications were discovered, made lord 
ChurcbilLthe first object of notice and admiration in every 
polite circle. While these ext^ior excellencies r^com.^ 
meiided him as the fittest person to be employed on btisi^ 
ness of compliment at foreign courts, hb fascinating ad- 
dress, his political knowledge, and hia acute penetration 
into characters, rendered him the most able and successful 
negociator in the more weighty afiairs of state. His early 
proficiency in every branch of warlike science^ and his 
meritorious exploits in the station of a subaltern cBm«- 
mander, had excited a general expectation of his ascending 
to distinguished supertority in the line of his. profession J 
The history of ten eventful campaigns demonstrated that 
nothing was expected from him which he did not perform; 
and thattibeie was not a single accomplishment of a genemly 
in which he did aot excelL. His comprehensive and vadooa* 
capacii^ was equally adapted to complicated aad detached 
ol^jepts. In the several departments of plan and strats^^em, 
aa4 of etilerprisse and actloo, he was alike successful. The^ 
general arrangement of the campaign^ and the dispositiona 
wbidi. he made in the day of battle, the choice of ground^ 
his composure and presence of mind in the heat, of an' 
engagemetit, his improvement of victory, and his ready 
expedients under bad foi*tune, for a defeat he never Irnew^ • 
were all evidences of such diversity o£ talents^ and such a ' 
stupendous pitch of military genius, as never were^sur*^ 
passed by Uiose of the greatest commanded in «icient and' 
modern timesb 

The onlj^ personal fiiiling attributed to the duke of MarU ' 
borough, upon any fair evidence^ was avadce ; but haw fiur 
he owes the impulataou. of that to himself, or* ta die fliis«- 
conduct and caprice of one nearly allied. to himy>amd to 
wbom it was his weakness too subservient, ma^ admit 
of a doubt. Tiiat Saisfa, duress of Marlborough, brought 
her husband . into freq^sent trouble and diagfocp seeaaa u>^ 
be generally acknowledged*; tuid Swift was not iiar wrong ' 
when he said that the :d»ke: owed to her. both hia greatness 
(his promotions) atid his fall. No womati was perhaps ever 
less formed by uatureaad habit for a couvt,:yet she arrived 
to such a pitch of gnusdeur at the court of -queen Aune, 
tha( her aojirereign was^ in fact, but the second person in it. . 
Never were two wosaeu moore the reverse of one anotheria 
their natural dispositions, than queea.Anne and the ducfaesa 

z 2 


of Marlborough ; yet neret had any servant a greater as- 
cendancy over a mistress, than the latter had over the for* 
mer. But though the duchess did not rise by a court, yet 
ske rose by a party, of which she had the art to put her 
mistress at the head, who was merely the vehicle of her 
sentiments, and the minister of her avarice. Few sove- 
reign prinoes in Europe could, from their own revenues, 
command such sums of ready money, as the duchess did 
during the last thirty* five yearg of her life. Conscious-at 
length that she had incurred the contempt of the nation,' 
she employed Hooke, the Roman historian, at the price of 
5000/* to write a defence of her, which was published in 
1?42« under the title of ^^ An account of th^ conduct of 
the Dowager Duchess of Marlborough, from her first 
coming to court to the year 1710. In a letter from her* 

s/3l£to my lord — ^ -." This work excited oonmderable 

atl;^tion at the time of its appearance, and gave rise to 
many strictures and some controversy. The ease and ele<^ 
gance with which the book is composed, the toecdoles it 
relates,, and the original letters, it contaiiis, render it by no 
ngteans an uninteresting performance ; and it is not without 
its use . jm the elucidation of our general histoiy. Kever- 
theless, from the* prejudice aftd passion wherewith the 
duchess, or rather her amanuensis, writes, from her severity 
to.her enemies, and from the malignity she displays against 
the memories of king William and queen Mary, she ha3 
contrived to make her own character stand in no higher a 
degree of estimation than that in which it was held befoi^ 
Lord Orford, who, on account of this book, has introduced 
her among his ^^ Royal and Noble Authors,'' very justly 
'xemacks on it, that ^^ it is seldom the public receives in- 
formation on princes and favourites ^m the fountain-head : 
flattery or invective is apt to pervert the rd^ons of others. 
It is from their own pens alone,- whenever they are so gra- 
cious, like the lady in question, as to- have. * a passion for 
fame, and approbation,', that we learn exactly^ how trifling 
and foolish and ridiculous their views and actions were, and 
how often the mischief they did proceeded from the most 
inadequate causes." 

It is well known that Pope's character of Atossa was de- 
signed for her ; and when these lines were shewn to her 
grace, as if ^ they were intended for the portrait of the 
duchess of Buckingham, she soon stopped the person that 
vas reading them to her, and called out aiopd-^^^ I camiot. 


be so imposed upon — I see plainly enough for whom they 
are designed ;'' and abused Pope for theattack, though she 
was afterwards reconciled to, arid courted him. The vio- 
lence of the duchess of Marlborough^s temper, which is so 
strongly painted in the character of Atossa, frequently 
broke out into wonderful and ridiculous indecencies. In 
the last illness of the great duke her husband, when Dr. 
Mead left his chamber, the duchess, disliking his advice, 
followed him down stairs, swore at him bitterly, and was 
going to tear off his perriwig. Dr. Hoadly, the late bishop 
of Winchester, was present at tliis scene. Disappointed 
ambition, great wealth, jtnd increasing years, rendered her 
more and more peevish. She bated courts, says lord Hailes, 
over which she bad no influence, and she became at length 
the most ferocious animal that is suffered to go loose — a 
violent party-woman. In the latter part of her life she 
became bed-ridden. Paper, pens, and ink Were placed by 
her side, and she used occasionally to write down either 
what she remembered, or what came into her head. A se» 
lection fronj these loose papers was made in the way of 
diary, by sir David Dalrymple, lord Hailes, under the title 
of "The Opinions of Sarah, Duchess of Marlborough, 
published from the original MSS." 1788, 12mo, which 
Mr. Park, who has given a specimen, very properly cha- 
racterises as the effusions of caprice and arrogapce. This 
lady died Oct. 1 8, 1744.* 

CHURCHYARD (Thomas), a voluminous poet of the 
sixteenth century, was born in Shrewsbury about the year 
1520. Wood, who has given a long account of him, says 
he was of a genteel family, and well educated ; and that at 
the age of seventeen, his father gave him a sum of money, 
and sent him to court, where he lived in gaiety while his 
finances lasted. He does not seem, however, to have 
gained any thing by his attendance at court, except his 
introduction to the celebrated earl of Surrey, with whom 
he lived some time as domestic, and by whose encourage- 
ment he produced some of his poems. He certainly had 
no public employment either how or in queen Elizabeth's 

1 Biojf. Brit.— Lediard'it Lif« of the Dalf^e of Marlborough.— Swia's Works, 
see Index. — Ban^et*s Own Times. — Chesterfield's Letters and Memoirs by Di*. 
Maty.-'-Bov'Ies's edition of Pope's Works. — Somerville's History of Queen 
Anne, p. 251. — Continuation of Rapin's History. — Park's edition of the Royal 
and Noble Authors. — Mirror, No. 21, a paper by Lord Hailes.— Gent. Hag. 
1742; Dr. Johnson's Remarks on the Duchess's Apology.— Cove's Memoirs of 
• Wal^e» 


reign, although some have denonsinated him poet laureit, 
merely, as Mr. Malone thinks, ^^ because he had addressed 
many of the noblemen of Elizabeth's court for near forty 
yearsy and is* called by one of his contemporaries, the old 
court poet." He appears, however, to have continued with 
th6 earl of Surrey, until this virtuous and amiable noble- 
man was sacrificed to the tyrannical caprice of Henry VIII. 
Churchyard now became a soldier, and made several cam- 

?aigns on the continent, in Ireland, and in Scotland, 
'anner is inclined to think that he served the emperor in 
f landers against the French in the reign of Henry VIII. ; 
but the differences of dates between his biographers are 
jiot now so reconcileable as to enable us to decide upon this 
part of his history. Wood next informs us that he spent 
some time at Oxford^ and was afterwards patronized by the 
carl of Leicester. He then became enamoured .of a rich 
widow; but his passion not meeting with success, he once 
more returned to the profession of arms, engaged in foreign 
service, in which he suffered great hardships, and met with 
many adventures of thfe romantic kind ; and in the course 
of them appears to have been always a favourite among the 
ladies. At one time, in Flanders, he was taken prisoner, 
but escaped by the ** endeavours of a lady of considerable 
quality;*' and at another time, when condemned to death as 
a spy, he was reprieved and sent away by the "endeavours 
of a noble dame." On his return he published a great 
variety of poems on all subjects ; but there is reason to 
think that by these he gained more applause than profit, as 
it is very certain that he lived and died poor. The time of 
bis death, until lately was not ascertained ; Winstaqley and 
Cibber place that event in 1570, Fuller in 1602, and Oldys 
in 1604, which last is correct. Mr. George Chalmers, in 
bis ** Apology for the believers in the Shakspeare MSS." 
gives us an extract from the parish register, proving that 
he was buried April 4, of tjiat year, in St. Margaret^'s 
f^hurch, W0$tminster, near the grave of Skelton. Mr. 
D'Israeli, who h^ts introduced him in bis ^* Calamities of 
Authors," very aptly characterises him as *^ one of those 
imfortunate men, who have written poetry all their days, 
t^nd lived a long life, to complete the misfortune." His 
works are minutely enumerated by Ritson in his ^* Biblio- 
graphia Poetica," and some well-selected specimens have 
lately appeared in the Censura Literaria. The best of bis 
poeqi^, in point of genius^ is his ^' Legend^ of Jape Sbore^' - 


9fid the most popular, his "Worthiness of Wales/* 1580, 
8vo, of which an edition was published in 1776. It may 
be added, as it has escaped his biographers, that he is men- 
tioned by Strype, in his life of Grindal, as " an excellent 
soldier, and a man of honest principles," who in 15&9 gava 
the secretary of state notice of an intended rising at Bath 
(where Churchyard then was) among the Romau catholiqs. \ 
CHYTRiEUS (David), whose family name was Koch* 
bafe, or Rochhafe, was an eminent Lutheran divine, and a 
promoter of the reformation. He was born at logelsing in 
Soabia, ia 1530, of parents who, discerning his capacity, 
bestowed much pains on his education, and in hi» ninth 
year sent him to Tubingen, where he was placed under the 
ablest masters. Such was his proficiency that he was soon 
after admitted into the university of that place, ^nd at the 
age of fifteen took his master^s degree with the greatest 
credit. He then went to Wittemberg, and studied under 
Melancthou, who expressed himself surprised at his having 
so early attained academic honours, and received him into 
. bis house. There also he heard spme of Luther^ lectures. 
After Luther's death, and the interruption which the wars 
occasioned to the university of Wittemberg, ChytrsBUs 
went to Heidelberg, where he studied Hebo-ew, and to 
Tubingen, where he took some lessons in mathematics; 
but prince Maurice having restored the university of Wit- 
temberg, and recalled Melancthon, Chytrasus went back 
also, and conapleted his theological course. In 1548, hav- 
ing raised some money by private teaching, he visited a 
considerable part of Italy, and on bis return was invited to 
become one of the professors of the university of Rostock, 
where he acquired such reputation for learning, that various 
offers were made to him by the princes pf Germany, and 
by the universities, all which he declined ; and yet when 
prince John Albert offered to increase his stipend as An 
inducement for him to remain at Rostock, he refused to 
accept jt. He travelled, however, occasionally during his 
residence here to such places as he was invited to assist the 
reformation, or to give advice in founding schools and 
colleges, but always returned in time for his regular courses 

1 Wood'i Ath. Ox. vol. I.-^Tftnner.-«»PaIIer*s Worthief.-«AVinstan1ey>s Poets. 
^Warton's Hist 9f Poeury, yol. IN. p. 11, 2U,215, 96Q, 280,981, 291, 42U-. 
PhtUps's Tbeatrum, by sir £. Biydges, p. 71.-«Cett8ura Literaria, tqI. II. ltl« 
mad IV.— Cooper's Muses' Librury, p. 117.— Strype's Grindalj in. - 

344 C H Y T R iE U S. 

of lectures; and amidst his many public efnpioymenti^ 
found leisure to write a great many works on subjects of 
theology, philology, and history, which extended his 
fame. He died June 25, 1600. His principal works are, 
a commentary on the Revelations, and ^' Chronologia his-^ 
toriee Herodoti et Thucydidis,*' Stras'burgh, 1563, 8vo; 
" Chronicon anni 1593, 1594^ etjnitii 1595," Leipsic, 1595,- 
8vo. We have also, written by his son, " Vita D. Chytraei 
memori^ posteritatis orationibus et carminibus consecrata,^' 
Rostock, 1601, 4to. There is an edition of his whole 
works, printed at Hanover, 1 604, 2 vols, folio ; but Frey tag . 
giv^s the preference to the life of ChytroBUs^ written by 
Otto Frederic Schurzius, under the title ** De vita D. Chy-*:^ 
trs&i commentariorum libri quatuor, ex editis et ineditis 
nionumentis ita concinnata, ut sit annalium instar et sup- 
plementorum.Hist. Eccles. seculi XVI. speciatim rerum ia. 
Lutherana ecclesia et academia Rostocbiensi gestarum,^*' 
Hamburgh, 1720 — 1728, 4 vols. 8vo. Of so much import- 
ance was Chytraeus above a century after his death> that his 
personal history was thought a proper foundation ami con- 
necting medium for a general history of the Lutherao 

CIAC0NIU8, or CHACO (Alphonsus), a Spanish 
author of considerable celebrity, a Dominican, and titular 
patriarch of Alexandria, was born in 1540 at Baega in An*' 
dalusia, and died at Roine in February 1599, but some 
writers say that he was' living ih 1601. A great number 
of his works remain ; the most considerable among which is 
entitled ^^ Vitse et gesta< Romanorum ppntiScum et car-i^ 
dinalium;^' which, with the continuation, was printed at 
Rome, 1676, 4 vols, folio ; the sequel down to ClementXII. 
was published by Marie Guarnacci, Rome, 1751, 2 vols.^ 
folio; ^^ Bibliotheca Scriptorum ad annum 1583," Paris^ 
1791, folio^ and Amsterdam, 1732, folio. This last con- 
sists of the Paris edition, which the Dutch bookseller bad* 
bought, with some additions by the editors, and goes no^ 
farther than E. He wrote^ also ^^ Historia utfiusque Bellit 
Dacioi, in columna Trajana expressi, cum figuris seiieis,^^r 
Rome, 1616, oblong folio. In this work he betrays no 
little superstition^ by labouring to prove that the soul of 

) MdchioF Adam in vitif Qer« Th^oL^lfraberi Thflaitnuo.«^Freyta|p AdfartU. 
liater^r.— SaiLii Onosaast. 


, C I A C O N I U S. 345 

Tmjan w4s delivered otit of hell at the intercession of St« 
Gregory. » 

ClACONIUS (Peter), brother to the preceding, aod 
a very learned critic of Spain, was born at Toledo in 1525, 
and died at Rome in 158). He was employed with others 
by pope Gregory XIII. in correcting the calendar, and 
also in revising an edition of the Bible, and of some other 
wcnrks printed at the Vatican. He wrote learned notes 
upon Amobius, Tertullian, Cassian, Ccesar, Pliny, Te« 
rence, &c. He was the author, likewise, of some sepa- 
rate little treatises, one particularly, '* De Triclinio Ro<^ 
mano;*' which, with those of Fulvius Ursinus and Mercu* 
rialis upon the same subject, was published at Amsterdam^ 
1^89, in 12mo, with figures' to illustrate the descriptions.^ 

CIAMPINI (John Justin), a learned Italian, was born 
at Rome April 11, 1633. He quitted the «tudy of the 
civil law for the practice of the apostolical chanceiy, and 
at the same time found leisure to cultivate the sciences 
and polite literature. It was by his care and activity that 
the academy of ecclesiastical history was instituted at Rome 
in 1671, and in 1677 he established under the auspices of 
the famous queen Christina, an academy of mathematics 
and natural history, which, by the merit of its members, 
soon became known throughout £urope. Ciampini died 
July 12, 1698, aged sixty-five. His writings •are : I, 
*^ Conjecture de perpetuo azymorum usu in ecclesia La- 
tina,*' 168^, 4to. 2. ^' Vetera monumenta, |n quibus 
prsBcipua Musiva opera, sacrarom profanarumque ssdium 
structura, dissertationibus ieonibusque illustrantur,'' Rome, 
1^90, 1699, 2 vols. fol. This is an investigation of the 
origin of the most curious remains of the buildings be- 
longing to ancient Rome, with explanations and plates of 
those monuments. 3. <' Synopsis historica de sacris sedi- 
ficiis a Constantino Magno constructis,*' 1693, fol. 4. An 
examination of the '^ Lives of the Popes*' said to be writ- 
ten by Anastasius Bibliothecarius, calculated to prove that 
Anastasius wrote only the lives of Gregory IV. Sergius IL 
Leo IV. Benedict III. and Nicholas I. and that the others 
were written by different authors, as we have already no- 
ticed in our account of Anastasius. Ciampini published 

I Moreri.— Maryland DicL Hist.— Dupin.— *Frriieri Theatraiii.-iii^a3di Ono* 
masticon. ^ 

* Ibid.— Bount*! Ceniurai— Baillet JogeiMas.<—Freytag Adparat. Lit.<-« 

346 C I A M P I N I. 

many other (ftssertation^, both in Italian and Latin, and 
left a great many manuscripts, of both which Fabroni has 
the most complete catalogue.* 

GIBBER (Colley), poet-Iaoreat to George II. and a 
dramatic writer of considei'able genius, was born in Soutb*« 
ampton-street, London, November 6, 167I. His father, 
Cai us Gabriel Cibber, was an eminent statuary^, and his 
mother was the daughter of William Colley, esq. of ao'an* 
cient family of Gkiston, in Rutland. He took bis Chri«^- 
tian name from her brother, Edward CoUey, esq. In 1682 
he was sent to the free*school of Grantham, in Lincoln* 
shire ; and such learning he tells us, as that school could 
give him, is the most he ever pretended to, neither utterly 
forgetting, nor much improving it afterwards by study. 
In 1687 be stood at the election of Winchester scholars, 
upon the credit of being descended by his mother^s side 
from William of Wykeham, the founder; but not suc- 
ceeding, he prevailed with his father, who intended him 
for the church, to send him to the university. The revo-* 
lution of 168B, however, gave a turn to Cibber^s fortune; 
and instead of going to an university, he supplied his fa- 
ther's place^io the army, under the earl of Devonshirie, at 
Nottingham, who was on his road to Cbatsworth, in 
Derbyshire; There his father was then employed, with 

. * Ci^tas Gabriel Cibber, or Cibert, ciited also most of Uie statues of 

son of a cabinet-maker to the king of kinj^s round the Royal Sxcbange, as 

Benmark, was bom at Flensburg, in far as king Charles ; and that of sir 

tbeidccby of Hoi stein, and diseorering Thomas 'Oretharo^ in -the piazza be* 

'a talent for sculpture, was sent at the neath. 11ie first dnke of 'Deronshire 

king's expenee to Rome. He came employed bim much at ^Chatsworth, 

W England not long before the restora" where- two .aphtnxes on .laige bases» 

tkm, apd worked for John Stone, son well executed, and with oroamenta in 

ti Nicholas, who, going to Holland, good taste, are of his work ; and till 

•nd being seized wKh a palsy, Gibber Tory lately ihere was a statue af Nep< 

liis foreman was aent to conduct bim tun^ in a fountain, still better^ He 

Iiome. He afterwards became canrer' carved there several door-cases of ala- 

to the king*s closet. He was twice baster, with rich foliage, «od maay 

narried. It was bis second wife who ornaments in the cb«pel ; ,fiid,Pii ea,ch 

was the mother of Colley. The Inost side of the altar is a statue by him, 

capital of his works are the two admi- Faith and Hope ; the draperies, hove 

table figures of Melancholy and raving ' great merit, but tiie airs of tliOilfeadi 

JUadness, before the front of Bethlehem, are not so good as that of the Neptune* 

His other works are the bas-reliefs on Gibber built the Daniah church in Lon- 

two sides of the Monument ; the foun- don, and was buried there 'hims^f* 

tain in Soho-square i and one. of the with hi« second wifQ, for whom i| mo- 

fiue vases at Hampton- court, said to nument was erected in 1696, He died 

he done in competition with a foreigner himself about 17()(H at the age of 8e« 

who executed the other, but nobody venty. Walpole's Anecdotef of P/ti^t* 

to told uiL which is Gibber's : be exe- ing, &c. 

> Moreri.-i»FabroQi Vitae ItaL col. V!. 

C I B B E R. Si7 

other artbts of all kinds, ichangine the architecture and 
decorations of that seat. The revolution having been ac- 
complished without bloodshed, Gibber had no opportunity 
of proving his valour, and immediately determined to gra- 
tify a very early inclination he had somehow formed for 
the stage. Here, however, he did not meet with much 
encouragement at first, being full three quarters of a year 
before he was taken into a, salary of 105. per week ; yet' 
thi^, with the assistance of food and raiment at his father's 
house, he tells us he then thought a most plentiful acces- 
sion, and himself the happiest of mortals. The first part 
in which he appeared with any success, was the chaplain 
in the ** Orphan,** which he performed so well, that Good* 
,man, an old celebrated actor, affirmed with an oath, that 
he would one day make a good actor. This commendation 
from an acknowledged judge, filled his bosom, as he tells 
vs, with such transports, that he questioned whether 
Alexander himself, or Charles XII. of Sweden, felt greater 
bt the head of their victorious armies. The next part he 
played, was that of Lord Touchwood, in Congreve*s 
^* Double Dealer,'* acted before queen Mary ; which be pre- 
pared upon only one day's notice, by the recommendation 
of the author, and so well, that Congreve declared he 
had not only answered, but exceeded his expectations; and 
from the character he gave of him, his salary was raised 
from 1 5^. a week, as it then stood, to 205. The part of 
Fondlewife, in the ^^ Old Batchelor," was the next in 
which he distinguished himself. 

All this applause, however, did not advance him in the 
manner he had reason to expect ; and therefore, that his 
i^mbition might have another trial, he resolved to shew 
himself as a writer. With this view he wrote his first play, 
called " Love's last Shift," acted Jan. 1695, in which he 
performed the part of sir Novelty Fashion. This comedy 
met with great success, and the character of the fop wafe 
«owell executed, that from that time Gibber was consi- 
dered as having no equal in parts of the same cast He 
now turned his attention principally to writing, and it is 
observable, says he, *^ that my muse and my spouse (for 
Jbe was married at this time) were equally prolific ; the oti^ 
was seldom the mother of a child, but in the same year 
^he other made me the father of a play. I think we had 
«» do;?ea Qf ^^ch sort between us i of both which kinds some 

343 C I B/B E R. 

di^d in theii' iafancy, and near an equal number of each 
were alive when I qmtted the theatre.'' 

The ^^ Careless Husband,'* which is reckoned his b6st 
p1ay> was acted in 1704 with great success, a great por- 
tion of which he very handsomely places to the account of 
Mrs. Oldiield, a celebrated actress, who gave great spirit 
to the character of Lady Betty Modish ; yet not more than 
the author himself in the part of Lord Foppington, wherein 
he was inimitable. But of alt his plays, none was of more 
importance to the public and to himself, than his comedy 
called the "Nonjuror," which was acted in 1717, and 
dedicated to the king : the hint of it he took from the 
TartufFe of Moliere. It was considered, however, as a 
party piece, and it is said that, as he foresaw, he had never 
after fair-play given to any thing he wrot^, and was the 
constant butt of Mist in his '^ Weekly Journal,'* and of all 
the Jacobite faction. But this is not an exact state of the 
case. It is true that he incurred, the ridicule of the Ja- 
cobites, but the Jacobites only laughed at him in common 
with all the wits of the day. This general contempt was 
afterwards heightened by Pope's making him the hero of 
the " Dunciad" instead of Theobald, a transfer un- 
doubtedly mean and absurd on Pope's part, since what was 
written for Theobald, a dull plodder, . could never suit 
Cibber, a gay lively writer, and certainly a man of wit. 
However, if the Nonjuror brought upon its author some 
imaginary evils, it procured him also some advantage, for 
wHen be presented it to George L the king ordered him 
200/. and the merit of it, as he himself confesses, made 
him poet-laureat in 1730. Here again he incurred the 
xidiciile of his brother wit^ by his annual odes, which had 
no merit but their loyalty, lyric poetry being a species of 
writing for which he had not the least talent, and which 
be probably would not have attempted, had not his office 
rendered it necessary. These repeated efforts of his ene- 
mies sometimes hindered the success of his dramatic 
pieces ; and the attacks against him, in verse and in prose, 
were now numerous and incessant, as appears by the early 
volumes of the Gentleman's Magazine*. But he appears 
to have been so little a^ected by them, that he joined 


* Among the opponents of Cibber, we know of no individual who returns to 
often to the diarge at Fielding, both in hi$ novels and pUys, nor with such foree 
#f hiunonr. 


GIBBER. 349 

heartily in the laugh against himself, and even contri* 
buted to increase the merriment o^ the public at bis t>wa 
expence. * . 

The same year (1730)i be quitted the stage, though he. 
occasionally appeared on it afterwards; in particular, when* 
** Papal Tyranny in the, reign of king John," a tragedy q£ 
his own, was acted in 1744, he performed the part of 
Pandulph, the pope's legate, with great spirit and vigour^ 
though he was at that lime above seventy years of age. 
He died Dec. 12, 1757. His plays, such of them as he 
thought wojth preserving, he collected and published in 
2 vols. Though Pope has made him :the prince of. 
dunces, yet he was a man of part^, but vain, and never sQr 
happy as when among the great, making sport for people, 
who had n^ore money, but less wit than himself. Df. 
Johnson says he was by np means a bloqkh^adi. but by ar«: 
rogating to himself too mu^h, he was in danger of losing* 
that degree of estimation to which he was .entitled^ Of: 
this we have a proof in a work he published in 1747^ 
entitled " The Character and. Conduct of Cicero, con- 
sidered, from the {listory of his Life by the Rev, Dr. Mid*; 
dleton ; with occasional E.i^ays and Observations upon: 
the most memorable Facts and Persons during that Period,? > 
4 to. Cibber was much better qualified to estio^a^e the: 
merits of his brother comedians,, than tq investigate the/ 
conduct of Cicero. As to his moral ch£^racter». we know not- 
that any thing mean or dishonourable ha^eyer^ .been imputed 
to him, and his ^^ Letter to Pope,^' expostulating with Mm- 
for placing him in the Dunciad, does some, credit to his. 
spirit, and is ^ more able defence of, his conduct than! 
Pope could answer. Although addicted to the promiscuous* 
gallantries of the stage, and affecting the^^ gay seducer^^ 
to the last, he pleased the moral Richardson so well by his 
flattery, that the latter conceived a high i.d|ea of him, wd^ 
wondered on one occasion, that Dt. Johnson, th^n a young, 
man, could treat Cibber with familiarity! The be$t edition 
of Crbber's Works is that of .1760, in 5 vols. 12mo. His 
*^ Life,'^ from which jmuch of this article is taken, .has been 
^ftQii reprinted. \ 


. ^ Biog. Brit.— Biof. Pram.— 'Life wriUeo by himself; and that prefixed to. 
his works. — Swift's Works ; see Index.— ^Victor's Works, vol. I. p. 71, 72, 93, 
94i, &<;.— Davies*i Life of Garrick, vo\, I. and Dramatic MiscoHantes.— Richard- 
sqd's Correspondence. — Bowles's edit, of Pope's Works.— Ruff head's life of 
P»pe« 4t», p. 299.— Bosweli'sLifeof A>hnsQD. 

350 GIBBER. 

CIBBER (Theophilus), son of the above, was born in 
no^, and about 1716 sent to Winchester school; from 
ivhich, like his father, he passed almost directly to the 
stage, on which the power his father possessed as a manager, 
enabled him to come forward with considerable advantages, 
and, by his merit, he soon attained a share of the public 
fiivour. His manner of acting was in the same walk of 
diaracters which his father had supported, although, owing 
to some natural defects, he did not attain equal excellence. 
His person was far from pleasing, and the features of his 
face rather disgusting. His voice had the shrill treble, but 
not the musical harmony of his father^s. Yet still an appa- 
rent good understanding and quickness of parts, a perfect 
knowledge of what he ought to express, together with a 
confident vivacity in his manner, well adapted to the chaT 
racters he was to represent, would have ensured his suc- 
cess, had his private conduct been less imprudent or im- 
moraL But a total want of tBConomy led him into errors^ 
the consequences of which it was almost impossibly he' 
should ever be able to retrieve. A fondness for indul- 
gences, which a moderate income could not afford, induced 
him to submit to obligations, which it had the appearancef 
df meanness to accept; and his life was one continued 
seriies of distress, extravagance, and perplexity, till the 
winter, 1757, when he was engaged by Sheridan to go 
ewer to Dublin. On this expedition Gibber embarked at 
Park Gate, on board the Dublin Trader, some time in 
Gclober ; but the high winds, which are frequent then in 
St George's Cliannei, and which are fatal to many vessels 
in their passage from this kingdom to Ireland, proved 
particularly so to this. The vessel wia.s driven on the coast 
of 'Scotland, where it was cast away ; and Gibber lost his 
life* A few of the passengers escaped in a boat, but the 
ship wa6 so entirely lost, that scarcely any vestiges of it 
remained, excepting a box of books and piapefs, which 
were known to be Gibber's, and which were cast up on 
the western coast of Scotland. 

As a writer, he has not rendered himself very conspi- 
cuous, excepting in some appeals to the public, written 
in a fantastical style, on peculiar circumstances of his own 
distressed life. He altered for the stage three pieces of 
other authors, and produced one of his own, viz. 1/ 
" Henry VI.** a tragedy from Shakspeare. 2. " The 
Lover,'* a comedy. 3. *^ Pattie and Peggy,'* a ballad 
opera* 4> An alteration of Shakspeare*s ** Romeo and 

C I B B £ R. 9H 

Juliet^ His name has also appeared to a series of ** The 
Lives of. the Poets,^' 5 vols. 12mOy with which some ha?e 
said be bad no concern. Two accounts, however, have 
lately been published, wh^chw^ shall endeavour to incor- 
porate, as tbey do not differ in any material point, and 
indeed the one may be considered as a sequel to the other^ 
The first is taken from a note written by Dr. Calder foe 
the edition of the Tatler printed in 1786, 6 vols. 12mo, . 
By this we learn that Mr. Oldys, on his departure from 
London, in 1724, to reside in Yorkshire, left in the care oC 
the rev. Mi*. Burridge, with whom be had lodged for several 
years, among many other books, &c. a copy of I^ng* 
baine's ^' Lives, &c.*' in which' he (Mr. Oldys) bad written 
notes and references for further information. Returning 
to London in 1730, Mr. Oldys discovered that bis books 
were dispersed, and that Mr. Thomas Coxeter had bought^ 
this copy of Langbaine, and would not even permit Mr. 
Oldys to transcribe his notes from it into another copy of 
Langbaine, in which be likewise wrote annotations^ Thia 
last annotated copy, at an auction of Oldys^s books,. Dr, 
Burch purchased for a guinea, and left it by will, with his 
other books, to the British Museum. Mr. T. Coxeter^ 
who died in April 1747, had added his own notes to thosa 
of Mr. Oldys, in the first copy of Langbaine above-men* 
tioned, which, at the auction of Mr. Coxeter's books, was 
bought by Theophiius Cibber. On the strength of it, the 
compilation called ^^ The Lives of the Poets^' was under* 
taken. -. 4 

The question now is, as to the share Cibber had in the 
compilation. The authority we have hitherto followed^, 
attributes a very inconsiderable part to biQi, and makes 
Robert Shiels, one of Dr. Johnson^s amanuenses,, the chief 
writer ; but from an article in the Monthly Review, appa^ 
rently drawn up by the late proprietor of it, and who must 
have been well acquainted with all the circumstances o£ 
compilation and publication, we learn that although Shiela 
was the principal collector and digester of the materials 
for the work, yet, as he was very raw in authorship, an 
indifferent writer in prose, and his language full of Scot- 
ticisms, Cibber, who was a clever lively fellow, and then 
soliciting employment among the booksellers, was engaged, 
tp correct the style and diction of the whole work, then 
intended to m&ke only four volumes, with power to alter, 
expunge, or add, as he liked, and he Vas to supply note^. 

^S2 C IB B E R. 

occasionally, especially concerning those dramatic poets 
with whom he nad been chiefly conversant He also en« 
gaged to write several of the lives ; which (says this aiitho* 
rity, " we are told*') he accordingly performed. He was 
further useful in striking out the Jacobitical and Tory seii- 
timents, which Sbiels had industriously interspersed where* 
ever he could bring thetti in ; and as the success of th« 
work appeared, after all, very doubtful, be was contCDt 
with 21/. for his labour, besides a few sets of the books to 
disperse among bis friends. ^ Shiels bad nearly 70/. be- 
sides the advantage of many of the best lives being com-* 
municated by his friends, and for which he had the same 
consideration as for the rest, being paid by the sheet for 
the whole. Such is the historv of this work, in whicli Dr. 
Johnson appears to have sometimes assisted Shiels, but upon 
the whole it was not successful to the proprietors. * 

GIBBER (Susanna Maria), wife of the preceding, and 
for several years the best actress in England, was |he 
daughter of an eminent upholsterer in Covent-garden, and 
sister to Dr. Thomas Augustin Arne, the' musician. Her 
first appearance on the stage was as a singer, in which 
the sweetness of her voice rendered her very conspicaous, 
although she had not much judgment, nor a good ear. It 
was in this situation, that, in April 1734,» she married- 
Theoph. Gibber, then a widower for the second time. The 
first year of their nuptials was attended with as much fe^ 
licity as could be expected, but. the match was by no' 
means agreeable to his father, who had entertained hopes 
of Settling his son in a higher rank in life thaa the stage ; 
but the amiable deportment of his daughter-in-law, and 
the seeming reformation of his son, induced him to take 
the young couple into favour* As he was a' manager 
of Drury-lane play-house at that time, and his son havings 
hinted somewhat respecting Mrs. Gibber^s talents as an' 
actress, he desired to hear a specimen. Upon this, -fate 
first attempt to declaim in tragedy, be was happy to -dis- 
cover that; her speaking voice was perfectly musical,' her 
expression both i^i voice and feature, strong and pathetic 
at pleasure, and her figure at that time perfectly in pro-* 
portion. He therefore assiduously undertook to cultivate 
those ulents, and produced her in 1736, in the charactjer 

y Biogr^Dramatica.— Victor's Works, voL I. p. 20, 94, SM.— TftUer, toIi. JU 
and IV. 8vo edit. 1806.— Johnson's Works. — Boswell'Jl life of J<rfuifOB,«— 
Monthly IUjt* for 1 792, Remw of Boswell't Life. 

C I B B £ Ri 353 

of Zara, in Adron Hiirs tragedy, being its first repre« 
sentation^ The audience were both delighted and asto-* 
nished^ The piece, which was at best an indifferent trads^ 
lation, made its way upon the stage ;. and Mrs. CibbeFs 
reputation as an actress was fully established, with its 
.agreeable, concomitants, a rise of salary, &c. The cha- 
racter, however, which she acquired in public, was lost in 
private life. She was* married to a man who. was luxurious 
and prodigal, ' and rapacious after money to gratify bis 
passions or vanity, and at length he resolved to make a 
profit of the honour of his wife. With this view, thei?e- 
fore, he cemented the closest friendship with a gentleman^ 
whom he introduced to his wife, recommended to her, 
gave them frequent interviews, and even saw them put, as 
if by accident, in the same bed, and had then the impu- 
dence to commence a trial for criminal correspondence^ 
which brought to light his nefarious conduct* He laid his 
damages at 5000/. but the jury discerning the baseness «of 
bis conduct, gave only 10/. costs; a sum not [Sufficient to 
mimburse him a fortieth part of his expences. From that 
time Mrs. Gibber discontinued living with her husband^ 
^ud. resided entirely with the gentleman who was the defen- 
dant in this abominable trial. 

As an actress, she was thought most excellent in tender 
parts, till, during the rebellion, sh^ appeared in the cha- 
racter of Constance, in Shakspeare^s King John, in which 
she manifested not op^ly the maternal tenderness of a Me<« 
rope, but such dignity, spirit, and passion, as perhaps 
have never been exceeded, jf equalled, . on any stage. 
Handel himself was exceedingly partial to her, and toqk 
the trouble of teaching her the parts expressly composed 
for her limited compass of voice, which was a mezzo so- 
prano, ato^ost, indeed, a contralto, of only six or seven 
notes, with all the drudgery of repetition necessary to un- 
dergo in teaching persons more by the ear than the eye. 
He and Quin usually spent their Sunday evenings at Mrsv 
Cibb^r^s, where wit and humour were more frequently of 
the party, than Melpomene, Euterpe^ or Orpheus % 

* A gentleman who was in com- parry^ the artless thrusts, apd despi&e 

pony with Mr. G>(irrick Virhen the news the coarse language ofsomeof my other 

of faer death was brought, heard him heroines ; but whatever was Gibber's 

thus pronounce her^ilogium : '* Then phject, a new part, or'a new dress, she 

Tragedy expired with her ; and yet was always sure lo carry her point, by 

she wttfl-the greatest femaie plague be-* the acoteness of her invention, and the 

Jong ing to ntiy house. I coold t^sily steadiness of her perseverance." 

Vol, IX. A a 

U4i C I B B E R/ 

. Besides her cxceUence as an actress, she has some daiixi^ 
. aa a translator, the ^^ Oracle of St. Foix'* being rendered 
. by her into English in 1752, atkl played for her benefit, 
not entirely without success. The dnorder of which sb^ 
died was supposed to be a rupture of one of the coats o£ 
the stomach, which formed a sack at the bottom of it, into 
which the food passed, and thus prevented digestion. She 
died Jan. SO, 1766, and was buried in one of the cloisters 
6f Westminster-abbey ; leaving one child by the gentleman 
with whom she cohabited. ^ 

CICERO (Marcus Tullius), one of the greatest ora- 
tors, of antiquity, was born Jan. 3, in the 647th year of 
Rome, about 107 years before Christ. His mother, Helvia, 
was rich and well descended. His father's family waa 
ancient and honourable in that part of Italy in which it 
resided, and of equestrian rank, from its first admission ta 
the freedom of Rome. The place of his birth was Acpi* 
num, a city anciently of the Samnites, now part of the 
kingdom of Naples, and which produced two citizens, 
C. Marius and Cicero, who bad, each in his turn, preserved 
Rome from ruin. 

The family seat, about three miles from the town, in a 
situation extremely pleasant, and well adapted to the na« 
ture of the climate, was surrpunded with groves and shady 
walks, leading from the houj^ to a river, called Fibrenus; 
which was divided into two equal streams by a little island, 
covered with trees and a portico, contrived both for study 
ar^d exercise,, whither Cicero used to retire, when he had 
any particular work upon his bands.. The clearness and 
rapidity of the stream, murmuring through a rocky chan- 
nel ; the shade and verdure of its banks, planted with tall 
poplars; the remarkable coldness of the water; and, above 
all, its falling by ^ cascade into 'the noble river Liris, a 
little belpw the islatid^ form the parts of a scene which 
Cicero himself h^s, inseveral parts of his WQrks> depicted. 
But there cannot be a better proof of its delightfulnessy 
than that it was afterwards and in very modern times pos« 
sessed by a convent of monks, and.^lled the Villa of. St^ 
Dominic. . 

H^ was educated at Bome wiUi his cousins^ the young 
Aculfcos, by a method approved and directed by I^ Crassus, 
and placed there in a public sphoql ijncler an eminent 
Greek, master. His father, indeed, discernii^g the promise 

» Biog. Dram.'—Kees's Cyclopadia* 

C I 43 E R Ov isB 

nfg gentti^ of his son, spared nb e^i>e»i<;e in procuring Ae 
ablest masters; among whom was the poet Archiad/ who 
ctoie to Rome with a high repntation, ~ when Gicero was 
llbout five years old ; and who was afterwards defended by 
Gicero in a most elegant oi'atibn/ still extant 

After finishing the course of his jurenile studies, he took 
the manly gown, or the ordinary robe of the citizens, at 
the accustomed age of sixteen : atid being then introduced 
i&lo the forum, was placed tinder the c^re of Q. Mucius' 
Scaevola the augur, the principal lawyer as well as states- 
man of that age ; and after his death under that of Scaerola^ 
who had eqaal probity and skill in the law. Under these 
itoasters he acquired a complete knowledge of the laws of 
bis country ; which was thought to be of such consequence 
at Rome, that boys at school learned the laws of the twelve 
tables by heart, as a sbhool exercise. In the mean time 
he did hot neglect his poetical studies, which he had pur- 
suit under Archias : for he now translated '' Aratus (m the 
phetfdmena of the Heavens,'' into Latin verse, of which 
inany fragments are still extant; and published also an 
. original poem of the heroic kind, in honour of hh country* 
mian C. Marius. This was much admired and often read 
by Atticus ; and old ScsBYola was so pleased with it, that 
in the epigram, which he seems to have made upon it, he 
fondly declares, thai it would live as long as the Romaii 
native and learning stibsisted. But though some hav6 said, 
that Cicero's poetical genius would not have been inferior 
to his oratoriai, if it had beto cultivated with the sanie 
diligence,' it is more generally agreed that his reputation 
is least of all indebted to his poetry. He may, however^ 
have been a critic, and it is certain that Lucretius 'sub-» 
roitted his poem tcy him for eorrectiom 

The peskce of Rome being now disturbed by a domestic 
war, which writers call the Italic, Social, or Marsixr, 
Cicero sensed ais a volunteer under Sylla. For though bis 
natural inclination was not nftuch bent on mUitary renown, 
yet even those who applied themselves to studies and 
civil affairs at Rome, found it necessary to acquire a com- 
petent shaVe of military skill, that they might be qualified 
to govern provinces and command armies, to which they 
all succeeded of course in the administration of the great 
offices of state. Cicero's natural disposition, however, led ' 
him chiefly to illrprove himself in those studies which con« 
duced eventually to the establishment of his high fame 

A a2 

356 CICERO., 

He was constant in his attendance upon orators and philo-^ 
sophers; resumed his oratorial studies under Molo' the 
Rhodian^ one of the ablest of that professioDi and is sup- 
posed to have written those rhetorical pieces on the subject 
of invention, which he afterwards condemned in his ad-» 
vanced age, as unworthy of his matur^r judgment. He 
also became the scholar of Philo the academic ; studied 
logic with Diodorus the stoic; and declaimed daily in 
Latin and Greek with his fellow students M. Piso and Q. 
Pompeius, both somewhat older than himself, with whom 
he had contracted an intimate friendship. And that he 
might neglect nothing which could any ways contribute to 
his perfection, he spent the intervals of his leisure with 
such ladies as were remarkable for their politeness and 
knowledge of the fine arts, and in whose company his 
manners acquired a polish. Having now run through all 
his course of oratory, he offered himself to the bar at the 
age of twenty-*six, and pleaded some causes in a manner 
which gained him the applause of the whole city, thus be- 
ginning his career at the same age in which Demosthenes 
first began to distinguish himself in Athens. Three years 
afterwards he travelled to Greece and Asia, then the 
fashionable tour either for curiosity or improvement. His 
first visit was to Athens, the seat of arts and sciences, 
where he met with his school-fellpw T. Pomponius, who, 
from his love to and long residence in Athens, obtained 
the surname of Atticus : and here they revived and con- 
firmed that memorable friendship which subsisted between 
them through life, with exemplary constancy. From 
Athens he passed into Asia, and after an excursipn of two 
years, came back again to Italy. 

On his arrival at Rome, after one year more spent at 
the bar, he obtained the dignity of queestor. The quss- 
tors were the general receivers or treasurers of the repub- 
lic, and were sent annually into the provinces distributed 
to them by lot, and Lilybasum, one of the provinces of the 
island of Sicily, happened to fall to Cicero^s share; and be 
acquitted himself so as to gain the love and admiration of 
all the Sicilians, and in his leisure hours he employed 
himself very diligently, as he used to do at Rome, in his 
rhetorical studies. Before he left Sicily, he made the 
tour of the island, and at the city of Syracuse discovered 
. the tomb of Archimedes, and pointed it out to the magis- 
trates, who, to bis surprise, knew nothing at ^11 of any such 

€ I C E R O. 2f57 

tomb. He came away from Sicily, highly pleased with . 
the success of his administration, and flatlering himself 
that all Rome was celebrating his praise^ and th^t the 
people vtv)uld grant him whatever he should desire. With 
these hopes he landed at Puteoli, a considerable port ad- 
joining to Baiae, where was a perpetual resort of the rich 
and great; but here he was not a little mortified by the 
first friends he met, whose conversation convinced him 
that his fame was not so extensive as he imagined. 

We have no account of the precise time of Cicero's mar- 
riage with Terentia, but it is supposed to have been cele- 
brated immediately after his return from his travels to 
Italy, when he was about thirty years old. He was now dis- 
engaged from his quasstorship in Sicily, by which office he 
had gained an immediate right to the senate, and an actual 
admission into it during life; and settled again in Rome, 
where he employed himself constantly in defending the 
persons and properties of its citizens, and was indeed a 
general patron. Five years were almost elapsed since 
Cicero's election to the qusestorship, the proper interval 
prescribed by law, before he could hold the next office of 
%dile ; to which he was now, in his thirty-seventh year, 
elected by the unanimous suffrage of all the tribes. But 
before his entrance into the office, he undertook the cele- 
brated prosecution of C. Verres, the late praetor of Sicily ; 
who was charged with mai)y flagrant acts of injustice, 
rapine, and cruelty, during his triennial government of 
that island. This was one of the most memorable trans* 
actions of his life ; for which he was greatly and justly 
celebrated by antiquity, and for which he will in all ages 
be admired and esteemed by the friends of mankind. The 
public administration was at that time, in every branch of 
it, most infamously corrupt, and the prosecution of Verres 
was both seasonable and popular, as it was likely to give 
some check to the oppressions of the nobility, and admi- 
nister relief to the distressed subjects. Cicero had no 
sooner agreed to undertake it, than an unexpected rival 
started up, one Q. Caecilius, a Sicilian by birth, who had 
been quaestor to Verres ; and by a pretence qf personal 
injuries received from him, arid a particular knowledge of 
his crimes, claimed a preference to Cicero in the task of 
, accusing him, or at least to bear a joint share with him.. 
But this pretended enemy was . in reality a secret friend^ 
employed by Verres himself to get the cause into his bands 


in order to betray it : and go the first bearing Cicero easily 
shook off .this weak antagonist, rallying bis character and 
pretensions with a great deal of wit and humour, and the 
cause being committed to Cicero, an hundred and ten 
days were granted to him by law for preparing the evi- 
dence; to collect which, he was obliged to go to Sicily, 
in order to examine witnesses, and facts to support the 
indictment. Aware that all Verres's art would be employed 
to gain time, in hopes to tire out the prosecutors, and aflay 
the beat of the public resentment, he took along with him his 
cousin L. Cicero, that he might be enabled to finish his 
progress the sooner. The Sicilians received him every 
where with all the honours due to the pains he was taking 
in their service ; ahd all the cities concurred in the im- 
peachment, excepting Syracuse and Miessana, with which 
Verres had kept up a fair correspondence, and which last 
continued throughout firm in its engagements to him. 
Cicero came back to Rome, to the sqjrprise of his adver- 
saries, much sooner than he was expected, with most am- 
ple proofs of Verres*s guilt, but found, what he suspected, 
a strong cabal formed to prolong the afiair by all the arte 
of delay which interest or money could procure. This 
suggested to him to shorten the method of the proceeding, 
so as to bring it to an issue before the present praetor M. 
Glabrio, and his assessors^ whom he considered as impar- 
tial ipdges. Instead, therefore, of spending any time in 
employing his eloquence, as usual, on the several articles 
of the charge, he only produced his witnesses to be inter- 
rogated : whpse evidence so confounded Hortensius, though 
the reigning orator at the bar, and usually styled the King 
of the forum, that he had nothing to say for his client. 
Verres, despairing of all defence, submitted immediately, 
without waiting for the sentence, to a voluntary exile; 
where he lived many years, forgotten and deserted by all 
his friends. He is said to have been relieved in this 
miserable situation by the generosity of Cicero; yet was 
proscribed and murdered after all by Marc Antony, for the 
sake of tho|$e fine statues and Corinthian vessels of which 
he had plundered the Sicilians : *^ happy only," as Lactan- 
tius says, '^ before bis death, to have seen the more de- 
plorable end of his old enemy and accuser Cicero.** 

After the expiration of his aedileship, his cousin L. Cicero, 
the late companion of his journey to Sicilyj died ; an everlt 
the more unfortunate at this juncture, because he wanted 


his help in making interest for the prsetorship, for which 
be now offered himself a candidate. However, a^ch was 
the people's regard for }iim, that in three different assem^ 
bUes convened for the choice of praetors, two of which 
were dissolved without effect, he was declared every time 
the first praetor, by the suffrages of all the centuries. This 
year a law Was proposed by Manilius, one of the tribunes^ 
that Pompey, who was then in Ciiicia, extinguisliing the 
remains of the piratic war, should have the government of 
Asia added to his commission, with the command of the 
JVIithridatic war, and of all the Roman armies in those 
parts* , Cicero, supported this law with all his eloquence in 
a speech still extant, from the rostra, wKich he nev^r 
mounted till this occasion ; where, in displaying the char 
racter of Pompey, he drew the picture of a consummate 
general, with great strength and beauty. He was now ifi 
sight of the consulship, the grand object of his ambition ; 
and therefore, when bis praetorship was at an end, he 
would not accept any foreign province, the usual reward 
of that magistraQ}'^, and the usual object with those who 
^cld it. So attached indeed was he to a certain path, to 
renown, that amidst all the hurry and noise of his busy 
life, be never neglected those arts and studies in which he 
had been educated, but paid a constant attention, to every 
thing which deserved the notice of a scholar. ^d a man of 
taste. Even at this very juncture, though his ambition 
was eagerly fixed on the consulship, he could ixnd time to 
write to Attigus about statues and books. Atticus resided 
m^oy years at Athens, where Cicero employed him to buy 
statues for the ornament of his several villas ; especially 
his favourite Tusculum, bis usual retreat irom the hurry 
and fatigues of the city. Here he had built several rooois 
and galleries, in imitation of the schools and porticos, of 
Athens; which he called likewise by their Attic. names of 
vthe Academy and Gymnasium, and designed for the same 
use, of philosophical conferences with his learned friends. 
He bad given Atticus a geneipal commission to purchase 
toSf ^him any piece of Grecian art or sculpture, that was 
.e;legant and curious, illustrative of literature, or proper. for 
the furniture of his academy; which Atticus executed to 
his great satisfaction. Nor was he less eager in collecting 
Cfi;eek books, and forming a library, by the assistance of 
f Attipus, who, having the same taste and free access to all 
I the libnrie^ of Athens, procured copies of the works of their 

860 . CICERO. 

bast writers, not only for his oWn use, but for sale also.' 
Having with much pains made a very large collection of 
choice and curious books, he signiBed to Cicero his de- 
sign of selling tbem; yet seems to have intimated that he 
expected a larger %um for tbem than Cicero could easily 
spane ; which induced Cicero to beg of him to reserve the 
whole number for him, till he could raise money enough 
for the purchase. 

Cicero being now in his forty-third year, the proper age 
required by law, declared himself a candidate for the con* 
sulship along with six competitors. The two first were 
patricians ; the two next plebeians, yet noble ; the two 
last the sons of fathers, who had first imported the public 
honours into their families : Cicero was the only new man, 
as he was called, amongst them, or one born of equestrian 
rank. Two« of them, C. Antonius and Catiline, employed 
Jbribery on this occasion in the'most shameful manner, but 
as the election approached, Ciioero^-s interest appeared 
to be superior to that of all the candidates, and in his case, 
instead of choosing consuls by a kind of ballot, or little 
tickets of wood distributed to the citizens with the names 
of the several candidates severally inscribed upon eacfa^ 
the people loudly and universally proclaimed Cicero the 
first consul ; so that, as he liimseif says, ^' he was not 
chosen by the votes of particular citizens^ but the common 
^suffrage of the city ; nor declared by the voice of the crier, 
bXit of the whole Koman people.'' This year several alter* 
ations happened in his own family. His fatiier died ; his 
daughter Tullia was given in marriage at the age of thirteen 
to C. Piso Frugi, a young nobleman of great hopes, and 
one of the best families in Rome ; and his son and heir 
was also born in the same year. 

Hi^ first care, after his election to the consulship, was . 
to gain the confidence of Antonius, who was elected with 
him, by the offer of power to his ambition, and money to 
his pleasures; and it was presently agreed between them, 
that Antonius should have the choice of the best province, 
which was to be assigned to them at the expiration of their 
year. Immediately after his coming into office, be had 
occasion to exert himself against P. Servilius Rullus, one 
of the new tribunes, who had been alarming the senate 
with the promulgation of an Agrarian law : the purpose of 
which was,^ to create a decemvirate, or ten commissioners, 
witt absolute power for five years over all the revenues of 

C I C E R O. 361 

the republic, to distribute them at pleasure to the citizens^ 
&c. These laws used to be greedily received by the po- 
pulace, and were proposed thetefore by factious magis- 
trates, as oft as they had any point to carry with the mul- 
titude, so that Cicero's first business was to quiet the ap- 
prehensions of the city, and to baflBe, if possible, the 
intrigues of the tribune. After defeating him therefore 
in the senate, he pursued him into the forum ; inhere he 
persuaded the people to reject this law. Another alarm 
was occasioned by the publication of a law of L.' Otho, for 
the assignment of distinct seats in the theatres to the 
equestrian order, who used before to sit promiscuously 
with the populace^ a very invidious distinction, which might 
have endangered the peace of the city, if the effects of it 
had not been prevented by the authority of Cicero. 

The next transaction of moment in which he was en- 
gaged, was the defence of C. Rabirius, an aged senator, 
in whose favour there is an oration of his still extant. But 
that which constituted the glory of his consulship, was the . 
suppression of that horrid conspiracy which was formed 
l>y Catiline, the model of all traitors since, for the subver- 
sion of the commonwealth. Catiline was now renewing his 
efforts for the consulship with greater vigour than ever; 
and by such open* methods of bribery, that Cicero pub- 
lished a new law against it, with the additional penalty of 
a ten years' exile. Catiline, who knew the law to be level- 
led at himself, formed a design to kill Cicero, with some 
other chiefs of the senate, on the day of election, which 
was appointed for October 20. But Cicero gave informa- 
tion of it to the senate, the day before, upon which the 
election was deferred, that they might have time to deli- 
berate on an afliair of so great importance: and the day 
following, in a full house, he called upon Catiline to clear 
himself of this charge; where, without denying or excus- 
ing it, he bluntly told them, that ** there were two bodies 
in the republic," meaning the senate and the people, '< the 
one of them infirm with a weak head ; the other firm with- 
out a head ; which last had so well deserved of him, that it 
should never want a h^ad white he lived." He had made 
a declaration of the same kind, and in the same place, a 
few days before, when, upon Caio's threatening him with 
an impeacnment, he fiercely replied, that, ** if any flame 
flhonld be excited in his fortunes, he would extinguish it^ 
'Dot with watei^ but a general ruin." These declarations' 


startled the seDate, and convinced them, that notbiof; but 
al desperate conspiracy, ripe for execution, could inspire 
so daring an assurance : so that they proceeded immedi- 
ately to . that decree, which was the usual refuge in all 
cases of imminent danger, ^^ of ordering the consuls to 
take care that the republic received no harm." 

Catiline, repulsed a second time from the consulsbip| 
and breathing nothing but revenge, was now eager ana 
impatient to execute his grand plot. He called a council 
therefore of all the conspirators, to settle the plan of the 
work, and divide the parts of it among themselves, and fix 
a proper day for the execution. The number of their 
chiefs was above thirty-fiye; partly of the senatorian, 
partly of the equestrian order : the senators were P. Cor« 
nelius Leutulus, C. Cethegus, P. Autronius, L. Cassius 
Looglnus, P.Sylla, Serv. Syila, L. Vargunteius, Q«.Curius, 
Q. Annius, M. Porcius Lecca, L. Bestia. At a meeting^ 
of these it was resolved that a general insurrection should 
be raised through Italy, the different parts of which were 
assigned to di&rent leaders : that Rome should be fired 
in many places at once, and a massacre begun at the same 
time of the whole senate and all their enemies ; that in the 
consternation of the fire and massacre, Catiline should be 
rciady with his Tuscan army, to take the benefit of the 
public confusion, and make himself master of the city, 
where Lentulus in the mean time,, as first in dignity, was 
to preside in their general councils ; Cassius to manage 
the affair of firing it; Cethegus to direct the massacre. 
But the vigilance of Cicero being the chief obstacle to all 
tlieir hopes, Catiline was rery desirous to see him taken 
off before be left Rome: upon which two knights of the 
company undertook to kill him the next morning in his bed* 
in an early visit on pretence of business. They were both 
of his acquaintance, and used to frequent his house ; laiul 
knowing his custom of giving free access to all, made no 
doubt of being readily admitted, as one of the two after- 
wards confessed. But the meeting. was no sooner over, 
than Cicero had information of all. that passed in it ; for by 
the intrigues of a woman named Fulvia, he had gained 
over Curius her gallant, one of the conspirators of seoar 
torian rank, to send him a punctual account of all their 
deliberations. He presently imparted his intelligence to 
some of the chiefs of the city, who were assembled thaii 
^Y^ning, as usual) at his house; informing them not only. 

C I C E mo. ^63^ 

of l!he design, but naraing the men who were to execute 
it^ and the very hour when tbey would be at his gate. All 
which fell out exactly as he foretold ; for the two knights 
came be^fore break of day, but had the mortification to 
find the house well guarded, and all admittance refused to 

, This was the statef of the conspiracy, when Cicero de« 
livered the first of those four speeches which were spoken 
upon the occasion of it, and are still extant. The meeting 
of the conspirators was on November 6, in the evening ; 
and on the 8tb he summoned the senate to the temple dr 
Jupiter in the capitol, where it was not usually held but in 
times of public alarm. Catiline himself, though his schemes 
were not only suspected, but actually discovered, had the 
confidence to come to this very meeting, which so shocked 
the whole assembly, that none of his acquaintance durst 
venture to salute hhon ; and the .consular senators quitted 
that part of the house in which he sat, and left the whole 
clear to him. Cicero was so provoked by his impudence, 
that instead of entering upon any business, as be designed, 
he addressed himself directly to Catiline, and laid open 
the whole course of bis villanies, and the notoriety of his 
treasons. Catiline, astonished by tbe thunder of his 
speech, had little to say for himself in answer to it : but as 
soon as be was got home, and began to reflect on what 
had passed, perceiving it in vain to dissemble any longer, 
he resohred to enter into action' immediately, before the 
troops .of the pepublic were increased, or any new levies 
made : so that after a short conference with Lentulus, Ce« 
thegus, and the rest^ ajbout what had been concerted at 
tbe last meeting, and promising a speedy return at the 
bead of a strong army, he left Rome that very night with 
a small retinue, and made the best of his way to Manlius^s 
camp in Etruria ; upon which he and Manlius were both 
declared public enemies by tbe senate. 

In the midst of all this hurry, and soon after Catiline's 
flight, Cieero found leisure, according to his custom, to 
defend JL» Mursena, one of the consuls elect, who was now 
brought to a trial for bribery and correction. Qato had 
declared in tbe senate, that he would try the force of Ci« 
ceto^s late law upon one of the consular candidates ; and 
he was joined in the accusation by one of the disappointed 
candidates, 8. Sulpieios, a person of distinguished worth 
Hflbd cbaracttr» aoid the. most celebrated lawyer of the age | 

364 CICERO. 

for whose service, and at whose instance, Cicero's law 
against bribery was chiefly provided. Muraena was unani- 
mously acquitted : but the parties in this trial were singu- 
larly opposed to each other. Cicero had a strict intimacy 
all this while with Sulpicius, whom he had supported in 
this very contest for the consulship ; and he had a great 
friendship also with Cato, and the highest esteem of his 
integrity. Yet he not only defended this cause againi^t 
jthem both, but, to take off the prejudice of their authority, 
laboured even to make them ridiculous ; rallying the pro- 
fession of Sulpicius as trifling and contemptible, the prin- 
ciples of Cato as absurd and impracticable, with so much 
humour and wit, that he not only amused his audience, but 
forced Cato to cry out, " what a facetious consul h&ve we !** 
This, however, occasioned no interruption to their friend- 
ship. Cicero, who survived both, procured public ho- 
nours for the one, and wrote the life and praises of the 

. In the mean time Lentulus, and the rest of Catiline^s 
assopjiates, who were left in the city, were preparing for the 
execution of their grand design, and soliciting men of stil 
ranks, who seemed likely to favour their cause. Among 
the rest they agreed to make an attempt up6n the ambas- 
sadors :of the AUobroges ; a warlike, mutinous, faithless 
people, inhabiting the countries npw called Savoy and 
Dauphiny, greatly disaffected to the Roman power, and 
already ripe for rebellion. These ambassadors, who were 
preparing to return home, much out of humour with the 
senate, and without any redress of the grievances they were 
3ent to complain of, received the proposal at first very 
greedily; but reflecting afterwards on the difficulty and 
danger of the enterprise, discovered what they knew to Q. 
Fabius Sanga, the patron of their city, who immediately 
gave intelligence of it to the consul. Cicero advised the 
ambassadors to feign the same zeal which they had hitherto 
shewn, till they had got^ distinct proofs against the par- 
ticular ^actors in it : and that then upon their leav- 
ing Rome in the night, they might be arrested with their 
papers and letters about them; All this wais successfully 
executed, and the whole company brought prisoners to 
Cicero^s house by break of day. Cicero summoned the 
senate to meet immediately, and sent at the same time for 
Gabinius, Statilius, Cethegus, and Lentulus; who all came; 
suspecting nothing of the discovery. With tbem^ and th# 


C I C E R 0. ♦ S65 

ambassadors in custody, he set out to meet the senate : and 
after he had given an account of the whole affair, Vultur«. 
cius, one of the conspirators who was taken with the am-» 
bassadors, was called in to be examined separately ; who 
soon confessed, that he had letters and instructions from 
Lentulus to Catiline, to press him to accept the assistance 
of the slaves, and to lead his army with all expedition to« 
wards Rome, to the intent that when it should be set on 
fire in different places, . and the general massacre begun, 
he might be at hand to intercept^ those who escaped, and 
join with his friends in the city. The ambassadors were 
examined next ; who produced letters to their nation from 
Lentulus, CeUiegus, and Statilius, which so confounded 
the conspirators, that they had nothing to say. After the 
criminals were withdrawn and committed to close custody,. 
. the senate unanimously resolved that public thanks should 
be decreed to Cicero in the amplest manner ; by whose 
.virtue, <;ouncil, and providence, the republic was delivered 
from the greatest dangers. Cicero however thought it 
prudent to bring the question of their punishment without 
further delay before the senate, which he summoned for 
that purpose the next morning. As soon as he had opened 
the business, Silanus, the consul elect, advised, that those 
who were then in cus|;ody, with the rest who should after- 
wards be taken, should all be put to death. To this all 
lyhp spoke after him readily assented, except J. CaBsar, then 
pra^^or elect, who gave it as his opinion, that the estates 
of the conspirators should be confiscated, and their persons 
closely copfiued in the strong towns of Italy. This had 
like to have been adopted, when Cicero rose up, and made 
his fourth speech which now remains on the subject of this 
transaction ;* which turned the scale in favour of Silanus^s 
opinion. , The vote was no sooner passed, than Cicero re- 
. solved to put it in execution, lest the night, which was 
coming on, should produce any new disturbance. He 
went d^^refore from the senate, attended by a numerous 
guard ; and Ultking Leotulus from his custody, ^conveyed 
him through the forum to the common prison, where he 
was presently strangled, as were Cethegus, Statilius, and 
Gabinius. Catiline in the mean time was enabled to make 
a stouter resistance than they imagined, having filled up 
bis troops to the number of two legions, or about i2,o6o 
^ghtiug n^en ; bijt when the account came of the. deatb of 
Lentulus and the rest, his afmy began to desert, and after 

56^ C I tf E R O; 

matiy fraitless attempts to escape into Gaul hy long maretiei- 
mA private roads through the Apennines^ heivas forced at- 
li|igth to a battle ; in which, after a sharp and bloody 
admn^ be and all his army were entirely destroyed. Thus 
toded'this famed conspiracy : and Cipero, for the great 
part be acted in the suppression of it, was honour^ with 
the glorious title of Pater Patriee, which he retained for *» 
long time after. 

Cicero was now about to resign the consulship, accord » 
iTig to custom, in an assembly of the people, and to take 
the usual oath of having discharged k with fidelity ; Which 
also was generally accompanied with a speech from the 
expiring consul. He had mounted the rostra, and was 
ready to perform this last act of his office, when-Meteilus^ 
one of the new tribunes, would not suffer him to speak, or 
to do any thing more, thas'barely take the oath : decIaritYg, 
that he who had put citizens to death^unheard, ought not 
to be permitted to speak for himself. Upon which Cicero^ 
who was never at a loss, instead of pronouncing the ordi«* 
nary form of an oath, exalting the tone of his voice, sworeS. 
out aloud, that he had saved the republic and city frbtn: 
ruin : which the multitude below confirmed with an uni* 
Tersal shout. Yet he became now the common mark of alt 
the factious, against whom be had declared perpetual war^ 
and who at length drove him out of that city, which he 
had so lately preserved. He now, however, upon the e^ft- 
piration of his consulship, sent a particular account of his 
whole administration to Pompey, who was fiiibhing the 
idithridatic war in Asia; in hopes to prevent any wrong 
impression there, from the calumnies* of his enemies, and 
to draw from him some public declaration in bis favour. 
But Pompey, being prejudiced by Metellus and Csesar, an- 
swered htm with great coldness, and took no notice at all . 
of his services in the affair of Catiline. 

About this time Cicero bought a house of M. Crassus on 
the Palatine hill, adjoining to that in which he had always 
lived with bis father, and which he is now supposed to have 
given up to his brother Quintus. The bouse cost him near 
30,000/. and seems to have been one of the noblest in 
Rome. The purchase of so expensive a house occasioned 
some censure of Cicero, especially was made with: 
borrowed money. This circumstance he himself does not 
dissemble, but says facetiously upon it, that ^* be wasDow 


910 plunged iif debt, as to be ready for a pl<A| only t^at thcr 
conspirators would not trust hltn.^* m 

: The most remarkable event that happened in this yeait^ 
the forty-fifth of Cicero^s life, was the pollmion of tVe 
mysteries of the Bona Dea by P. Ciodtus ; which, by an 
unhappy traiii of consequences, deeply invoked Cicero. 
Clodius bad an intrigue with Caesar's wife Pompeia, who, " 
according to annual custom, was now celebrating in heir 
house those awful sacrifices of the goddess^ to which no 
male creature ever was admitted;' and where every thing 
masculine was so scrupulously excluded, that even ma]e 
portraits were covered during the ceremony. Clodins, 
however, eager to witness it, dressed himself in a woman's 
babit^ but was detected before he cpuld execute his pro- 
ject; and when brought to trial, endeavoured to prove 
himself absent ai the tiiAe of the fact ; but Cicero deposed^ 
that Clodius had been with him that very morning at his 
bouse, in Rome. Clodius, howevec, was absolved by a 
majority of thirtjf-Qne to twenty-five of his judges, the ini- 
quity of which decision, Cicero constantly inveighed 
against. In revenge for this, about a year after, Clodiusi 
endeavour^ to get .himself chosen tribune, and in that 
office to drive Cicero out of the city, by the publication of 
a law, which by some stratagem or other he hoped to ob- 
trude upon the people. Csesar was at the bottom of the 
scheme, and Pompey secretly favoured it : not that they 
intended to ruin Cicero, but to lessen his importance. 
Cicero affected to tresttaH; this with contempt, sometimes 
rallying Clodiusv v^h much pleasantry, sometimes ad- 
monishing him with no less.givavity ; but it appears to have 
alarmed him, and to have inclined him to unite himself 
more closely with Pompey, in hopes of his protection 
against a storm, which be«saw ready to burst upon hitn. 

The first triumvirate, as it has commonly been called, 
was now formed ; which was in reality a traitorous conspi- 
racy, of three of the most powerful citizens of Rome, Pom- 
pey Caesar, and ,i7rassus, to extort from their country by 
viotjipace, what they could not obtain by law. Cicero might 
haye been admitted a partner in their league : but he would 
BOt enter, into any. engagements, which he and all the 
fri^dsof.the republic abhorred. Clodius now began to 
thr^^fen Cicero, with all the terrors of his tribunaite^ to 
which iie had beep chosen without any opposition. Ca^sarV 

368 CICERO. 

whole aim was to subdue Cicero^s spirit^ and force bim to a 
dependence upon him : and therefore while he was pri* 
*vately encouraging Clodius, he was proposiitg expedients 
to Cicero for his security. But though his enemies seemed 
to gain ground, be was unwilling to owe the obligation of 
bis safety to Caesar, whose designs be always suspected, 
and whose measures be never approved, and who now 
therefore resolved to assist Clodius with all his power to 
oppress him ; while Pompey gave him the strongest as- 
surances, confirmed by oaths and< vows, that he would 
sooner be killed himself, than suffer him to be hurt. Clo- 
dius in the mean time was courting the people by several 
new laws, cont;rived chiefly for their advantage, that he 
might introduce with a better grace the banishment of 
Cicero : which was now directly attempted by a special 
law, importing, that whoever had taken the life of a citizen 
uncondemned and without trial, should be prohibited from 
fire and water. Though Cicero was not named, yet he was 
marked out by the law : his crime was, the putting Cati- 
line's accomplices to death ; which, though done by a ge- 
neral vote of the senate, was alleged to be illegal, and 
contrary to the liberties of the people. Cicero, finding 
himself thus reduced to the condition of a criminal, 
changed his habit upon it, as was usual in the case of -a 
public impeachment; which, however, was thought an 
hasty and inconsiderate step, since he was not named in the 
law, which reached only to those who had taken the life 
of a citizen illegally : but it seems doubtful whether his 
taking no notice of it would have saved him, as the com- 
bination against him was deeply laid. Even Caesar, who 
affected great moderation, was secretly his adversary ; and 
Pompey became reserved, and at last flatly refused to help 
him: while the. Clodian faction treated his character and 
consulship with the utmost derision, and even insulted his 
^person in the pubMc streets. Cicero now called a council 
of his friends, to decide whether it was best to defend him- 
self by force, or to save the effusion of blood by retreating 
till the stprm should blow over: and tbe issue was, that he 
should Bubmit to a voluntary exile. 

As soon as it r was known that Cicero was gone, Clodius 
had influence enough with the populace to^procure a law 
in fgrm against him for putting citizens to death unheard 
and uncondemned, and confirming his banishment in the 
ysual terms employed on such occasions. Tbis law having 

CICERO. *e* 

passed without opposition^ Glodius immediately began to 
plunder, burn, and demolish Cicero's bouses both in the 
city and the country. The news of this seems to have 
deprived Cicero of the accustomed firmness of his charac-* 
t^r, and oT the resignation of -one conscious of his inte« 
grity, and suffering in the cause of his country ; and his. 
friends were forced to admonish him sometimes, to rouse 
his courage,, and remember his former character : yet, in 
the midst of this affliction, before he had been absent two- 
moQths, a motion was made in the senate by one of the 
tribunes, who was his friend, to recall him, and. repeal the 
I»w of. Ciodius, to which the whole bouse readily agreed : 
and io spite of the opposition of the Clodian faction, passed' 
ib votey tJiat no other business should be done, till Cicero'sr 
return was carried ; which at last it was, and in so splendid' 
and triumphant a manner, that he had reason, he says, to 
fear, lest people should imagine that he himself had con- 
trived his late flight, for the sake of so glorious a restora* 

Cicero, now in his fiftieth year, was restored to his for- 
mer dignity, and a compensation made to him for his estates 
' and houses, which last were built up again by himself with 
more magnificence rhati before. But he had domestic 
grievances about this time, which touched him very nearly; 
arising chiefly from the petulant humour of his wife, which ' 
ended at last in a divorce. As to hift public concerns^ his 
chief point was how to support his former authority in the 
city, which it was no^ easy to do : and, therefore, we find 
him acting a subservient part, and managing the trium- 
virate in the best manner he could for the public welfare. 
In^ tbie fifty-'sixth year of his age he was sent into Asia, and 
obliged to assume a new character, that of governor of a 
province, and general of an army ; which preferments had 
no charms for Cicero, who, as we have noticed, was averse 
to them in his early life. However, he acquitted himself 
ably in administering the civil affairs of his province of 
CUicta; nor was he deficient in military affairs, for he bad 
the honour of a supplication decreed to him at Rome, and 
was not without some expectation even of a triumph. . ' 

As tf> the public news of the year, the grand affair that 
ebgaged all people^s thoughts was the expectation of a 
breach between Csssar and Pompey, which seemed to be 
now unavoidable, and which Cicero soon learned from his 
friends^ as he^ was returning from his province of Cilicia. 
Vol, IX. B a 

370 * c I c E R o: 

But as he foresaw the consequences of a war more coolty 
and clearly than any of them, his first resolution was to 
apply all his endeavours and authority to the mediation of 
a peace. He had not yet declared for either side, although 
his inclination was to follow Pompey ; and while he was 
endeavouring to remain neuter, he had an interview with 
Pompey, who, finding him wholly bent on peace, con- 
trived to have a second conference with him before he 
reached the city, in hopes to prevent any project of an 
accommodation. Cicero, however, the more he observed 
the disposition of both parties, the more he perceived the 
necessity of it ; and that a war must necessarily end in a 
tyranny of some kind or other. When be arrived at rfie 
city, be found the war in effect proclaimed : for the senate 
had just voted a decree,^hat Caesar should dismiss his army 
by a certain day, or be declared an enemy ; and Caesar's 
sudden march towards Rome effectually confirmed it. In 
the midst of all this hurry and confusion, Caesar was ex- 
tremely solicitous to prevail with Cicero to stand neuter, 
but in vain, for Cicero was impatient to be gone to Pom- 
pey. In the mean time Caesar's letters on the subject 
afford a striking proof of the high esteem and credit iti 
which Cicero Bourished at this time in Rome : when, in a 
contest for empire, which force alone was to decide, the 
chiefs on both sides were so solicitous to gain a man to 
their party, who had no peculiar talents for war. Steadfost 
to his purpose, he embarked at length for Dyrrhachium ; 
and arrived safely in Pompey's camp with bis son, his bro-* 
ther, and his nephew, committing the fortunes of the whole 
family to the issue of that cause. But be soon had reason 
to dislike every thing which they had done, or designed to 
do ; and saw that their own councils would ruin iheir cause. 
In this disagreeable situation he declined all employment ; 
and finding his counsels wholly slighted, resumed his usual 
way of raillery, for he was a great jester, and what he 
could not dissuade by his authority, endeavoured to make • 
ridiculous by his jests. When Pompey put him in miod 
of his coming so late to them : "How can I come late,** 
^aid he? ^' when I find nothing in readiness among you ?'^ and 
upon Pompey's asking him sarcastically, where his son-in-law 
Dolabella was ; " He is with your father-in-law," replied 
he. To a person newly arrived from Italy, and informing 
him of a strong report at Rome, that Pompey was blocked 
lip by Caesar ; " And you sailed hither therefore," said he. 

CICERO. 311 

^[ that you might see it with.your own eyes.'^ By the fre* 
queiicy of these splenetic jokes, he is said to have provoked 
Pompey so far as to tell him, " I wish you would go over 
to the other side, that you may begin to fear us/' 

After the battle of Pharsalia^ in which Pompey was de- 
feated, Cicero returned to Italy, and was afterwards re- 
ceived into great favour by Caesar, who was no^ declared 
dictator for the second time, and Marc Antony his master 
of the horse. At his interview with Caesar he had no oc^- 
casion to depart from the dignity of his character, for Caesar 
no sooner saw him than he alighted, and ran to embrace 
him, and walked with him alone, conversing very fami-. 
liariy for several furlongs. About the end of the year,^ 
Ceesar embarked for Africa, to pursue the war against the 
Pompeian generals, and Cicero, despairing of any good 
from either side, chose to live retired ; and whether in the 
city or the country, shut himself up with his books; which, 
as he oftensays, ^' bad hitherto been the diversion only, but 
were now become the support of his life." In this retreat 
be entered into a close friendship and correspondence with 
M. Terentius Varro, who is said to have been the most 
learned of all the Romans ; and wrote two of those pieces 
upon orators and oratory, which are still extant in his works. 
He was now in his sixty-first year, and having been di- 
vorced from his wife Terentia, he incurred both censure 
and ridicule for marrying a handsome young woman named 
Publilia, of an age disproportioned to his own, and to 
whom he was guardian. But at present he was yet more 
imprudent in frequently hazarding Caesar's displeasure by 
his sarcastic remarks.. Some of these jests upon Caesar's 
administration are still preserved, and shew an extraor- 
dinary want of cautipn in times so critical. Caesar had 
advanced Laberius, a celebrated player, to the order o£ 
knights ; but when he stepped from the stage to take his 
place on the equestrian benches, none of the knights would 
admit him to a seat amongst them. Cicero, however, as 
he was marching off therefore with disgrace, said, " I 
would make room for you here on our bench, if we were 
not already too much crowded :" alluding to Caesar's filling 
up the senate also with the lowest of his creatures, and even 
with strangers and barbarians. At a^nother time, being 
desired by a friend in a public company to procure for his 
son the rank of a senator in pne of the corporate towns of 
Italy, " He shall have it,'* says lie, " if you please, a^p 

B B 2 

3i2 CICERO. 

Rome ; but it will be difficult at Pompeii." An acquaint- 
ance likewise from Laodicea, coming to pay his respects 
to him, dnd being asked what business had brought him to 
Rome, said, that h^ was sent upon an embassy 16 Cassar, 
1(5 intercede with him for the liberty of his country t upon 
which Cicero replied, 'f If you succeed, yob shall be an 
ambassador also for us.'* Caesar, it must be allowed, to 
his honour, preserved such a reverence for his character, 
that he gave him many marks of personal favour ; and this 
influence Cicero employed only to screen himself in the 
general misery of the times, and to serve those unhappy 
men who were driven from their country and families for 
|he adherence to that cause which he himself had espoused, 
Cicero was now oppressed by a new affliction, the death 
of his beloved daughter Tullia ; who died in childbied, 
soon after her divorce froni hef third husband Dolabella. 
She was about thirty-two years old at the time of her 
death, and was most affectionate to her father. To the 
usual graces of her se^, she added the more solid accom- 
[ilishments of knowledge and polite letters, was qualified 
tb b6 the companion as well as the delight of his age ; and 
Was justly esteemed not only as one of the best,* but the 
most learned of the Roman ladies. His affliction for the 
death of this daughter was so great, that He endeavoured 
to shun all' company by removing to Atticus's house, where 
lie lived chiefly in his library, turning over every book he 
iould rtieet w*ith on the subject of moderating grief. But, 
finding his residertce even here too publi'c, he retired to 
Asturia, one of his seats near Antium, a little island on the 
Latian shore, at the mouth of a river of the same name, 
Covered with woods and groves, cut out into shady walks ; 
a scene of all others the fittest to indulge melancholy, and 
where his whole time was employed in reading and writingj 
After th6 death of CsBsar, Cicero was freed at once from 
all subjection to a superior, whose power he perpetually 
dreaded, and was n6w without competition the first citizen 
hi Rome, the first in credit and authority both with the 
senate and people. The conspirators h^d no sooner killed 
C?esar in thle senate-house, which Cicero tells us he had 
the pleasure to see, than Brutus, lifting up his blood^ 
dagger,' Called upon him by name, to congratulate with 
him on the recovery of their lib'etty. It is evident froth 
several of hiis letters, that he had an expectation of sucE 
lah atteriipt ; for he prophesied very early, Aat CdDsaf^s 

^ I C E U 0' »7 


reign cpuld not last six months, b\it must necessarily faU, 
either by violence, or of itself; nay farther, |ie hoped to 
live to see it ; yet it is equally certain. ths^t \\e had nO;hand 
in it, nor was at all acquainted with it. 

But though the conspiracy had succeeded agaipst.Cae.saf, 
it drew after it a train of consequences, yvhicji, in liule 
more than a year, end^d in the destruction not or^iy of the 
coiQmpnwealtb, but of even Cicero himself. Tl^e detail 
of all this belongs to history : it may be sufficient here to 
notice, that when Antony .had driven Brutus and. Cassius 
from Rome, Cicero also left it, not a little mortihed to s>ee 
thing3 take so wrong a turn by the indolence of his friend's. 
In his retreat he had frequent meetings and conferences 
with his old friends of the opposite party, the late minister^ 
of Caesar's power ; among whom were Hirtius, and Pansa, 
who, if they must have a new master, were disposed, for 
the sake of Caesar, to prefer his heir and nephew, Octaviu^, 
and presented him to Cicero immediately upon his arriyul, 
with the strongest professions on ^he part of the young 
man, that he would be governed entirely by his direction. 
Cicero, however, could not be persuaded to enter heartily 
into his affairs, and when he did consent at last to unite 
himself to Octavius's interests, it was with no other view 
.than to arm him with a power sufficient to oppress Antony, 
and so limited, that he should not be able to oppress the 

In the hurry of these politics, he was still prpsecuting 
his studies, and besides some philosophical pieces, now 
finished his book of Offices, for the use of his son ; a woi^k 
admired by all succeeding ages, as a perfect systefn pf 
heathen morality. At, the same tirpe, he missed no oppor- 
tuniti^ to attempt the recovery pf the republic, as appeal's 
from those memorable Philippics, which he published 
.against Antony ; but notwithstanding, this struggle .in sup- 
port of expiring liberty, Brutus was disposed at last to 
throw all the blame upon hiipj charging him chiefly, that 
by a profusion of honours.on young Caesar, he had inspired 
.hiip with an ambition incompatible with the safety of the 
republic, and armed him with that power which he w^s 
now employing to oppress it; whereas the truth is, that 
by. th^s.e honours Ciqero did not intend to give Caesar any 
^new power, but, to apply that which he had acquired by 
^.his pwn vigpur to the public service, and the ruin of An- 
^^bpny j.iu.wWcb. be succje^ded eyen beyond expectation; 

574 CICERO. 

and would certainly have gained his end, had he not beeih 
prevented by accidents which could not be foreseen. 

Octavius .had no sooner settled the affairs of the city, 
and subdued the senate to his mind, than he marched back 
towards Gaul to meet Antony and Lepidus, who had al- 
ready passed the ^Ips^ and brought their armies into Italy, 
in order to have a personal interview with him ; which had 
been privately concerted for settling the terms of a triple 
league, the substance of which was, that the three should 
be invested jointly with supreme power for the term of five 
y6ars, with the title of triumvirs, for settling the state of 
the republic ; that they should act in all cases by common 
consent; nominate the magistrates and governors both at 
home and abroad, and determine all affairs relating to the 
public by their sole will and pleasure, &c. The last thing 
which they adjusted was, the list of a proscription, which 
they were determined to make of their enemies^ corvsisting 
of 300 senators and 2000 knights, among whom was Ci- 
cero, who was at his Tusculan villa when he first received 
this unexpected news, and immediately set forward towards 
Asturia, the nearest village which he had upon the sea, 
' where he embarked in a vessel ready for him ; but the winds 
being unfavourable, he landed at Circaeum, and spent a 
night near that place in great anxiety and irresolution. 
This at last ended in his returning to his Formian villa, 
about a mile from the coast, weary of his life and the sea, 
and declaring he would die in that country which he had so 
often saved. Here he slept soundly for several hours, till his 
slaves forced him into his litter or portable chair, and carried 
him away towards the ship, having just heard that soldiers 
were already come into the country in quest of him. As soon 
as they were gone, the soldiers arrived at the house, and 
pursuing towards the sea, overtook him in the wood. As 
soon as they appeared, the servants prepared to defend 
their master's life at the hazard of their own ; but Cicero 
commanded them to set him down, and to make no re- 
sistance. Then looking upon his executioners with great 
presence and firmness, and thrusting his neck as forwardly 
as he could out of the litter, he bade them dp their work, 
and take what they wanted. Upon which they cut off his 
head, and both his hands, and returned with them in all 
haste and great joy towards Rome, as the most agreeable 
present which they could carry to Antony. Popilius, the 
commander of the soldiers, whom Oicero bad formei^Iy de-% 

C I C E B O. 37S 

fended in an accusation for a capital crime, charged Jiimself 
with the conveyance, without reflecting on the infamy of 
canying that head which had saved his own. He found 
Antony in the forum, and upon shewing from a distance 
the spoils which he' brought, he was rewarded upon the 
spot with the honour of a crown, and about 8000/. sterling. 
Antony ordered the head to be fixed upon the rosp'a be- 

. tween the two hands ; and, satiated with Cicero's blood, 
declared the proscription at an end. This barbarous 
murder was committed Dec. 7, B C. 43, A. U. C. 710, 
and in the sixty-fourth year of Cicero's ?ge. 

After this long account, which, however, we have 
abridged from our last edition, little need he added of 

. Cicero's character. It will appear that though he che- 
rished ambition, he wanted firmness to pursue it. His lot 
was cast in times unfavourable to his natural tamper, which 
was averse tp contention, and he knew not how to regulate 
his conduct with steadiness in political commotion^ and 
civil war. His chief delight was in the society add con-* 

.versation of learned men, and his works afford a decisive 
proof that his excellence lay in the accumulation of learning, 
and the display of eloquence, in which he can be com- 
pared only with Demostbeues. Their. respective chcr-ic 
ters have been considered as the two great models oh u Ui^y.i 
all eloquence ought to be formed. In all his orations, i^i>:v:^ 

. a modern critic, his art is conspicuous ; he begins cou'.- 
monly with a regular exordium ; and with much address 
prepossesses the hearers, and studies to gaip their afTections. 
His method is clear, and his arguments are arranged with 
exact propriety. In a superior clearness of method, he 
has an advantage over Demosthenes. Every thing. appears 
in its proper place. He never tries to move till he has at- 
tempted to convince; and in moving, particularly the 

. softer passions, he is highly successful. No one ever 

^ knew the force of words better than Cicero. He rolls 
them along with the greatest beauty and magnificence ; 

^ and in the structure of his sentences is eminently curidus 
and exact. He amplifies every thing; yet though his 

.. manner is generally diffuse, it is often happily varied and 
accommodated to the subject. When an important public 
object rouses his mind, and demands indignation and 

J force, he departs considerably from that loose and decla- 
matory manner to which he at other times is addicted, and 
becomes v^ry forcible and vehement. This great orator^ 

«Te6 CI C E R O. 

howevier, iffndtJ^itfaout his defects. In most of bis ora- 
tions there is too much art, even carried to a degree l^f 
'Ostentation. He seems often desirous of obtaining admi- 
•ration rather than of operating by conviotion. He is some- 
times, therefore, showy rather than solid, and diffuse wheve 
he ought to have been urgent. His sentences are always 
round ;and sonorous. They cannot be accused of mono- 
tony, since they possess variety of cadence; but from tok) 
great a fondness for magnificence, he is on some occa- 
sions deficient in strength. Though the services which be 
had performed to his country were very considerable, yet 
he is too much his own panegyrist. Ancient manners, 
which imposed fewer restraints on the side of decorunH, 
may in some degree excuse, but cannot entirely justify his 
vanity. ♦ 

As a philosopher, he rather related the opinions of 
others than advanced any new doctrines of his own con* 
ceptions. He attached himself chiefly to the Academic 
sect, but did not neglect to inform himself of the doctrines 
'Of other sects, and discovered much learning and inge- 
nuity in refuting their dogmas. He was an admirer of the 
doctrine of the stoics concerning natural equity and civil 
law, and adopted their ideas concerning morals, although 
not with servility. The sect to which he was most averse 
was the Epicurean, but upon the whole, from the general 
cast of his writings, the Academic sect was best suited to 
his natural disposition. Through all his philosophical 
«works, he paints in lively colours, and with all the graces 
of 'fine writing, the opinions of philosophers ; and relates, 
in the diffuse manner of an orator, the arguments on each 
side of the question in dispute ; but we seldom find him 
diligently examining the exact weight of evidence in the 
scale of reason, carefully deducing accurate- conclusions 
from certain principles, or exhibiting a seriea of arguments 
in a close and systematic arrangement* On the contrary, 
we frequently hear him declaiming eloquently, instead of 
reasoning conclusively, and meet with unequivocal pro<rfs, 
that he was better qualified to dispute on either side widn 
the Academics, than to decide upon the question with the 
Dogmatists, and therefore appears rather to have been a 
warm admirer and an elegant memorialist of philosophy, 
jthan himself to have merited a place in the first order of 

C I C E B O. ^377 

The odtjtions of Cicero^s wotks, in whole, or in iparts, 
jire far too numerous to be specified ia this .place. We 
ms^, however, notice among tbe.most ouriousor valuable: 
1. bis whole works^ first edition, by Minutianus, Milan, 
1458 — 1409, 4. vols. fol. of great rarity and price ; 2. By 
Paul Manutius, Venice, 1640— r41, 10 vols. 8vo; 3. By BL 
Stephens, ^ Paris, 1543, 8 vols. Svo; 4. By Lambinus, 
Paris, 1566, 2 vols. fol. ; .5. £lzi?ir, Leyden, .1642, 10 
vols. 8vo ; 6. Gronovius, 11 vols. 12ino, and 4 vols. .4to:; 
7, Verburgius, Amst. 1724, 2 vols, fol.; 4 vob. 4to; 
,8. Ernest, Leipsic, 1774, 8 vols, ^vo; 9. Olivet, Paris^ 
1740, 9 vols. 4to; Geneva, 1758, 9 vols, and Oxford, 
1783, 10 vols. 4to; 10. Foulis, Glasgow, 1749, 20 vols. 
.12010; U. Lallemande, Paris, 1768, 12 voU. l2mo. iFdr 
his separate pieces we must refer to JB^ibdin and Clarke. 
Most of his productions have been translated into various 
languages, and several into English, by Melmoth, Guthrie^ 
Jones, and others. Melmotb, as well as Middleton, has 
written jsl life of Cicero, both with some degree of par- 
tiality, but with great ability. ' 

CICERO (Marcus), the son of Marcus Tullius Cicero, 
was born, as has been observed in the foregoing article, in 
the year that his father obtained the consulship : that is, 
in the year of Rome 690, and about 64 years before Christ. 
In his early youth, while he continued under the eye and 
discipline of his father, he was modest, tractable, and du*^ 
tiful ; diligent in his studies, and expert in his exercises : 
.so that in the Pharsalic war, at the age of seventeen, be 
acquired great reputation in Pompey^s camp. 'Not long 
after Pompey^'S death he was sent to Athens to study under 
Cratippus; and here first bis irregularity of conduct and 
extravagance of expence made bis father uneasy, but -he 
was soon made sensible of his £olly, and recalled to his 
duty by the remonstrances of his* friends, and particularly 
.of Atticiis ; so > that his< father readily paid bis debts, and en- 
larged his allowance, which seems to have been about 700/. 
per annum. :From this time, all the accounts from the 
principal men of the place as well as his Roman friends 
who had. occasion to ivisit Athens, are uniform in their 
praises of .him. When Brutus arrived there, he entrusted 
him, though but twenty years old, with a principal com- 

> LiTet as aboTe.—Bnicker.— Blair's Lectures.— ^xii Oaomast where 
^ are many useful references for information and opinionSi respecting Cicero* 
SmIus has bestowed mucb {*ains on tbis article. 

^78 C I C E R d. 

mancl in his army, in which be acquitted himself with great 
courage and conduct ; and in several expeditions and en- 
counters with the enemy, where he commanded in chief, 
always came off victorious. After the battle of Philippic 
and the death of Brutus, he escaped to Pompey, who had 
taken possession of Sicily with a great army, and fleet su- 
perior to any in the empire, . This was the last refuge of 
the poor republicans, where young Cicero was received 
again with particular honours ; and continued iighting in 
.the defence of his country's liberty, till Pompey, by a 
tirealy of peace with the triumvirate, obtained, as one of 
. the conditions of it, the pardon and restoration of all the 
. jMTOscribed and exiled Romans, who were then in arms with 
him. Cicero therefore took his leave of Pompey, and re- 
.turned to Rome with the rest of bis party, where he lived 
for some time in the condition of a private nobleman, re- 
.mote from all public affairs ; partly through the envy of the 
times, averse to his name and principles -, partly through 
choice, and his zeal for the republic^ cause, which he , 
retained to the last. But here at the same time he sunk 
into a life of indolence and pleasure, and the intemperate 
love of wiue» which began to be the fashionable vice of 
, this age* 

Augustus, however, now made him a priest or augur, 
as well as one of those magistrates who presided over the 
. coinage of the public m(Hiey : and no sooner became the 
sole master of Rome, than he took him for his partner in 
the consulship : and by these favours to the son^ Augustus 
made some atonement for his treachery to the father. Soon 
L after his consulship, he was made proconsul of Asia, 
or, as Appian says, of Syria, one ef the most considerable 
provinces of the empire : from which time we find no far- 
ther mention of him in history. He died probably soon 
after ; before a maturity of age and experience had given 
him an opportunity of retrieving the reproach of his in- 
temperance, and distinguishing himself in the councils of 
the state. But from the honours already mentioned, it is 
evident that his life, though blemished by some scandal, 
yet was not void of dignity ;. and, amidst all the. vices with 
which he is charged, he is allowed to have retained bis 
. fj9.tber'8 wit and politeness. ' . 

\ Ibid.^Vallainbert'a «« Hist. M. T. Ciceronis, Marci filii," Paris, 1545> Svo. 

C I G N A N 1. 379 

CIGNANI (Caklo), an eminent artist, was born at Bo- 
logna (some say at Rome) in 1628, and was taught his art 
'by Giovanni Battista Cairo Casalasco ; and afterwards be- 
came the disciple of Albano, in whose school he appeared 
with promising and superior talents, but although these, 
while he studied with Albano, were exceedingly admired, 
yet, to improve himself still farther in correctness of de- 
sign, and also in the force and relief of his figures, he 
studied Raphael, Annibale Caracci, Caravaggio, Correg- 
gio, and Guido; and combined something of each in a 
'manner of his own. He is accounted very happy in his. 
taste of composition, and excellent in the disposition of his 
figures; but a judicious writer says, that he was censured 
for bestowing too much labour on the finishing of his pic- 
tures, which considerably diminished their spirit ; and also 
for affecting too great a strength of colouring, so as to give 
his figures too much relief, and make them appear as if 
tiot united with their grounds. However well or ill-founded 
these observations may be, yet through all Europe he is 
deservedly admired for the force and delicacy of his pen* 
oil, for the great correctness of his design, for a- distin- 
guished elegance in his compositions, and also for the meU 
lowness which he gave to his colours. The draperies of 
his figures are in general easy and free ; his expression of 
the passions is judicious and natural ; and there appears a 
remarkable grace in every on« of his figures. 

The cardinal San Csesareo passing through Forli, where 
Cignani at that time resided with his family, desired to 
have one of his paintings ; and Carlo shewed him a picture 
of Adam and Eve, which he had painted for his own use, 
intending to have kept it by him. On viewing that per- 
formance, the cardinal was so pleased that he gave him five 
hundred pistoles, and politely told Carlo, that he only paid 
him for the canvas, and accepted the painting as a present. 
In the Palazzo Zambeccari, at Bologna, is a Sampson by 
Cignani, in a noble and grand style ; in the superb col- 
lection of the dukfe of Devonshire, there is a picture of 
Joseph disengaging himself from the immodesty of his 
Mistress ; and one of the same subject is in the Palazzo 
Arnaldi, at Florence. Sir Robert Strange, who had two 
pictures by Cignani, *' Bacchanalian Boys,'' and ** Ma- 
dona with the child and St John/' speaks^ highly of his ta- 
}€^jts ; but there was in the D